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# Question:1(a)

Compute the battery current I and equivalent resistance in the given cct .All resistances are in ohm. 1 2
6O 4O 4O 8O 3 2O Solution: As we know that all the resistances are in Parallel so

12 V

I/R=1/R+1/R Putt the values I/R=1/6+1/4 1/R=2+3/12=5/12 R=12/5=2.4ohm-----------------------Eq#1 1/R=1/R+1/R 1/R=1/8+1/2=5/8 R=8/5=1.6ohm-----------------------Eq#2 Now the cct becomes R1 2
2.4O 12 V 4O 3 R2 1

## R=2.4+1.6=4ohm Now cct reduces to

12 V

4O 3

4O

so 1/R=1/R1+1/R2 1/R=1/4+1/4 1/R=2/4=1/2] R=2 OHM Now we can find current by Ohm,s law I=V/R I=12/2=6Amp--------------Ans

Question#1(b)
Whatever the battery voltage in the following circuit.It is certain that the smallest current flow in the resistance of a:300 ohm b:500 ohm c:200ohm d:100 ohm R2
R1 500O V1 10 V 300O R3 100O R4 200O 2

Solution:
We assume that battery voltage is 10V so Rt=R1+(1/R2+1/R3+1/R4) Rt=500+(1/300+1/100+1/200) Rt=500+(11/600)=50+0.0183

Rt=500.0183 ohm Now It=V/Rt It=10/500.0183=0.019Amp I1=It(R2R3/R1R2+R2R3+R3R1) I1=0.019(300100/500x300+300x100+100x500) I1=0.02(30000/150000+30000+50000) I1=0.020.130=0.0026=26Mamp Now for I2 I2=It(R1R3/R1R2+R2R3+R3R1) I2=.02(500100/500300+300100+100500) I2=0.020.217=.0043=43Mamp Now for I3 I3=It(R1R2/R1R2+R2R3+R3R1) I3=0.02(500300/500300+300100+100500) I3=0.02(15000/23000) I3=0.020.652=0.0013=13mAmp

Question#2
A large hydel power has a head of 324m and an average flow of 1370cubic meter/sec.The resorvior is a lack covering an area of 6400sq.Km.assuming an efficency of 90%for the turbine and 95% for the generator.Calculate 1:Available electric power 2:The no of days this power could be supplied for a drop in water level by 1 meter.

Soultion:
1:Available power =9.81n(2Hkw) =(0.90.95)1370324 =379524Kw379.52Mwatt 2:If a is the lake area in(m2) and (h)meter is fall in water level the volume of water used is

AW=m3 The time required to discharge this water is Ah/Q second Now A=6400106m2 h=1m Q=1370m3/sec T=6400106 1/1370 Time=4.67106sec =540686 days

Question#3
A series combination having R=2Mohm and C=0.01uFid connected across a series voltage source of 50V.Determine capacitor voltage and charging current after 0.02Sec,0.04Sec,0.06Sec and 1hrs. Solution: =CR =21060.0110-6
=

0.02sec

Im=V/R =50/2106 =25uAmp while solving this problem it should be rembered that 1:In each time constant Vc increases by 63.2%of it,s balance value. 2:And in each time constant Ic descreases by 37% of it,s previous value. a:At t=0.02sec Initially t=0 ,Vc=0v ,Ve=50V In one time constant Ve=0.632(50-0)=31.6V

b:At t=0.04sec This time equals two time constants so Ve=31.6+0.632(50-31.6)=43.2V c:At t=0.06Sec This Time equals the three time constants Ve=43.2+0.632(50-43.2)=47.5V
.

Question#4
An iron ring of mean length 50cm has an airgap of 1mm amd winding of 200turns permeability of iron is 300 if current of 1Amp flows through it find the flux density. Solution: Given Data: Mean length L=50cm=0.5m N=200turns u=300 I=1Amp To find: Flux density B=? As we know that u=B/H and H=NI/L so

Faraday,s summed up two laws known as Faraday,s law of electromagnetic Induction. 1:First Law: Whenever a conductor cuts a magnetic field a n EMF will induce in conductor. 2:Second Law:

The magnitude of induced EMF is directly proportional to the rate of change of Flux. Explanation: Michael Faraday was an English physicist working in the early 1800'sAny change in the magnetic environment of a coil of wire will cause a voltage (emf) to be "induced" in the coil. No matter how the change is produced, the voltage will be generated. The change could be produced by changing the magnetic field strength, moving a magnet toward or away from the coil, moving the coil into or out of the magnetic field, rotating the coil relative to the magnet, etc. Suppose a coil has N turns and flux through it changes from initial value Q1 to a final value Q2 in time t sec,then remembering that by flux linkages means product of number of turns (N) and the flux linkage with the coil we have Initial flux Linkage=NQ1 Final Flux Linkage=NQ2 Induced EMF=NQ2-NQ1/t By writing the above equation in differential form we have e=d/dt(NQ) Usualiiy a minus sign is given to right hand side to show the fact that induced emf sets up current in such a direction that magnetic effect will produced by it opposes the voltage causes producing it. e= -NdQ/dt Volts Lenz,s Law: Lenz,s law is a common way of understanding how electromagnetic circuits must always obey Newton's third law.Lenz's law is named after Heinrich LenzWhen an emf is generated by a change in magnetic flux according to Faraday's Law, the polarity of the induced emf is such that it produces a current whose magnetic field opposes the change which produces it. The induced magnetic field inside any loop of wire always acts to keep the magnetic flux in the loop constant. In the examples below, if the B field is increasing, the induced field acts in opposition to it. If it is decreasing, the induced field acts in the direction of the applied field to try to keep it constant. If the magnetic field of current i1 induces another current, i2, the direction of i2 is opposite that of i1. If these currents are in two circular conductors I1 and I2 respectively, then the currents I1 and I2 must counter-rotate. The opposing currents will repel each other as a result.

