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This article is a compilation of frequently asked questions about Indoor Air Quality (IAQ).

Its author is: Richard R. Byrd Director of Indoor Air Quality Investigations Machado Environmental Corp. Glendale, Calif. USA E-mail: 1.1 What is Indoor Air Quality? Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) refers to the effect, good or bad, of the contents of the air inside a structure, on its occupants. Usually, temperature (too hot or too cold), humidity (too dry or too damp), and air velocity (draftiness or motionlessness) are considered "comfort" rather than indoor air quality issues. Unless they are extreme, they may make someone unhappy, but they won't make a person ill. Nevertheless, most IAQ professionals will take these factors into account in investigating air quality situations. Good IAQ is the quality of air which has no unwanted gases or particles in it at concentrations which will adversely affect someone. Poor IAQ occurs when gases or particles are present at an excessive concentration so as to affect the satisfaction or health of occupants. In the minor instances, poor IAQ may only be annoying to one person. At the extreme, it could be fatal to all of the occupants of a structure. It is important to note that the concentration of the contaminant or contaminants is crucial. Potentially infectious, toxic, allergenic, or irritating substances are always present in the air. There is nearly always a threshold level below which no effect occurs. 1.2 What is the relationship between indoor and outdoor air quality (pollution)? No building is perfectly sealed and so the air inside ultimately originates outside. Air pollution present in the outdoor environment will therefore enter into the building as well. Generally, pollutants present in the outdoor environment are present at a somewhat lower concentration than outside (probably 10 to 90% in most cases). There are several reasons for this. Some pollutants are absorbed by materials in the building. Others deteriorate or react chemically and so disappear. Still others may be filtered out by the ventilation system. Also as it takes some time for the outdoor air to enter in quantities, there may be a delay from the time a contaminant appears outdoors, to when it becomes a problem indoors. Smog from outdoors reaches its peak indoors some time after the outdoor peak. Outdoor contaminants may be present indoors at a sufficient concentration to affect the occupants. Examples are pollen and mold spores from outdoors causing hay fever and allergies indoors; and high smog levels affecting occupants inside a building. Incidentally, there is no such thing as a good smog day close to a major highway (expressway/freeway). 1.3 How common are IAQ problems?

According to the World Health Organization, approximately 30% of all commercial buildings have significant IAQ problems. Similar estimates have been made by others. I am unaware of any similar estimates in regards to residences. 1.4 How serious are IAQ problems? The vast majority of IAQ problems are relatively minor. This means that occupants may suffer health effects such as cold or flu-like symptoms. In the case of workplaces, some individuals may miss some work days, and productivity will be affected. Serious and/or permanent health effects are much rarer, however they do occur, as in the case of Legionnaire's disease outbreaks. 1.5 State of current knowledge. IAQ is a new field in many ways. Much of the current knowledge is less than 20 years old, and there is a great deal that is not known about it. In fact, it is safe to say that far more is unknown than is known about the field at this time. Even experts cannot come up with a definite answer in every situation. 1.6 Types of pollutants. Air quality is affected by the presence of various types of contaminants in the air. Some are in the form of gases. These would be generally classified as toxic chemicals. The types of interest are combustion products (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide), volatile organic compounds (formaldehyde, solvents, perfumes and fragrances, etc.), and semi-volatile organic compounds (pesticides). Other pollutants are in the form of particles. These include bioaerosols (mold spores, pollen, viruses, bacteria, insect parts, animal dander, etc.); soot; particles from buildings, furnishings and occupants such as fiberglass, gypsum powder, paper dust, lint from clothing, carpet fibers, etc.; dirt (sandy and earthy material), etc. 1.7 How indoor air affects people. You remember I said the state of the research is incomplete? So don't expect a total answer on this one as it is not known. Some air contaminants are toxic; they affect the body as a poison. Pesticides and lead fall into this category. Odorous substances may be toxic, or may be only annoying, but might still scare someone into having a physical reaction. Some substances are irritants, such as fiberglass. Some are carcinogenic, e.g., asbestos, and some of the chemical constituents of soot. Some substances - chemical as well as biological - are allergenic and will trigger allergy or asthma attacks in susceptible individuals. The most common health effects from poor indoor air quality are upper respiratory irritation (eyes, nose, sinuses, throat), headaches, fatigue, and allergic reactions. 1.9 How can you tell if you have an indoor air quality problem in a building?

