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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Overweight is generally defined as having more body fat than is optimally healthy. Being overweight is a common condition, especially where food supplies are plentiful and lifestyles are sedentary. The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate in both developing and developed countries (Al-Rethaia, Fahmy, Al-Shwaiyat, 2010). An overweight person can easily lead to be an obesity person. The real risk factor of obesity is an excess in adiposity which is strongly associated with adverse health outcomes, including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, blood pressure coronary disease, kidney disease, cancer, musculosketal consequences, asthma, and decreased fertility (Slimane Mehdad, Abdeslam Hamrani, et al., 2011).

Body fat is the total of fat in the body contains. Exact body fat mass also known as body fat percentage. Body fat mass cannot be precisely determined, but multiple methods are used to estimate it. Some body fat is required for overall health. It plays an important role in protecting internal organs, providing energy, and regulating hormones. Excess body fat is linked to an increased risk for diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. Most exercise protocols designed to induce fat loss have focused on regular steady state exercise such as walking and jogging at a moderate intensity but disappointingly, these kinds of protocols have led to negligible weight loss (S.H. Boutcher, 2011).

A lot of students in the universities nowadays have their body mass index at overweight level that is above the normal level. College students are highly exposed to unhealthy eating habits leading to body weight gain. According to WHO, obesity is generally more common among women than men. However, studies on college students revealed higher rates of obesity in males than in females (Al-Rethaia, Fahmy, Al-Shwaiyat, 2010). In KSA, Rasheed et al. documented that 30.6% of female health college students were either overweight or obese.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Many exercise protocols designed to induce fat loss have focused on regular steady state exercise at a low and moderate intensity (S.H. Boutcher, 2011). What is the effect of highintensity intermittent exercise on body fat mass?

1.2.1 PROSOSE OF STUDY

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of high intensity intermittent on body fat mass among universities student.

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS Therefore, this study addresses the following research question by review of related literature regarding: a) What is the effect of high intensity intermittent training on reducing volume of body fat mass among universities students in 8 weeks?

1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY Based on this study, objective for this study are: a) To measure the effect of high intensity intermittent training on reducing volume of body fat mass among universities students in 8 weeks.

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS Based on this study, hypothesis for this study are: Hypothesis Null: There is no significance difference between high intensity intermittent training in reducing body fat mass volume among universities students. Hypothesis Alternative: There is significance difference between isotonic high intensity intermittent training in reducing body fat mass among universities students.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Significant of this study is to determine the type of high intensity intermittent training that can provide the most effect to reduce volume of body fat mass. This study gives information to the student in order to help them to choose type of high intensity intermittent training that can provide the most effect to reduce volume of body fat mass. Besides that, this study will help the fitness trainer to design training program that emphasize on reducing volume of body fat mass.

1.7 DEMILITATIONS OF THE STUDY The delimitations of the study are: 1.7.1 The subject that will be selected is universities students. The subject involve

in this study is ages from 19 years old to 24 years old. 1.7.2 The instrument use to measure the body fat mass volume and place to train

the subject is accessible 1.7.3 This study will be conducted in 8 weeks duration. The duration is not too long

compare to other research that engages body fat mass.

1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY There are few limitations within this research that will affect the result of the study and threaten the reliability and significant of the data. 1.8.1 The limitations of the study consist of few factors such as the supervision of

the subjects. The subjects activity cannot be control beside during training day. Subjects may be involves in others physical activity that can affect the outcome. 1.8.2 Other limitation also involve of subjects commitment to the study. The

subject must attend 3 times training session per week for 8 weeks. Each training session will be conducted in 1 and half hour duration. If the subjects not attend the training sessions, the study result will be affected.

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERM For the purpose in this study, this section provides the operational definition of key term used in this study: 1.9.1 Body fat mass: Body fat mass is the total weight of the person's fat divided by the person's weight and consists of essential body fat and storage body fat (N. Macias, H. Alemn-Mateo, et al., 2007)

1.9.2 High intensity intermittent training:

High intensity intermittent protocols typically involve repeated brief sprinting at an all-out intensity immediately followed by low intensity exercise or rest. The length of both the sprint and recovery periods has varied from 6 s to 4 min. (S.H. Boutcher, 2011).

The next chapter will discuss more about the literature review which is including a report of previous investigations related to the problem of this study.

CHAPTER 2

2.1 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of high intensity intermittent training on body fat mass percentage. These below are the statement of the research question: a) What is the effect of high intensity intermittent training on reducing volume of body fat mass among universities students in 8 weeks?