Question#5(b)
A coil has a resistance of 100ohm is placed in a magnetic field of 1mWb,the coil has 100 turns and a galvanometer of 400ohm is connected in series with it .Find the average emf and the current I if the coil is moved 1/10sec from a given field to a field of 0.2mWb. Solution: Induced EMF=NdQ/dt VOLTS

dQ=1-0.2=0.8mWb dt=1/10=0.1Sec N=100turns So E=1000.810-3/0.1=0.8V Total circuit resistance =100+400=500ohm Induced current=0.8/500=1.610-3 =1.6mAmp

Question#6
Define the following terms of batteries. 1:AH Effeciency: The AH efficiency does not take into account the varying voltages of charge and discharge.The WH efficiency does so and is always less then AH efficiency,because average P.D during discharging is less than Charging.Usually during charging the emf falls from aboutr 2.1V to 1.8V ,whereas during charge it raises from 1.8V to 2.5V A.H Effeciency=Ampere hour discharging/Ampere hour charging 2:WH Effeciency: The WH efficiency always descreases due to self discharge of plates caused due to local reactions and due to leakage current because of faulty installation between the cells of battery.The WH efficiency varies b/w 72-80%.If AH efficiency is given we cal calculate the WH efficiency by following method WH efficiency=AH effect.Average voltage on discharge. 3:AH capacity: It is the function of the total plate area mean size of individual plates multiplied by number of plates.For measuring this capacity the battery is discharged continuously for 20Hrs and it,s current is supplied to a standerd load .Suppose that a battery delivers 4A current for 20Hrs it rating will be 80AH. 4:Reserved Capacity: It is one of newely developed rating standards and is more relastic because it provide double check on Ah.The capacity is given by numbers of minutes a battery will 25A drain without dropping below 10.5V,higher this rating better then battery. 5:Zero Crancking power: It was the first cold weather rating and is applicable in relation to craft which fly in freezing weather .The zero degree performance test given a valuable insight into in battery quality.Large batteries are tested at a 300A drain with battery chilled to 18 degrees whereas smallest size are tested at half this value.

Question#7:
A Four pole generatoe having wave wound armature winding has 51 slots each slot containing 20 conductors,what will be voltage generated in machine when driven at 1500 r.p.m assuming the flux per pole to be 7.0mWb. Solution: Given data: Flux=Q=710-3 Z=Armature winding =5120=1020 N=Number of r.p.m=1500 P=pole=4 A=Number of parallel path which is =2 Vg=QZN/60(P/A) Vg=710-310201500/60(4/2) Vg=178.5V

Question#8
A 440V shunt motor has armature resistance of 0.8 ohm and field resistance of 200 ohm .Determine the back EMF when output of 7.46Kw 85% . Solution: Motor input power =7.46103/0.85 W Motor input Current=7460440/0.85 =19.95A Shunt resistor current(Ish)=V/R=440/200=2.2Amp Armature Current(Ia)=Motor input current shunt current =19.95-2.2=17.75Amp Now Back EMF=V-IaRa

## =440-(17.75-0.85) =428.8V -----------------Ans

Question#9
A 40KVA,3300/240V,50Hz,single phase transformer has 660 turns on the primary. Determine 1:The number of turns on the secondry 2:The Maximum value of flux in the core. Solution: E1=3300volts E2=240Volts N1=660 N2=? F=50Hz Flux maximum Q=? 1:There inEq#1 E1=4.44fN1Qm 3300=4.4450660Qm Qm=3300/4.4450660=0.022mWb 2:There in Eq#2 V2/V1=N2/N1 V2=N2N1/V1 V2=660240/3300=48 turns

Question#10
What are damper winding?explain their working. Definition: A winding consisting of several conducting bars on the field poles of a synchronous machine, short-circuited by conducting rings or plates at their ends, and used to prevent pulsating variations of the position or magnitude of the magnetic field linking the poles. Explanation:

In synchronous machines, the damper winding is placed onpoleface of rotor which is short circuited at end.When load on machine is suddenly changed, the rotor startsoscillating (due to its inertia )about the new equilibriumpoint.However the oscillation finally dies out because ofpresence of damper winding.The oscillation is calledhunting.During hunting,there is a relative motion between rotor(damper winding)and synchronously rotating magnetic field.So emf induces in the damper winding as per Faraday's law current flows in accordance with Lenz's law as long asthe relative motion exists.As we know,the effect willalways oppose the cause.Here effect is induced current indamper winding and cause is relative motion.So inducedtorque in damper winding acts in opposition toinstantaneous relative motion.

Question#10(b)
Write the equation for alternator efficiency and voltage regulation.

Alternator Effeciency:
Alternator efficiency is given as = KVA output X pf/ KVA output X pf + Total losses X 100 The efficiency will be maximum at a load where constant losses 9friction, windage, core loss and field copper loss) are equal to variable losses 9armature copper loss including losses due to armature leakage flux). The alternators are usually designed for maximum efficiency to occur at about 80% of full load. Voltage regulation: When the alternator is subjected to a varying load, the voltage at the armature terminals varies, the magnitude of this change in terminal voltage depends upon the load current I and power factor cos . The voltage regulation of an alternator is defined as the increase in terminal voltage when full load is thrown off, assuming field current and speed remaining the same. The percentage regulation is defined as the ratio of change in terminal voltage form full load to no load and rated terminal voltage. i.e. Percentage regulation = Eo - V /V X 100 where E0 is no load terminal voltage and V is full load rated terminal voltage.