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INTRODUCTION

Green marketing refers to the process of selling products and/or services based on their environmental benefits. Such a product or service may be environmentally friendly in it or produced and/or packaged in an environmentally friendly way. The obvious assumption of green marketing is that potential consumers will view a product or service's "greenness" as a benefit and base their buying decision accordingly. The notso-obvious assumption of green marketing is that consumers will be willing to pay more for green products than they would for a less-green comparable alternative product - an assumption that, in my opinion, has not been proven conclusively. While green marketing is growing greatly as increasing numbers of consumers are willing to back their environmental consciousnesses with their dollars, it can be dangerous. The public tends to be skeptical of green claims to begin with and companies can seriously damage their brands and their sales if a green claim is discovered to be false or contradicted by a company's other products or practices. Presenting a product or service as green when it's not is called green washing. According to American Association, Green marketing is the marketing of the products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. It incorporates a broad range of activities, including product modification, changes to the production process, packaging changes, as well as modifying advertising and so on. Thus Green Marketing refers to holistic marketing concept wherein the production, marketing consumption an disposal of products and services happen in a manner that is less detrimental to environment with growing awareness about the implication of global warming, non- biodegradable solid waste, harmful impact of pollutants etc. Green Marketing has been an important academic research topic since its inception. Attention was drawn to the subject in late 1970s when the American Marketing Association organized a workshop on Ecological Marketing in 1975

First definition: The implementation of marketing programs directed at the environmentally conscious market segment (Henion 1976) The process of planning, implementing and controlling the development, pricing, promotion and distribution of products in a manner that satisfies the following criteria Customer needs are met Organizational goals are attained And the processes are compatible with ecosystems (Fuller 1999) According to Ottman (1993) Green Marketing serves two key objectives To develop products that incorporates consumer need for convenience, affordable prices and performance while having minimal impact on the environment To project an image of high quality, including environmental aspects, both in regards to product attributes and the manufacturer's track record for environmental compliance. First consumer survey was conducted by Vandermerwe and Ollif stating that more then 92% European multinationals clamed to have changed their products in response to green concern. Green products introduction increased by more then double to 11.4% of all new household products in the USA between 1989 and 1990 and continued to rise to 13.4% in 1991 However this optimistic start to the 1990s was not sustained (Peattie and Crane 2005). A 2001 survey conducted by Roper indicates that during the 1990s approximately 2/3 of all consumers believed that environmental protection and economic development can go hand in hand. While perception is important, actual behavior is crucial to market success. A report (conducted by Mintel 1995) showed only a very slight increase in green consumer since 1990 and a significant gap between concern and actual purchasing. There are several factors contributing to it Price Quality

Convenience etc So this decrease in frequency and prominence of Green claims have led the world to Green washing phenomenon This is when a company hides the true effect of its products or actions on the environment, by making it seem as though the company is very much concerned about the environment. WORLD IS AT A TIPPING POINT WAITING FOR A GREEN REVOLUTION ARE WE FACING GREEN MYOPIA??? UNLESS IT IS ADDRESSED WE CANT BRING CHANGE

AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO GREEN ENVIRONMENT- LINK AMONG PLAYERS CONSUMER

PRODUCER Green Environment GREEN MARKETING ENCOMPASES BEING GREEN SPREADING GREEN

STATE

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SCM

Green Marketing is an art of creating awareness among consumers about carefully planned and developed eco compliance products and services using competitive pricing, promotion and distribution strategies that lead to increased uptake of product and services, increase in ROI and finally consumer satisfaction.

