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Coatings for ophthalmic lenses

T. Vilajuana R&D Lens Business Unit, INDO Salamanca, June 27th 2006

An ideal lens
Light weight Mechanical strength Anti-scratch Photochromic UV-protection

Anti-reflective

Easy-to-clean

Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses

June 27th Salamaca

Ophthalmic lenses: two different materials


Made of Mineral (glass) Polymeric Silicates B, Na, Ti, La Allylic, acrilic, urethane, polycarbonate Refractive Index (nd) 1.52 to 1.9 Density (gr/cm3) 2.3 to 3.9 Softening Temperature (C) 600-700

1.49 to 1.74

1.1 to 1.3

70-120

Polymer lenses are light but... they are soft and easily scratched A hard coat is applied to many polymeric materials

Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses

June 27th Salamaca

Light weight

Low density polymers High index materials Aspheric curvatures Thin edge/centre thickness Optimisation of lens geometry according to frame shape

Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses

June 27th Salamaca

Coatings in a polymeric lens

Hydrophobic and lipophobic top coat (5 to 10 nm) Anti-reflective multilayer (250 to 350 nm) Hard Coating (1.800 to 2.000 nm) Polymeric lens (1 to 2.000.000 nm)

Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses

June 27th Salamaca

Hard coating structure


Siloxane-based matrix Thickness 1.7 m Reinforced with 20nm SiO2 particles Hard and flexible

Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses

June 27th Salamaca

Anti-reflection

Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses

June 27th Salamaca

Benefits of AR lenses
Reflectance vs lens refractive index
20,0%

Reflectance in %

15,0%

10,0%

5,0%

0,0%

1,49

1,52

1,6

1,7

1,8

1,9

Lens refractive index

Some uncoated lenses may loose up to 20% light, wereas with an AR, reflectance may be as low as 0.5%
Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses June 27th Salamaca 8

Anti-reflectance (AR) multilayer

Spectral Refectance
5.0% re flectan ce in % 4.0% 3.0% 2.0% 1.0% 0.0%
400 450 500 550 600 650 700 AR coated Uncoated

Wavelength in nm

Spectral reflectance 15 incidence


Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses June 27th Salamaca 9

How to design an AR
Specify substrate, layers, illuminants, angle and tolerances Calculate reflectance spectra Calculate color coordenates Design objectives
minimise reflectance n layers match target color angular stability

But... How critical a particular design is?


Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses June 27th Salamaca 10

Obtaining a New AR
New AR (objectives and tolerances)

Calculate performance

Check Tolerances

Identify & control critical variables


Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses June 27th Salamaca 11

Easy-to-clean lenses

Easy-to-Clean = Hydrophobic & oleophobic + low surface energy + low friction + smooth + anti-static surface
Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses June 27th Salamaca 12

Hydrophobic surface

Oligomers of large perfluorated carbon chain (silicon base) and high molecular weight (2000 to 5000 uma) [F]/[C] > 2 [F]/[Si] > 3
Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses June 27th Salamaca 13

Easy-to-clean lenses

115
40

High contact angle


(solid-liquid)
water (115) grease (72)

115

Calculation of surface tension: Owens,Wendt and Kaeble: (1+cos)=2( )


L d L L'

d' 1/2

+ 2(LP L'P')1/2

Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses

June 27th Salamaca

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Easy-to-clean lenses

12

mJ/m2

Low surface energy

Lenses do not retain grease easily, and remain cleaner for a longer time
Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses June 27th Salamaca 15

Easy-to-clean lenses

0.15

Low friction coefficient (static and dynamic)

Oil and grease do not attach and flow faster


Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses June 27th Salamaca 16

Easy-to-clean lenses

0.8

nm

Smooth surface

Lenses are smooth and easy to be cleaned, they suffer less friction so they remain unscratched longer
Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses June 27th Salamaca 17

Easy-to-clean lenses

<50V

Antistatic Surface

After wiping, lenses do not attract dust or charged particles


Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses June 27th Salamaca 18

UV and Photochromism

Photochromism is a reversible effect (clear-dark) Equilibrium between UV, visible light and heat
Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses June 27th Salamaca 19

Photochromic Lenses
UV-Spectral sensitivity of photochrmic dyes
800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 280

Transmittance spectra
100 90

Activation UV < 1 mW/cm2 T = 22C

Transmittance in %
300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500

Sensitivity in a.u.

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Wavelength in nm

380

480

580 Wavelength in nm

680

780

Spironaphthoxacines and naphtopyran molecules are adjusted to absorb UV-A. Lens transmittance according to outdors light conditions
Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses June 27th Salamaca 20

An ideal lens
Light weight Mechanical strength Anti-scratch Photochromic UV-protection

Anti-reflective

Easy-to-clean

Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses

June 27th Salamaca

21

Technology
PVD?

Sputtering?

Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses

June 27th Salamaca

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About Technology

Production on millions of coatings per year must be done with high throughput rates
I.e.: Process with 20 steps at 99% each => 82%

All process parameters should be monitored and tightly controlled An analysis of statistical trends is required in order to identify and prevent process deviations

Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses

June 27th Salamaca

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Future trends
Development of new materials with better optical and mechanical properties Requires a Tecnology to produce milions of coated lenses... At a competitive cost, and in a personalised basis The challenge of ophthalmic optic companies
Coatings for Ophthalmic Lenses June 27th Salamaca 24