The usual clue is that people feel ill while inside the building, and the symptoms go away shortly after leaving the building, or sometimes, when away for the building for a period of time (as on weekends away from work, or a vacation). This doesn't necessarily work in cases of BRI (sections 2.3, 2.4), where it may take medical testing and investigation of the building to determine whether the building is the source of the problem. 1.10 What should you do if you suspect you have an indoor air quality problem? Look over this FAQ. Find the material most related to what seems to be going on. In most cases there are suggestions as to things that can checked in to. Some of these can be checked by anyone; others require an expert (medical doctor, HVAC service company, IAQ investigator, etc.). 1.11 How do you choose an IAQ consultant? If necessary, hire an IAQ consultant to investigate the building. Be forewarned: There is currently no license, degree, certification, or training that will guarantee getting a competent job of investigation done. Check out references, make sure the person has done similar work before. For more information, see section 11.

2.1 What is SBS? Sick building is the condition of a building in which more than 20% of the occupants are suffering from adverse health effects, but with no clinically diagnosable disease present. It is the condition of the building; not of the occupants. The 20% figure is arbitrarily set as there will always be SOME individuals complaining about adverse health effects associated with occupancy of a building. However, if the figure is 20% or more, it is considered that there must be some determinable cause which can be remedied. The symptoms reported most often include headaches, stuffed or runny nose, sneezes, sore throat, eye irritation, fatigue, and muscle aches. It is important to note that there is no medically recognized disease involved in these cases. The symptoms may be annoying, may cause lost production and missed work days, but there is no serious or permanent adverse health effect involved. This is the most common indoor air quality problem in a commercial building, and common it is indeed. It is generally agreed that 30% of all commercial buildings in the U.S., for example, suffer from SBS, and that the expenses in terms of medical costs and lost production are in the tens of billions of dollars per year in the U.S. alone. 2.2 What causes SBS? How do you deal with it?

The causes of SBS are still uncertain. Amongst the causes postulated, and for which some evidence exists, include man- made mineral fibers (MMMF), macromolecular organic chemicals (large size molecules produced by living things, such as protein molecules), volatile organic compounds (VOC's), and many others. Studies have shown that SBS is far more likely to occur in a building which has air-conditioning then in one which is naturally ventilated (operable windows). Buildings with air- conditioning that have an inadequate supply of fresh air are far more likely to suffer from SBS than those whose fresh air supply satisfies current standards. Most experts feel that SBS is due to long-term exposure to low levels of a combination of contaminants. The level of each contaminant present may be far below any level at which a recognized health effect occurs, but the combination of numerous chemicals and particles at such levels then has the effect known as SBS. Research on this is at an early stage but tends to support this hypothesis. Some psychologists have claimed that SBS is 100% psychological in origin, but this is clearly not true. The true percentage is probably closer to 5%. Women are far more likely to complain of symptoms than men, as are employees who are dissatisfied with their jobs, under stress, or in work circumstances where they have little control over their jobs. Rarely, complaints may be a part of a phony Worker's Compensation claim or lawsuit.

Sick building syndrome

Allergies - caused by bad air in a "Sick building"? Employees of offices, schools, and day-care centres all around the world experience very similar indoor air problems currently known as "Sick Building" syndrome (SBS). People develop indoor air-related symptoms (fatigue, headache, muscle ache, memory and concentration difficulties, skin symptoms, flu symptoms, asphyxia, sensations of insufficient breathing air, and indigestion) without any apparent cause. Some 40 % of those with symptoms are unable to determine when the symptoms started, but they can isolate them to a specific building. "One sign of indoor air problems can be the onset of various irritation symptoms, often in the respiratory channels. When people reside in some other building, the symptoms ease or vanish. These are signs that the indoor air of a building causes these symptoms or in the least makes them more severe," says Doctor of Technology Risto Ruotsalainen. Even such widespread problems can be alleviated if people are given the opportunity to have a say about their building's ventilation and temperature. Research also clearly shows that sick building symptoms increase if the ventilation system is insufficiently maintained or cleaned. Thus the ventilation system itself becomes the source of symptoms, a distributor of bacteria.