History
The term Green Marketing came into prominence in the late 1980s and early 1990s.The American Marketing Association (AMA) held the first workshop on "Ecological Marketing" in 1975.The proceedings of this workshop resulted in one of the first books on green marketing entitled "Ecological Marketing". T Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Reports started with the ice cream seller Ben & Jerry's where the financial report was supplemented by a greater view on the company's environmental impact. In 1987 a document prepared by the World Commission on Environment and Development defined sustainable development as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own need, this became known as the Brundtland Report and was another step towards widespread thinking on sustainability in everyday activity. Two tangible milestones for wave 1 of green marketing came in the form of published books, both of which were called Green Marketing. They were by Ken Peattie (1992) in the United Kingdom and by Jacquelyn Ottman (1993) in the United States of America. According to Jacquelyn Ottman, (author of "The New Rules of Green Marketing: Strategies, Tools, and Inspiration for Sustainable Branding" (Greenleaf Publishing and Berrett-Koehler Publishers, February 2011)) from an organizational standpoint, environmental considerations should be integrated into all aspects of marketing new product development and communications and all points in between. The holistic nature of green also suggests that besides suppliers and retailers new stakeholders be enlisted, including educators, members of the community, regulators, and NGOs. Environmental issues should be balanced with primary customer needs. The past decade has shown that harnessing consumer power to effect positive environmental change is far easier said than done. The so-called "green consumer" movements in the U.S. and other countries have struggled to reach critical mass and to remain in the forefront of shoppers' minds. While public opinion polls taken since the late 1980s have shown consistently that a significant percentage of consumers in the U.S. and elsewhere profess a strong willingness to favor environmentally conscious products and companies, consumers' efforts to do so in real life have remained sketchy at best. One of green marketing's challenges is the lack of standards or public consensus about what constitutes "green," according to Joel Makower, a writer on green marketing. In essence, there is no definition of "how good is good enough" when it comes to a product or company making green marketing claims. This lack of consensusby consumers, marketers, activists, regulators, and influential peoplehas slowed the growth of green products, says Makower, because companies are often reluctant to promote their green attributes, and consumers are often skeptical about claims.

Despite these challenges, green marketing has continued to gain adherents, particularly in light of growing global concern about climate change. This concern has led more companies to advertise their commitment to reduce their climate impacts, and the effect this is having on their products and services.

MARKETING CONCEPTS
Green Marketing Concepts is an opportunity for your business to do the right thing and be rewarded for it. Trends suggest that businesses that dont identify as ecologically friendly or local in the next decade will risk being labeled as low-rent or hopelessly out of date. Real and substantial economic rewards A wait those who approach ecological and sustainable niches with a sincere concern and good ideas. WHAT EXACTLY IS IT? You know what all these words mean by themselves. When put together they spell out a powerful and very 21 st Century approach to selling products and services. Not only are you selling your wares but also, offering consumers a better deal or better way of doing things that is set apart from the Conventional. Firstly, it helps to know just what people mean when they talk about greening up their product. Whether youre a small business owner or a fledgling in the marketing department of a large chain, it helps to have a solid background in what youre trying to accomplish. It is also helpful to see how history has treated such movements and how they responded. Lastly, some places serve as models that you can draw inspiration and ideas from. When looking at what these places have in common, we find a pattern of innovation that you can emulate

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)


CSR is defined as a concept whereby companies decide voluntary to contribute to a better society and a cleaner environment (cited in Hartman, Rubin, and Dhanda, 2007). A CSR approach should therefore go beyond a simple quest for profit maximization (an economic goal) and

also look for corporate social performance (a non-economic goal).

Achieving both types of goals, economic and non-economic, will enable the survival and Success of the corporation. This implies that a company seeking to become socially responsible should integrate these values into its strategic and operational decision-making process . The impact of the CSR on the brand (or store) image, he consumers trust and the legitimization of companies is supported by previous research (Swaen & Chumpitaz, 2008; Gupta and Pirsch, 2008; Gabriel, 2003; Currs-Prez, Bign-Alcaiz & Alvarado-Herrera, 2009). This engagement could emerge since the creation of the firm. In this perspective, the Entrepreneurial Social Responsibility (ESR) represents an added value and a competitive advantage for a new-born company, insofar as tomorrow it will be a requirement. Therefore, the ESR could be considered as a key facet of the CSR. However, the diffusion of the ESR is still in an early stage of development in developing countries.