Body fat mass is the total weight of the person's fat divided by the person's weight and consists of essential body fat and storage body fat.

This study will compare the effect on high intensity intermittent training groups. High intensity intermittent protocols typically involve repeated brief sprinting at an all-out intensity immediately followed by low intensity exercise or rest. The length of both the sprint and recovery periods has varied from 6 s to 4 min.

For this chapter, this study will investigate the previous report that related to the issue that being studied.
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2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW There have certain researches that have be done related to this topic before this which the title is High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss written by Stephen H. Boutcher in 2010. In this research, the researchers summarises results of research examining the effect of different forms of High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise on fitness, insulin resistance, skeletal muscle, subcutaneous, and abdominal fat loss. The outcome of the study (DV) is fat loss, and the factors affect the outcome (IV) High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise. The researcher did this study because most exercise protocols designed to induce fat loss have focused on regular steady state exercise such as walking and jogging at a moderate intensity. Disappointingly, these kinds of protocols have led to negligible weight loss. Thus, exercise protocols that can be carried out by overweight, inactive individuals that more effectively reduce body fat are required. HIIE protocols have varied considerably but typically involve repeated brief sprinting at an all-out intensity immediately followed by low intensity exercise or rest. The length of both the sprint and recovery periods has varied from 6 s to 4min. The subjects of this studied have included adolescents, young men and women, older individuals, and a number of patient groups. The most utilized protocol in past research has been the Wingate test which consists of 30 s of all out sprint with a hard resistance. Subjects typically perform the Wingate test 4 to 6 times separated by 4 min of recovery. This protocol amounts to 3 to 4 min of exercise per session with each session being typically performed 3 times a week for 2 to 6 weeks. The conclusion of the study is research examining the effects of HIIE has produced preliminary evidence to suggest that High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise can result in modest reductions in subcutaneous and abdominal body fat in young normal weight and slightly overweight males and females. Studies using overweight male and female type 2 diabetic individuals have shown greater reductions in subcutaneous and abdominal fat. The mechanisms underlying the fat reduction induced by High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise,
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however, are undetermined but may include High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise-induced fat oxidation during and after exercise and suppressed appetite. Regular High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise has been shown to significantly increase both aerobic and anaerobic fitness and High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise also significantly lowers insulin resistance and results in increases in skeletal muscle capacity for fatty acid oxidation and glycolytic enzyme content.

Another research that supports this statement is effect of moderate and high intensity aerobic exercise on the body composition of overweight men writtrn by Marra, Bottaro, Oliveira, and Novaes, in 2005. The outcome of the study (DV) is body composition of overweight men, and the factors affect the outcome (IV) moderate and high intensity aerobic exercise. The researcher states that the optimal aerobic exercise training intensity to improve body composition in overweight men is unclear. Obesity has been shown to be associated with chronic diseases and health conditions such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, specific types of cancer and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of high intensity and moderate intensity aerobic exercise, of equal work output, on body composition in overweight young men. This study was to determine the effect of 14 weeks of high intensity versus moderate intensity aerobic exercise of equal work
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output on body composition in overweight men (BMI = 25-29.9 kg/m ). The results of this study showed that only subjects in high intensity had a significant decrease in their percent body fat. The difference in fitness level at the start of the study between groups allowed them to exercise not only the same amount of time per day but also the same distance even though the intensity of the exercise was significantly different.

Another research that also supports this statement is continuous low- to moderate-

intensity exercise training is as effective as moderate- to high-intensity exercise training at lowering blood HbA1c in obese type 2 diabetes patients that written by Hansen et al., in 2009. The outcome of the study (DV) is lowering blood HbA1c in obese type 2 diabetes patients and the factors affect the outcome (IV) Continuous low- to moderate-intensity exercise training is as effective as moderate- to high-intensity exercise training. Exercise intensity has been suggested to represent one of the more important exercise modalities that determine the clinical outcome of exercise interventions. Long-term exercise intervention studies investigating the impact of continuous low- to moderate-intensity (LI) vs high intensity endurance-type exercise training on glycaemic control in healthy and/or glucoseintolerant individuals have reported high intensity exercise training to be, when compared with low-intensity endurance-type exercise training, less, equally or more effective state by the researcher. The researcher concluded that despite a smaller decline in trunk fat mass, prolonged continuous moderate-to-high intensity endurance type exercise is equally as effective as low-to-moderate intensity exercise training at lowering blood HbA1c, elevating muscle mass and increasing whole body and skeletal muscle oxidative capacity in obese type 2 diabetes patients.