According to researches air-filtering techniques would also be worth improving, as they could diminish symptoms and improve work productivity. The concept of a "sick building" became known in Finland and elsewhere in the world in the 1980s, although its roots lie deep in the energy crisis of the 1970s. During that crisis the rapid rise in the price of oil resulted in hasty modifications to construction, heating, and ventilation techniques. Everything happened too quickly, and attention was paid only to energy saving. The old Finnish saying about throwing the baby out with the bath water came true: while energy was saved, major problems arose. Indoor air was analysed only in relation to energy saving and heating up until the early 1980s. The perspective has changed since then and now includes the possible ways of avoiding mistakes and negative health effects. The third stage is actually happening right now, as the owners of buildings are joining into discussions about indoor air quality (IAQ). Their participation came when indoor air researchers started to talk about the value and profitability of the buildings. Fatigue and headache The sick building syndrome began to appear on a wider scope some two decades ago in schools, hotels, day-care centres, and offices. People experienced more symptoms in big buildings with fully mechanical ventilation. Usually people mentioned symptoms resembling the flu, fatigue, headache and discomfort. It is true that such symptoms may occasionally occur also in healthy people, so a building can not be classified as sick before the users begin to have a plethora of symptoms. Finland's harsher and colder climate sets somewhat different requirements for construction than the milder climates of southern countries do. Properly insulated buildings with no air leaks have to be constructed for energy saving reasons. This kind of construction emphasises the need to have controlled ventilation in every room although this kind of climate control does not always succeed. It does not always succeed in the United States, either where only 20 % of office buildings are healthy, 40 % are usually healthy, 20 % suffer from problems with unknown causes, 10 % from problems with known causes, and 10 % of the buildings are sick. "Here in Hong Kong about one third of the buildings are classified as sick, which means that they have bad indoor air, among others problems. Similarly the indoor air of big malls where people often spend their free days should be significantly improved," claims Professor Frank Lee of Hong Kong Technical University. Factors affecting sick building syndrome Chemical factors volatile organic compounds (VOCs) tobacco smoke

odours floating dust Physical factors too high or low room temperature too low air flow too dry or humid air too dim lighting

Biological factors bacteria fungus growths Mental factors too severe psychological burden workplace bullying inexperienced personnel management Finnish researchers have shown that sick building symptoms increase visibly when the room temperatures of offices or schools are raised from 20 to 24 degrees centigrade. In other international researches the conclusions have been that sick building symptoms increase as temperatures rise. "Hong Kong has precisely the situation described above, as the temperature of outdoor air is way above 20 degrees centigrade for most of the year. Therefore symptoms increase significantly in poorly ventilated offices or schools," Professor Frank Lee points out. It has been shown indisputably that people experience less sick building symptoms if they are able to influence the air quality at their workplace, for example, by adjusting ventilation or temperatures. According to researches air-filtering techniques would also be worth improving, as they could diminish symptoms and improve work productivity. Symptoms caused by the sick building Eye irritation Irritation of nose, throat, and pharynx Blocked nose, dry nose, and running mucus Hoarse voice Coughing Dryness, reddening, and itching of skin Allergic reactions of mucous membranes and skin Headache