Entrepreneurial Social Responsibility (ESR)


The ESR offers real and tangible benefits which can be measured in various ways, basing it on either quantitative or qualitative information. A Socially Responsible Company is an organization which bases its vision and commitment on policies, programs, decisionmaking and actions that benefit not only its business but also have a positive impact on people, the environment and the communities where it operates. This type of company responds to the expectations of all the participants: investors, collaborators, management,

competitors, suppliers, clients, government, social organizations and the community. However, not all of these firms have the competences and resources to market their green products to their consumers by themselves (Chen, 2010). Among the social organizations that have promoted the ESR in Mexico, we can mention New Ventures. New Ventures is a Global Network of Enterprise Acceleration Centers that encourages the growth of entrepreneurial solutions to the challenges of sustainable development. It was funded by the World Resources Institute1 in 1999. It is already presented in six emerging economies and has a portfolio of 177 innovative enterprises whose goods and services produce clear, measurable environmental benefits.

GREEN MARKETING IN INDIA: According to a survey conducted by BT-AC Nielsen ORG-MARG, Oil and petroleum sector is considered the greenest sector in India. ONGC is the greenest company followed by Reliance Industries. India is a world leader in green IT potential. According to Global enterprise survey Indian respondents scored over respondents from 10 other countries in expecting to pay 5% or more for green technology if its benefits for the environment and return on investment (ROI) are proven. Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities including: Product Modification Changes to the production process Packaging Changes As well as modifying advertising Other similar terms used are Environmental Marketing and Ecological Marketing. To succeed, any green strategy must fulfill three criteria. Firstly, it must be a sustainable and credible programmed, which brings real benefits to environment. Secondly, it must deliver sound economic ROI and competitive advantage to the business.

Finally, it must be supported by relevant green messages, which resonate with customers and prospects. Basically the main aim of the project is to analyze the developments which are taking place throughout the world to promote green marketing and green products. In todays business world environmental issues plays an important role in marketing. All most all the governments around the world have concerned about green marketing activities that they have attempted to regulate them. For example : In the United States (US) the Federal Trade commissions and the national trade association of Attorney- General have developed extensive documents examine environmental or green marketing. It introduces the terms and concepts of green marketing. Briefly discuss why going green is important and also examine some of the reason that organizations are adopting a green marketing philosophy. It also focuses some of the problems with green marketing. It identifies the key to successful green marketing: Credibility Publicize stories of the companys and employees green initiatives. Enter environmental awards programs to profile environmental credentials to customers and stakeholders. Never overstate environmental claims or establish unrealistic expectations. It also tells about Why Are Using Green Marketing Organizations perceive environmental marketing to be an opportunity that can be used to achieve its objectives. Organizations believe they have a moral obligation to be more socially responsible. Governmental bodies are forcing firms to become more responsible. Competitors environmental activities pressure firms to change their environmental marketing activities. Cost factors associated with waste disposal, or reductions in materials usage forces firms to modify their behavior.

This report also stresses upon the effect of green marketing on consumers. Green marketing isnt just a catchphrase; its a marketing strategy that can help you get more customers and make more money. But only if you do it right.

The term green marketing came into prominence in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The American Marketing Association (AMA) held the first workshop on Ecological Marketing in 1975. The proceedings of this workshop resulted in one of the first books on green marketing entitled Ecological Marketing Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities, including product modification, changes to the production process, packaging changes, as well as modifying advertising. My definition which encompasses all major components of other definitions is Green or Environmental Marketing consists of all activities designed to generate and facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants, such that the satisfaction of these needs and wants occurs, with minimal detrimental impact on the natural environment. This definition incorporates much of traditional components of the marketing definition that is All activities designed to generate and facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants. So, in simple terms Green Marketing refers to the process of selling products and/or services based on their environmental benefits. Such a product or service may be environmentally friendly in it or produced and/ or packaged in an environmentally friendly way. The not- so- obvious assumption of green marketing is that consumers will be willing to pay more for green products than they would foe a less- green comparable alternative product- an assumption that has not been proven conclusively, specially the mild effect which it had had on consumers has washed away by the present recession(2008-09) only. Green marketers though argue that it is a way to use the environmental benefits of a product or service to promote sales. Many consumers will choose products that do not damage environment over less environmentally friendly products, even if they cost more. With green marketing, advertisers focus on environmental benefits to sell products such as biodegradable diapers, energy- efficient light bulbs, and environmentally safe detergents. People buy billions of dollars worth of goods and services every year- many of which harm the environment in the way they are harvested, made or used. Environmentalists support green marketing to encourage people to use environmentally preferable alternatives, and to offer incentives to manufacturers that develop more environmentally beneficial products. Importance Of green marketing: Man has limited resources on the earth with which she/he must attempt to provide for the worlds unlimited wants. There is extensive debate as to whether the earth is resource at mans disposal. Ultimately green marketing looks at how marketing activities utilize these limited resources, while satisfying consumers wants, both of individuals and industry, as well as achieving the selling organizations objectives. When looking through the literature there are several suggested reasons for firms increased use of Green Marketing. Five possible reasons cited are:

Organizations perceive environmental marketing to be an opportunity that can be used to achieve its objectives. Organizations believe they have a moral obligation to be more socially responsible. Governmental bodies are forcing firms to become more responsible. Competitors environmental activities pressure firms to change their environmental marketing activities. Cost factors associated with waste disposal, or reduction in material usage forces firms to modify their behavior.

Opportunities. Goals of Green Marketing: Eliminate the concept of waste. Reinvent the concept of product. Make prices reflect actual and environmental costs. Make environmentalism profitable. Bringing our product modifications. Changing in production processes. Packaging changes. Modifying advertising.

Need of green Marketing: An Anthropological View Issues like global warming and depletion of ozone umbrella are the main for the healthy survival. Every person rich or poor would be interested in quality life with full of health and vigor and so would the corporate business. But harm to environment cost by sustain business across the globe is realized now thought off late. This sense is building corporate citizenship in the business class. So green marketing by the business and to please the consumer and obtain the sanction license by the governing body. Industries in Asian countries are catching the need of green marketing from the developed countries but still there is a wide gap between their understanding and implementation.

The majority of green products have one or more of the following health or environmental attributes:

They promote clean air quality (typically through reduced emissions) They are durable and have low maintenance requirements. They are recyclable and reusable. They are made using natural, renewable or environment friendly resources. They do not contain any ozone-depleting substances like green house gases. They do not contain highly toxic compounds, and their production does not result in highly toxic by-products or waste products harmful to society and environment. For wood or bio-based products, they employ "sustainable harvesting" practices They are biodegradable

Challenges in Green Marketing: Need For Standardization: It is found that only 5% of marketing messages from Green campaigns are entirely true and there is a lack of standardization to authenticate these claims. There are no standardizations currently in place to certify a product as organic. Unless some regulatory bodies are involved in providing the certifications there will not be any verifiable means. A standard quality control board needs to be in place for such labeling and licensing. New Concepts: Indian literate and urban consumer is getting more about the merits of green products. But it is still a new concept for the masses. The consumer needs to be educated and made aware of the environmental threats. The new green movements need to reach the masses and that will take a lot of time and effort. By Indias ayurvedic heritage, Indian consumers do appreciate the importance of using natural and herbal products. Indian consumer is exposed to healthy living lifestyle such as yoga and natural food consumption. In those aspects the consumer is already aware and will be inclined to accept the green products. Patience And Perseverance: The investors and corporate need to view the environment as a major long term investment opportunity, the marketers need to look at the long- term benefits from

this new green movement. It will require a lot of patience and no immediate results. Since it is a new concept and idea, it will have its own acceptance period. Avoiding Green Myopia: The first rule of green marketing is focusing on customer benefits i.e. the primary reason why con summers buy certain products in the first place. Do this right, and motivate consumers to switch brands or even pay a premium for the greener alternatives. It is not going to help if a product is developed which is absolutely green in various aspects but does not pass the customer satisfaction criteria. This will lead to green myopia. Also if the green products are priced very high then again it will loose its market acceptability.

