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Language of the Arabs

Purpose of Study & Introduction to Sarf (Morphology)


Shariah Program - 2003-2010

Why learn the Arabic language?

Understand words of the Creator Access heritage of Scholars Increase faith by appreciating the miracle of the Noble Quran Advance in further studies Purpose dictates method

Shariah Program - 2003-2010

Vowels & Consonants

28 letters in Arabic alphabet

All consonants

3 short vowels which are separate from alphabet Words constructed by grouping consonants

Groups of 3 Gives more meaning

Need vowels to pronounce

27 total vowel combinations possible


Shariah Program - 2003-2010

Short Vowels

- : o or u in English. - : short a in English. - : e or i in English.


The absence of a vowel is called .) ( Pronouncing of the letter twice is called or
Shariah Program - 2003-2010


Shariah Program - 2003-2010

Meanings
1) 2)
3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

Help Notion of seeking Past tense Active voice Masculine gender of subject Plurality of subject Third person aspect of subject
Shariah Program - 2003-2010

Science of

What makes Arabic superior?

Its comprehensive nature


2 7 (from previous slide)

The science of Sarf will teach all these meanings

Focus on patterns and endings


Patterns of vowelization & non-base letters for conveying tense and voice Designated endings (suffixes) which come at the end of a verb for gender, plurality, person

Shariah Program - 2003-2010

Verb Conjugation

Combining verb with its subject


Gender Plurality Person

Shariah Program - 2003-2010

rd 3

Person Conjugation Layout


Gender Plurality English Equivalent #
1

Person

Singular
Masculine Dual (2) Plural (>2)

He
They (M2) They (M>2)

3rd Singular Feminine Dual (2) Plural (>2) She They (F2) They (F>2)
4

Shariah Program - 2003-2010

nd 2
Person

Person Conjugation Layout


Gender Plurality English Equivalent #
7

Singular

You (M)

Masculine

Dual (2)
Plural (>2)

You (M2)
You (M>2) You (F) You (F2)

2nd Singular Feminine Dual (2)


10

11

Plural (>2)

You (F>2)

12

Shariah Program - 2003-2010

st 1

Person Conjugation Layout


Gender Plurality English Equivalent #
13

Person

Singular Masculine Dual (2) Plural (>2) 1st

I (M/F) We (M/F2) We

14

15

Singular
Feminine

I We
We

16

Dual (2)
Plural (>2)

17

18

Shariah Program - 2003-2010

Verb Tables

Tables of 14 Model base-letters Active-passive

Shariah Program - 2003-2010