Nausea and dizziness Fatigue Olfactory sensations


You may notice that whenever youre at work your eyes get watery, your nose or throat get irritated, your skin becomes dry or itchy. You start to get a headache. Fatigue sets in. Its hard to concentrate. Colleagues complain of similar symptoms. Yet, an odd thing happens: Soon after you leave the building you feel relief. All are indicators of "sick building syndrome." Thats a scary-sounding, catch-all term, which simply describes situations in which building occupants experience acute health and comfort effects that seem linked to time spent in a building, but no specific illness or cause can be identified, according to the US Environmental Protection Agency. Complaints may come from workers in one specific room or zone, or they may come from employees throughout a building. One report cited by EPA says up to 30 percent of new and remodeled buildings worldwide may prompt excessive complaints related to lousy indoor air quality. "Sick building syndrome probably originated as a result of the oil embargoes that began in the mid-1970s," reports the journal Archives of Environmental Health. Buildings erected after that increasingly were built "tight" with windows that couldnt open, for instance to conserve energy. An unexpected consequence: Fungi became trapped indoors, along with chemicals released from cleaning products, ozone from photocopiers, pesticides sprayed by the exterminator, fumes from new carpets, and secondhand cigarette smoke drifting indoors from the ventilation system. Often, according to the EPA, problems trace to a building being operated or maintained in a manner that is inconsistent with its original design or operating procedures. Sometimes indoor air problems trace to poor building design or occupant activities. Theres some thought that no one really knows why people get sick; maybe it isnt the air, but some other reason, like maybe sitting too long in front of a computer (a.k.a. "visual display unit" or "VDU"). One study found increased sick-building symptoms when working at a VDU at least seven hours a day; other studies found an effect after fewer hours, according to the journal Occupational and Environmental Medicine. To figure out whats going on, building managers can conduct a walk-through survey to look for obvious issues such as poor cleaning, water damage or overcrowding, then may distribute a questionnaire to employees to get a sense of the extent of the problem.

Solutions can be wide-ranging, including storing paint only in well-ventilated areas and letting new carpets off-gas their airborne pollutants before anyone goes inside the building. For more solutions, see:

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Dealing with Sick Building Syndrome

Some people experience acute health symptoms or discomfort after spending extended periods of time in a building. It is possible for symptoms to appear in a particular room, area of the building, or throughout the building. Without a known cause or specifically diagnosed illness, they could be suffering from Sick Building Syndrome (SBS). Studies have shown that these symptoms can be caused or irritated by poor indoor air quality. According to a report by a World Health Organization Committee, possibly 30 percent of new and remodeled buildings may receive excessive complaints related to indoor air quality (IAQ). These figures are world wide and not confined to buildings in any particular locality. While this condition may be temporary, buildings have been known to have long term indoor air quality problems. Poor indoor air quality may result due to inadequate building design or activities pursued by the occupants. Buildings that are not maintained according to standard operation procedures, or in a manner that conflicts with the original design of the building may suffer from indoor air quality issues. Symptoms of Sick Building Syndrome:

Difficulty concentrating Sensitivity to odors Feeling dizzy and nauseous Headache Throat soreness Eye and nose irritation Difficulty breathing Cough Itching

If the air in a building is not properly ventilated and circulated by the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems, poor indoor air quality occurs. Contaminants from indoor sources such as adhesives, carpets, upholstery, wood products, office equipment, cleaning agents, and common pesticides as well as combustion products from gas stoves and fireplaces may contribute to poor