Golden Rules Of Green Marketing: 1. Know Your Customer: Make sure that the consumer is aware of and concerned about the issues that your product attempts to address. ( Whirlpool learned the hard way that consumers wouldnt pay a premium for a CFC- free refrigerator because consumers dint know what CFCs were.) 2. Empower Consumers: Make sure that consumer feel. By themselves or in concert with all the other users of your product, that they can make a difference. This is called empowerment and due to this main reason consumers will buy greener products. 3. Be Transparent: Consumers must believe in the legitimacy of the specific claims made in regard. 4. Reassure the Buyer: Consumers must be made to believe that the products performs the job its supposed to do-they wont forego product quality in the name of the environment. 5. Consider your Pricing: If youre charging a premium for your product- and many environmentally preferable products cost more due to economies of scale and use of higher- quality ingredients- make sure those consumers can afford the premium and feel its worth it. 6. Thus leading brands should recognize that consumer expectations have changed: It is not enough for a company to green its products; consumers expect the products that they purchase pocket friendly and also to help reduce the environmental impact in their own lives too.

Green Logistics: Is in the process of coming onto corporate radar screens, but companies need to see a cause and effect on profitability before they commit much more than superficial efforts towards green logistics. Everyone knows how important this is, but market analysts and investors likely wont add much about green logistics into the plus column until it stars to impact overall profitability. It continues activity and hype around Green supply chains. From a supply chain perspective most companies are focusing on the low hanging fruit optimizing their transportation operations, LEED certified buildings, minimizing/ eliminating packaging and considering carbon-footprint in network design (Liama soft, liog, infor, carbon view, maersk logistics, and IBM all have solutions in this area). However, a lot more work is required on the standards front, which is starting to occur. Also in my opinion, large-scale progress in this area wont occur in the US and elsewhere without government intervention (e.g. regulations, tax/financial incentives, etc.) Green Washing: In spite of its growing popularity, the green marketing movement faced serious setbacks in yhe late 1980s because many industries made false claims about their products and services. For instance, the environmental organization Corp Watch, which issues annually a list of the top ten green washing companies, included BP Amoco for advertising its Plug in the Sun program, in which the company installed solar panels in two hundred gas stations, while contributing to aggressively lobby to drill for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Green marketing can be a very powerful marketing strategy though when its done right. In similar kind of case Chads green marketing campaign bombed because he made the mistake of packaging his environmentally friendly product in Styrofoam, emitting CFCs. Without environmental labeling standards, consumers could not tell which products and services were truly beneficial. Consumers ended up paying extra for misrepresented products. The media came up with the term green washing to describe cases where organizations misrepresented themselves as environmentally responsible. So, While green marketing was growing greatly as increasing numbers of consumers were willing to back their environmental consciousnesses with their dollars, it can be dangerous. The public tends to be skeptical of green claims to begin with and companies can seriously damage their brands and their sales if a green claim is discovered to be false or contradicted by a companys other products or practices. Thus, in other words presenting a product or service as green when its not is called green washing. The Green Dilemma: The past decade has shown that harnessing consumer power to effect positive environmental change is far easier said than done. The so- called green consumer movements in the U.S. and

other countries have struggled to reach critical mass and to remain in the forefront of shoppers minds. While public option polls taken since the late 1980s have shown consistently that a significant percentage of consumers in the U.S. and elsewhere profess a strong willingness to favor environmentally conscious products and companies, consumers efforts to do so in real life have remained sketchy at best. One of green marketings challenges is the lack of standards or public consensus about what constitutes green, according to Joel Makeower, a writer on green marketing. In essence , there is no definition of how good is good enough when it comes to a product or company making green marketing claims. This lack of consensus- by consumers, marketers, activists, regulators and influential people- has slowed the growth of green products, says Makeover, because companies are often reluctant to promote their green attributes, and consumers are often skeptical about claims. Despites these challenges, green marketing has continued to gain adherents, particularly in light of growing global concern about climate change. This concern has led more companies

Green Code:

Green Marketing Mix: 1. Product:

2. Price:

3. Place:

4. Promotion:

Moving towards Green Marketing:

Corporate Environmental Management, Strategy and Practices: Environmental Management:

Five Development stages of environmental management stages as given below: The beginner who provides no protection from environmental risk. The fire- fighter who provides moderate protection. The concerned citizen who provides moderate protection. The pragmatist who provides comprehensive protection.

