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Biology 213: Objectives for Exam #1 Chapter 25: 1.

How does the study of plants and the history of botany reflect human evolution and thinking? Can you provide some examples? 2. Why is the Pacific Northwest a unique to study botany?

3. How old is the earth? When did life begin on earth and how do we know this? 4. When did the following organisms or events happen on earth and what evidence do we have to support it: First photosynthetic organism; First eukaryote; First multicellular organism; First plant. 5. What is a plant by definition? 6. What has been the significance of plant evolution when considering the history of life on earth? Chapter 27: 1. Support the statement that prokaryotes are the most dominant life form on earth. Would life on earth exist without them? Explain. 2. What are the two main branches of prokaryotes and why do biologists today prefer this split rather than clumping bacteria all together? What evidence supports this split? 3. Describe the diversity of structure and function in prokaryotes including cell forms and cellular structures, motility, genetic composition, reproduction, and modes of nutrition. 4. What evidence do we have for glycolysis being the first mode of nutrition for prokaryotes and photosynthesis evolving later? 5. Did photosynthesis evolve once in prokaryotic evolution or independently in many different prokaryotic groups? Explain. 6. Why is it difficult to classify prokaryotes? Who was Carl Woese and what was his contribution to prokaryote phylogeny?\ 7. What makes some prokaryotes pathogenic? What are the different types of toxins produced by prokaryotes? Chapter 28: 1. What is a Protist? What are the problems associated with classifying all protists into a single kingdom? Discuss your answer in terms of structure, motility, nutrition, life cycle, and habitat. 2. How did endomembranes and endosymbiosis contribute to eukaryotic complexity? What evidence do we have for these evolutionary trends?

3. Why do most biologists believe that the engulfing process of endosymbiosis has occurred more than once in eukaryotic evolution? What is meant by secondary endosymbiosis? 4. What are the five supergroups of eukaryotic protists and what are the main characteristics that unify each group? Why is the designation of these supergroups a work in progress? 5. Describe the common characteristics of the Excavata clade. What distinguishes diplomonads/parabasalids from euglenozoans? 6. What is the taxonomic significance of the Unikonts? What features unify this supergroup? 7. What are pseudopodia and how do they function? Why does the type of pseudopodia matter? 8. What are the mycetozoans and where do they fit phylogenetically? What are the two groups of mycetozoans and what are their distinguishing characteristics? 9. Describe a typical life cycle of plasmodium and cellular slime mold. How are they similar? How do they differ? Chapter 31: 1. What are the unique characteristics of all fungi? When did fungi first appear in the fossil record? 2. Describe the structure and function of the following fungal features: hyphae, mycelium, septate hypha, coenocytic hypha, chitin, haustoria. 3. Describe the sexual and asexual methods of fungi. In your description, use the terms spore, heterokaryotic, plasmogamy, and karyogamy. 4. Describe the phylogenic origin of fungi in relation to the Opisthokonts? What are the implications of this relationship in and its association with animals? 5. What are the five major phyla of fungi and what are the distinguishing characteristics of each. Be especially descriptive in distinguishing zygomycetes, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes. Include in your answer all unique reproductive structures pertaining to each phylum. 6. Describe a typical life cycle of a zygomycetes, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes. 7. Distinguish between molds, yeasts, lichens and mycorrhizae. Describe the physical characteristics of each. What evidence do we have that these specialized forms arose independently from the major fungal phyla?