indoor air quality. Air that enters a building from the outside may be a source of pollution, such as vehicle exhaust and plumbing vents, if air intake vents are constructed poorly. Poor indoor air quality is the basic cause of Sick Building Syndrome. The first call to action for such a problem is to use a HEPA air purifier. Medical grade HEPA air filtration removes 99.97% of particles and contaminants from the air, and are the best solution to this problem. HEPA air purifiers are used in military and medical facilities as well as in manufacturing plants that require optimal air quality. When shopping for a HEPA air purifier, it is important to buy a quality product from a trusted source. Austin Air and IQAir are excellent units that meet or exceed HEPA standards. These are not cheap imitations; these are true HEPA air purifiers that will improve your indoor air quality and perform as promised in your home or office. Austin Air is an industry leader in manufacturing high quality, energy saving, eco-friendly air purifiers. This company was selected by the Red Cross and the U.S. Government for their high level of filtration and long lasting performance. Made in the US, Austin Air offers several models of HEPA air purifiers from which to choose. Selected by Consumers Digest as the most effective HEPA air purifier for people suffering from allergies and asthma, IQAir air purifiers are Swiss made and are the worlds most advanced air purification systems on the market today! Healthcare professionals recommend IQAir HEPA air purifiers because they are reliable and can be trusted to deliver. If your home or building is making you or others sick, choose a HEPA air purifier that is reliable, trustworthy and will help offer relief from symptoms related to sick building syndrome. To improve your indoor air quality and reduce the harmful effects of bacteria, molds, viruses, smoke and chemicals, visit Clean Air Plus today. Our team of indoor air quality experts will provide you with the latest and best solutions to meet your individual needs. ARKIB : 24/07/2011 More Sharing Services Wangi belum tentu bersih Oleh BINTU RASYADA A. RAHMAN Foto ZAKKI JILAN

KALAU air tercemar boleh nampak kekotorannya, namun bagaimana pula dengan udara? Kita mungkin risau dengan keadaan jerebu di luar, lalu dengan penuh keyakinan kita beranggapan tidak perlu keluar dari rumah atau memilih melakukan aktiviti hanya di dalam bangunan. Namun, terfikirkah anda mengenai kualiti udara yang kita hirup di dalam bangunan setiap hari?

Boleh dikatakan hampir 70 peratus daripada kehidupan dihabiskan dalam bangunan setiap hari bermula dari pejabat hingga ke rumah. Adakah kita yakin udara yang kita sedut di rumah atau dalam bangunan itu selamat kerana kita memang tidak nampak pencemarannya? Perlu ditekankan di sini, udara yang berbau harum belum tentu segar dan bersih, kata Perunding Perubatan dan Gastroenterologi, Datuk Dr. A. Shukri Md. Salleh. Menurutnya, udara di kawasan dalam rumah, ruang pejabat, sekolah, hospital dan tempat-tempat awam lain sebenarnya lebih mudah tercemar berikutan aktiviti yang kita lakukan setiap hari kerana ia tertutup. Hal itu katanya turut didorong oleh reka bentuk kediaman hari ini yang mana kebanyakannya tidak mempunyai sistem pengudaraan yang baik. Ditambah lagi dengan faktor kelembapan tropika menjadikan bakteria dan mikroorganisma yang tidak kelihatan dengan mata kasar mudah membiak. Udara dalam bangunan yang tidak baik memudaratkan kesihatan semua terutama kanak-kanak, wanita mengandung, warga emas dan mereka yang mempunyai daya tahan penyakit yang rendah, kata Dr. A. Shukri. Disebabkan tidak nampak kata beliau, kita biasanya tidak mengambil berat dengan kualiti udara dalaman. Pencemaran katanya boleh berlaku disebabkan asap rokok dan juga gas memasak. Itu belum lagi dikira dengan bahan kimia yang kita gunakan untuk membersihkan dan menyegarkan rumah setiap hari. Sebagai contoh katanya, bila kita memasuki sesebuah kediaman, kita dapat menghidu haruman pewangi yang digunakan dan kemudian ia tidak berbau lagi. Ke mana bau itu pergi? soal Dr. A. Shukri. Menurutnya, bahan tersebut sebenarnya telah masuk ke pernafasan dan ia boleh memberi kesan sampingan yang boleh memudaratkan sekiranya kandungan kimianya melebihi dari had yang dibenarkan. Begitu juga bangunan yang baru dicat atau lantai yang dicuci dengan pencuci konvensional, bau kimia boleh memudaratkan kesihatan bila mana ia berlaku berulang kali. Kesan kesihatan Akibat menghidu udara yang tidak sihat dalam bangunan secara berterusan, menurut Dr. Shukri seseorang boleh mengalami masalah di bahagian kulit seperti kegatalan, alahan dan sebagainya. Selain itu, ia juga menyebabkan kegatalan di bahagian mata, sinusitis (resdung), rangsangan asma, pening kepala dan tubuh menjadi lemah. Bayangkan ketika kita tidur (enam hingga lapan jam), hanya dua organ yang sedang berkerja iaitu paru-paru dan jantung. Apa akan berlaku seandainya kita menghirup udara yang tidak bersih? soalnya. Lantaran semalaman menghidu udara tercemar dalam rumah, individu tersebut akan mengalami bersin sehingga mendapat sinusitis dan batuk-batuk. Keadaan bertambah teruk sekiranya seseorang menghisap rokok di dalam bilik tidur atau pun terus ke bilik tidur selepas merokok. Kesan kimia dan bau boleh menjadikan pasangan atau anak-anak kecil terdedah sebagai perokok