Green House Reduction as Market:

Companies that need to increase their emission allowance must buy credits from those who pollute less. The transfer of. Thus, in theory, those who can reduce emission most cheaply will do so, achieving the pollution reduction at the lowest cost to society. There are active trading programs in several air pollutants. For greenhouse gases the largest is the European Union Emission trading Scheme. In the United States there is a national market to reduce acid rain and several regional markets in nitrogen oxides. Markets for other pollutants tend to be smaller and more localized.

The New Green Revolution:

Green Warming Proposed Solution:

Green Raw Material:

Green in Manufacturing:

Green in Product Development:

Green by using Alternative Ingredients to Reduce Health Risk:

Green in Supply Chain:

Green in Packaging:

Natural Package for a Natural Product:

Green in Services:

TATA GROUP OF COMPANIES: Indias oldest industrial house is stepping up efforts to reduce its carbon footprint across the value chain from manufacturing processes to distribution networks to ecofriendly consumer products. Tata Steel aims to reduce carbon dioxide emissions at its Jamshedpur plant from the current 1.8 tonne to 1.7 tonne per tonne of liquid steel made by 2012. The ideal global benchmark though is 1.5. Tata Motors is setting up an eco-friendly showroom using natural building material for its flooring and energy efficient lights. Tata Motors said the project is at a preliminary stage.

The Taj chain, is in the process of creating eco rooms which will have energy-efficient mini bars, organic bed linen and napkins made from recycled paper. But there wont be any carpets since chemicals are used to clean those. And when it comes to illumination, the rooms will have CFLs or LEDs. About 5% of the total rooms at a Taj hotel would sport a chic eco-room design. One of the most interesting innovations has come in the form of a biogas-based power plant at Taj Green Cove in Kovalam, which uses the waste generated at the hotel to meet its cooking requirements.
Launched a low-cost water purifier made from natural ingredients.

GREEN STATEGY FORMULATION As in formulation of green strategy, a firm may evolve it from a SWOT analysis or Environmental Audit.
SWOT ANALYSIS

STRENGTHS Marketers get access to new markets and gain an advantage over competitors that are not focusing on greenness. Marketers can charge a premium on products that are seen as more eco- responsible. Organizations that adopt green marketing are perceived to be more socially responsible. Green marketing builds brand equity and wins brand loyalty among customers. E.g. research and development capabilities for clean processes and green products and human resources committed to environmental protection.

Weakness:
Most customers choose to satisfy their personal needs before caring for environment. Overemphasizing greenness rather than customer needs can prove devastating for a product. Many customers keep away from products labeled Green because they see such labeling as a marketing gimmick, and they may lose trust in an organization that suddenly claims to be green. E.g. products cannot be recycled and hazardous wastes of a company.

Opportunities:
Marketing to segment which are becoming more environmentally aware and concerned. These customers are demanding products that conform to these new attitudes. Organizations perceive green marketing to be a competitive advantage, relative to the competitors. Firms, therefore, strive to improve upon their societal awareness. This complements the increase in consumers socially conscious behavior and will therefore give them an advantage over competitors who do not address these issues. E.g. offering an environmental friendly product and saving resources, and relating them to internal strengths.

External Threats:
Uncertainty as to the environmental impact of present activities, including that is perceived to be less environmentally harmful. Uncertainty as to which green marketing activities are acceptable from a government perspective. The possibility of a backlash from consumers or government based on existing green marketing claims, threat one and two above may cause backlash to arise. E.g. competitor gain market shares with green products and increased environmental regulations.

Consumer Value Positioning: Design environmental products to perform as well as ( or better than) alternatives. Promote and deliver the consumer desired value of environmental products and target relevant consumer market segments. Broaden mainstream appeal by bundling consumer desired value into environmental products.

Calibration of Consumer Knowledge: Educate consumer with marketing messages that connect environmental attributes with desired consumer value. Frame environmental product attributes as solutions fir consumer needs. Create engaging and educational internet sites about environmental products desired consumer value.

Credibility of Product Claims: Employ environmental product and consumer benefit claims that are specific and meaningful. Procure products endorsements or eco-certifications from trustworthy third parties and educate consumers about the meaning behind those endorsements and ecocertifications. Encourage consumer evangelism via consumers social and internet communication network with compelling, interesting and entertaining information about environmental products.