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CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY 3.1 INTRODUCTION The main objective of this study is to determine the effect of high intensity intermittent training on body fat mass volume among universities student. In this chapter, it will focus on the methodology that will be apply throughout the research as well as the instrument and the standard procedures that will be utilize in order to collect the data. Few aspects in this chapter will be discussed including: 3.2 Research design 3.3 Selection of subject, 3.4 The investigative instrument 3.5 Validity and reliability 3.6 Schedule for data collection 3.7 Data analysis Each of this aspect will be properly discuss and describe according to the research planning to guarantee that the data or variables are valid and reliable. The methods section will serve to give an overview as to how the research will be conducted. It will include sections dedicated to research design, selection of subject, investigative instrument, validity and reliability, schedule for data collection, and data analysis which also involve the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 to analyze the data.

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3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN The type of research design of this study is an experimental. The significant of this research type is because this study determines effect high intensity intermittent training on reducing volume of body fat mass. This study will utilize a pre test-post test on volume of body fat mass. Body fat mass can be measure using bioelectrical impedance (N. Macias, H. AlemnMateo, et al., 2007). The study will be done in 8 weeks which consists of high intensity intermittent group. The groups will carry out training program that involve the difference high intensity intermittent exercise. The exercise program is total high intensity intermittent training consists of 3 times per week for 8 week. Each session divided by two sessions that is in the morning and evening consists of 1 and half hour training per session. Surveying research is not suitable because body fat mass volume need to be measure and subject activity need to be control to gain valid result.

3.3 SAMPLING The selection of subjects used in this research is randomly sampling. Firstly, this study will find the subject from all universities in Malaysia. After that, this study will take randomly 30 subjects that interested in this research. The subjects will choose is including 15 male students and 15 female students. The target age is from 19 to 24 years old. The numbers of correspondent will be 30 persons. (N=30).

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3.4 INSTRUMENTATIONS In this study, volume of body fat mass will be measure by using bioelectrical impedance (N. Macias, H. Alemn-Mateo, et al., 2007). The volume of visceral fat will be measure 2 times on each subject. First measurement will be at pre test and second measurement at post test. The subject height will be measure using stadiometer and the result will be put on bioelectrical impedance machine. Beside subject height, subject age also required by the machine. The subject needs to remove shoes including socks and all iron material that subject wear to obtain an accurate result.

3.5 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES Subject will be informed about the purpose of the study, process, and guidelines. After that, demographic data will be recorded. Pre test will be conducted where body fat mass volume will be measured using bioelectrical impedance. After 8-week of training program, post test will be conducted where body fat mass volume will be measured again and the differences will be analyze.

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3.6 DATA ANALYSIS Statistical Package for the Social sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 is used to analyze the data collected from the measurement. Descriptive statistic such as mean and standard deviation are use to analyze age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI). Beside, inferential statistics are used to answer the entire hypothesis. The significant level of this study is set up at p < 0.05. SPSS, version 17.0, descriptive statistics is use to determine mean of age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI) for high intensity intermittent group. Inferential statistics such as Paired t-Test will be use to compare mean of body fat mass result during pre and post test for high intensity intermittent group.

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REFERENCES
Boutcher, S. H. (2011). "High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss." Journal of Obesity Volume 2011.

Nayeli Macias, H. A.-M., Julin Esparza-Romero and Mauro E Valencia (2007). "Body fat measurement by bioelectrical impedance and air displacement plethysmography: a crossvalidation study to design bioelectrical impedance equations in Mexican adults." Nutrition Journal 6:18.

Slimane Mehdad, A. H., Khalid El Kari, Asmaa El Hamdouchi, Amina Barakat, Mohamed El Mzibri, Najat Mokhtar,and Hassan Aguenaou (2011). "BodyMass Index,Waist

Circumference, Body Fat, Fasting Blood Glucose in a Sample of Moroccan Adolescents Aged 1117 Years." Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism Volume 2012.

MARRA CBM., OLIVEIRA RJ , NOVAES JS. (2005). "EFFECT OF MODERATE AND HIGH INTENSITY AEROBIC EXERCISE ON THE BODY COMPOSITION OF OVERWEIGHT MEN." Journal of Exercise Physiologyonline Volume 8 Number 2.

Al-Rethaiaa et al. (2010). "Obesity and eating habits among college students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study." Nutrition Journal 9:39.

M. Yoshioka. (2001). "Impact of high-intensity exercise on energy expenditure, lipid oxidation and body fatness." International Journal of Obesity 25, 332-339.

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