pasif yang juga berisiko mendapat penyakit paru-paru. Keadaan yang sama boleh berlaku di tempat kerja atau di dalam bangunan komersil seperti hotel. Menurut Dr. A Shukri, udara yang tidak sihat juga boleh mengundang masalah asma kerana partikel halus yang terkandung dalam boleh sampai hingga ke cabang paru-paru yang kecil. Jika dibiarkan berlarutan, masalah tersebut menyebabkan bronkitis dan masalah kesihatan lain yang berkaitan dengan paru-paru. Jangkitan kuman penyebar melalui udara juga boleh merebak dengan cepat seperti tibi, selesema, Sars, Anthrax dan lain-lain jika pengudaraan serta kotoran biologi tidak dimusnahkan dengan sempurna. Apabila salah seorang dari pekerja mendapat tanda-tanda jangkitan virus atau bakteria, tempoh jangkitan kepada orang lain sebenarnya telah berlaku beberapa hari sebelum dari itu. Sekiranya sistem penghawa dingin kotor dan tidak berfungsi dengan baik bagi menapis udara, maka jangkitan bakteria atau virus itu mudah merebak kepada orang lain. Masalah kelembapan pada bilik air, dinding rumah, lantai dan siling, menjadi tempat sebaran spora pembawa penyakit seperti Aspergillus dan Penicilium. Allergen atau bahan alergi binatang hadir di dalam udara rumah yang mempunyai binatang peliharaan. Tambah beliau lagi, ruang udara pejabat yang tidak bersih juga didapati menjadi punca sick building syndrom (SBS) yang mana ia menurunkan produktiviti pekerja menjadikan mereka mudah mengantuk, lemah dan tidak cergas. Kualiti udara dalam bangunan Penaksir Kualiti Udara Dalaman, Syazwan Aizat Ismail dari Jabatan Kesihatan Komuniti, Fakulti Perubatan dan Sains Kesihatan, Universiti Putra Malaysia berkata, pencemaran udara dalam bangunan berpunca daripada empat perkara. Pertama ia disebabkan oleh udara dari luar yang tercemar, kedua bahan yang terkandung dalam binaan bangunan dan perabot. Punca seterusnya adalah individu yang tinggal di dalam bangunan tersebut dan aktiviti yang dilakukannya seperti merokok dan memasak manakala faktor terakhir adalah rekaan bangunan yang tidak menggalakkan pengudaraan yang baik serta penyelenggaraan yang tidak betul, kata beliau. Jelasnya, pencemar kimia yang datangnya dari perabot, bahan pencuci, bahan pewangi (air freshener) dan juga cat yang mengandungi wap sebatian organic (VOC), kadmium serta formaldehid. Bahan pencemar kimia ini amat berbahaya di dalam rumah jika rumah kurang pengudaraan segar dari luar.