Strategies for Green Communication: Make environmental messages consistent with the companys existing voice in the market place. Empower consumers to get involved to make a difference. Enlist cultural icons to tell the story. Show that environmental initiatives lead to better quality products. Be ready to experiment publicly, even if it doesnt always lead to success. Price environmentally innovations to other benefits, like quality and durability. Thanks customers for making good, green choices, and tell them how they are making a difference. Seek recognition from peers and activists groups and challenge competitors to join in. Green products shouldnt be any different from regular ones in branding, price, use or performance.

Role of Information Technology in Green Marketing:

Some examples are:

INITIATIVES TAKEN UP BY BUSINESS ORGANISATIONS TOWARDS GREEN MARKETING: India is growing at 9% annually and expected to double its energy consumption between 2005 and 2030, is under pressure to take action for providing clean environment for all future generations to come. Many Indian companies have come forward for the cause of environmental concerns and issues requiring immediate attention like: global warming, Water and Air pollution, E-waste. NTPC Limited has decided to allocate 0.5% of distributable profit annually for its "Research and Development Fund for Sustainable Energy," for undertaking research activities in development of green and pollution free technologies. In India, around 25% of the consumers prefer environmental-friendly products, and around 28% may be considered healthy conscious. Therefore, there is a lot of diverse and fairly sizeable untapped segment in India which green marketers can serve through offering eco-friendly products for profitability and survival in the era of globalization.

For example, Mahindra Group has formally announced the launch of project Mahindra Hariyali in which 1 million trees will be planted nation-wide by Mahindra employees and other stakeholders including customers, vendors, dealers, etc. by October 2008. Of these, 1,50,000 trees have already been planted by Mahindra employees since September 2007. Nokia's environmental work is based on life cycle thinking. This means that we aim to minimize the environmental impact of our products throughout our operations, beginning with the extraction of raw materials and ending with recycling, treatment of waste, and recovery of used materials. India is a world leader in green IT potential, according to a recently released global enterprise survey. Indian respondents scored over respondents from 10 other countries in expecting to pay 5% or more for green technology if its benefits for the environment and return on investment (ROI) are proven in a survey conducted by GreenFactor, which researches and highlights green marketing opportunities. Among the companies that have succeeded thus far in their green marketing strategies are Apple, HP, Microsoft, IBM, Intel, Sony and Dell. HCL has a comprehensive policy designed to drive its environment management program ensuring sustainable development. HCL is duty bound to manufacture environmentally responsible products and comply with environment management processes right from the time products are sourced, manufactured, bought by customers, recovered at their end-of-life and recycled. Potato starch trays made by Dutch Paper Foam protect the new iPhone just launched by Apple Computer which equals 90 percent reduction in the carbon footprint compared to the plastic tray used in the past. Indian Oil also aims at developing techno-economically viable and environment-friendly products & services for the benefit of millions of its consumers, while at the same time ensuring the highest standards of safety and environment protection in its operations

GLOBAL SCENARIO OF GREEN MARKETING According to Paul Stoneman, financial incentives are necessary if the market for green products is to improve and grow. Consumers in the United States are expected to double their spending on green products and services in the next year to an estimated $500 billion, according to an annual consumer survey by Landor Associates. According to market researcher Mintel, about 12% of the U.S. population can be identified as True Greens, consumers who seek out and regularly buy so-called green products. The European Commission's new "Green Package" of legislation on climate change and renewable energy represents a significant potential opportunity for European utilities, according to a report released by The Brattle Group and Trilemma UK. The Green Package sets targets that represent a step change in the energy market: save 20% of energy, increase the share of renewable energy to 20%, and cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 20%, all by 2020. According to Mintel's report, 66% of consumers in United States do not buy green products because of high cost, while 34% say there is lack of availability of green products in the market. This shows the huge potential for untapped market and customer demand and requirement for eco-friendly products which the companies can exploit for capturing the market share and thereby enhancing the profitability and sustainability of the organization in the global competitive scenario. Global Companies like Federal Express has taken up several initiatives that help to protect the environment including greenhouse gas reduction, renewable energy and noise reduction, recycling and using alternative fuels in its own transportation fleet for increasing their accountability towards the environment and the society as a whole. Businesses have an impact on the environment as a whole. Plantation and cultivation activities taken up by Intel India is an example of socially responsible firms contributing to preservation of environment. Recycling used products also acts as a step towards minimizing wastes. Many other firms are contributing to conservation of environment through Biodiversity, producing environmentally friendly products, conservation of energy, water and natural resources, climate protection, maintenance of schools, roads, parks, providing assistance for upliftment of the rural sector and the underprivileged, and so on. The Kyoto Protocol is an example of societies coming together to discuss climatic changes issues so