Melalui kajian yang kami jalankan, bahan pewangi potpourri terbukti boleh menyebabkan pencemaran udara dalam rumah kerana ia menjadi tempat pembiakan mikroorganisma yang baik, kata beliau. Bahan pencemar kimia juga katanya, termasuk partikel terampai yang paling banyak bagi mereka merokok dalam rumah). Partikel terampai ini boleh memasuki sistem respirasi dan mendap didalam tekak, peparu dan menyebabkan tindak balas alahan yang memberi kesan batuk, sakit tekak dan juga lain-lain simptom bangunan sakit. Pencemaran kimia juga hadir dari aktiviti memasak yang tidak mempunyai sistem pengudaraan yang selamat. Selain bahan kimia kata Syazwan, faktor biologi juga mempengaruhi pencemaran udara dalam rumah dan bangunan seperti hama, bakteria dan kulat yang boleh membiak dengan pantas dan sekali gus menyebabkan serangan respiratori. Katanya, faktor pencemaran biologi merupakan aspek yang paling utama selepas bahan pencemar kimia kerana faktor kelembapan tinggi disebabkan cuaca tropika. Selaput fungus kata beliau boleh membiak dan menyebarkan spora ke udara di dalam bangunan dengan pantas. Seterusnya ia masuk ke sistem respirasi dan memberi kesan alahan kepada pesakit lelah (asma) dan juga memberi kesan kegatalan kulit dan mata. Selain itu, penggunaan sistem penghawa dingin yang tidak diservis dengan kerap akan menyebabkan pengumpulan bahan pencemar biologi yang akan mengakibatkan kesan alahan teruk dalam tempoh yang panjang. Bagaimana untuk menjaga kualiti udara dalam rumah: Syazwan menyarankan setiap pemilik kediaman dan juga bangunan memeriksa kualiti udara premis mereka dengan kerap dan berkala. Pemeriksaan setiap lima tahun sekali penting dalam memastikan udara yang kita sedut setiap hari bersih daripada sebarang pencemaran, katanya. Bahan pencemar yang ada dirumah katanya perlu diperiksa dan disimpan di tempat yang mempunyai pengudaraan yang baik. Penggunaan bahan pembersih alternatif atau bukan kimia katanya, sangat baik bagi menghilangkan kesan kotoran dan mengurangkan pencemaran kimia. Sebagai contoh kita menggunakan sodium bikarbonat untuk menyental kotoran pada lantai, ia berkesan dan tidak memudaratkan kesihatan. Begitu juga lemon yang boleh dijadikan bahan pencuci alternatif, sekali gus menjadikan kediaman berbau harum, katanya. Penggunaan bunga segar dan daun pandan boleh menggantikan haruman potpourri bagi mengharumkan kediaman.

Selain itu katanya, kini terdapat banyak produk dan cat mesra alam yang boleh didapati di pasaran dalam usaha memelihara alam sekitar. Bagi pencemar biologi pula, teknologi ultra lembayung (UV) merupakan antara alat yang paling efisien dalam menghapuskan pencemar biologi. Kalau kita lihat orang dahulu, mereka membina rumah yang mempunyai pengaliran udara dan pencahayaan yang bagus. Selain itu, mereka juga suka menjemur alatan seperti bantal dan tilam, sebenarnya teknik ini mampu membunuh mikroorganisma yang terdapat di dalamnya, kata beliau lagi. Syazwan turut menyangkal dakwaan beberapa produk pendingin hawa yang terdapat dipasaran yang dikatakan berupaya menghasilkan udara segar. Memang ia berupaya merencatkan aktiviti mikroorganisma dan bakteria untuk seketika, namun apa berlaku bila pendingin hawa tidak dipasang? Bagaimana pula dengan penyelenggaraan yang tidak dipantau sempurna? soal beliau lagi. Tip udara bersih: l Buka tingkap sekurang-kurangnya tiga kali setiap hari untuk mencairkan udara kediaman yang tercemar. l Selenggara pendingin hawa dengan kerap l Pastikan susun atur perabot menggalakkan pengudaraan. l Gunakan bahan pembersih dan penyegar kediaman semula jadi atau mesra alam. l Gunakan alatan yang mampu memerangkap dan membunuh bakteria, kulat dan serta mikroorganisma yang terbukti berkesan secara klinikal. n_05.htm