that some solutions get incorporated into the negotiating process to create a new agreement that would come into effect 2012 In retrospect, 2007 may be viewed as the year of the great awakening in the US regarding climate change. The mass media gets much credit for helping to foster awareness for the issue through film (eg, The Inconvenient Truth), broadcast (eg, Planet Earth), online content (eg, Live Earth) and star power (eg, Leonardo DiCaprio). State and local initiatives confirmed grassroots support for action on climate change. And the year will end with a modest energy bill passed by Congress. While it is unlikely that the Bush administration will sponsor comprehensive action on climate change during 2008, court decisions made in 2007 lay the groundwork for doing so in the future. Importantly, leading brands awoke in 2007 to the realization that inaction on climate change was no longer an option; by contrast, action could open up myriad new opportunities. Consumers today are much more concerned about climate change than they were even one year ago. Moreover, they are expecting their favorite brands not only to share their concern but to take action (or enable their consumers) to mitigate it.

Throughout all of this, the interest in green marketing continued to trend upward in 2007. In fact, according to Technorati Charts, the average number of daily references to green marketing in the blogosphere doubled from about 150 per day in 2006 to more than 300 per day during the second half of 2007.

Source: Technocratic Charts; Data for the first half of 2007 was not available Notably, interest in green marketing spiked considerably in late summer just as reports of persistent drought in the Southeast (and Southwest) appeared in the national media, and again during the fall when brushfires scorched much of California. Additionally, late fall brought news from the UNs conference at Bali and legislative action on an energy bill in Washington. Moreover, according to Google Trends, search volume for green marketing also continued to trend upward during 2007. Not surprisingly, many marketing professionals spent 2007 trying to grapple with whether the time was right to green their brand and marketing communications, and if so, how to do it credibly.

Interestingly, green marketing continues to be an issue of global interest. In fact, Google Trends reports that, on a relative basis, more searches for green marketing originated from India than from any other country. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Country India UK US Thailand Australia Canada China

Traffic to the Marketing Green blog confirms the fact that green marketing is a global issue. A recent Site Meter snapshot of site visitors based on referring location indicates that a significant percentage of traffic originates outside of Western Europe and North America.

Source: Site Meter, mid-December snapshot, last 100 visitors to site Yet, when all is said and done, we end the year with much accomplished but even more work to be done. Today, businesses are holding back on green product development because demand for eco-friendly goods is still uncertain; companies are also putting off more efficient capital investments while the regulatory environment is in flux. Moreover, many companies find themselves afraid to even dip their toe in the green marketing waters for fear that, despite good intentions, their initiative will be perceived as green washing. Consumer attitudes on green

continue to evolve. Green today is still largely viewed as a personal virtue, rather than a societal norm. As such, consumers have yet to translate their concern into sustained changes in purchase behavior. Moreover, standards for green products (not to mention marketing communications) have yet to be adopted in most categories, leaving consumers to their own devices to comparison shop.

Green marketers will play a crucial role in 2008 in multiple ways. Not only will they influence the pace at which their companies adopt more sustainable business approaches, but also the rate

at which consumers translate awareness into purchases. The stakes are high, as the potential impact of climate change becomes all the more real. Along the way,Marketing Green will continue to provide insights into the changing face of green marketing. CORPORATES GO GREEN Campaign:

Strategies To be Implemented in Green Marketing: 1. Product Differentiation:

2. Designing Bio-Degradable Packaging:

3. Product Strategy:

4. Distribution Strategy:

5. Life Cycle Analysis:

6. Incentives and Structural Factors: