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PATHOGNOMONIC SIGNS

DISEASE Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection Hypocalcemia Tetanus Bulimia nervosa Leprosy Measles Diphtheria Pancreatitis Cholera Typhoid Fever Meningitis Cholecystitis Angina Pectoris and MI Patent Ductus Arteriosus Parkinsons Disease Pericarditis Hodgkins Lymphoma & Mononucleosis Rheumatic Fever Rabies Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Scarlet Fever & Kawasaki Disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Appendicitis Thrombophlebitis Pyloric Stenosis Hyperthyroidism Addisons Disease Cushings Syndrome Asthma Choking Downs Syndrome Tetralogy of Fallot Glaucoma Retinal Detachment Myasthenia Gravis Dengue Fever Amoebiasis Pertussis

PATHOGNOMONIC SIGN Owls eye appearance of cells (huge nucleus in cells hence the name) Chvosteks sign (tapping of facial nerve elicits abnormal muscle contraction on other side of face) Trousseau sign (occlusion of brachial artery induces wrist spasm) Risus sardonicus (sustained spasm of facial muscles) Chipmunk facies (parotid gland swelling) Leonine facies (thickened folded facial skin) Kopliks spots (clustered white lesions on buccal mucosa) Pseudomembranes in oral cavity Cullens sign (ecchymosis around umbilicus) Grey-Turners Sign (flank ecchymosis) Rice watery stool (murky watery stool with sediments) Washer womans hands (wrinkled hands from dehydration) Rose spots Kernigs sign (bend hip and knee then flex the knee produces pain) Brudzinskis sign (pressure on the cheek flexes the forearm) Murphys sign (hesitation on inspiration if gall bladder is palpated) Levines sign (clutching of fist on chest) Machine-like murmur Pill-rolling tremor Pericardial friction rub Reed-Sternberg Cells (large multi-nucleated cells) Aschoff bodies (areas of inflammation in the heart) Hydrophobia Auer rods (rod-like inclusions in bone marrow cells) Barrel-chested Strawberry tongue Butterfly rash on the face McBurneys point (rebound tenderness) Rovsing sign (palpation of LLQ; elicits pain in RLQ) Psoas sign (pain from flexing the thigh to the hip) Homans sign (bend knee, dorsiflex ankle, pain at popliteal area) Olive-shaped mass Exophthalmos (protrusion of eyeballs) Bronze-colored skin Buffalo hump at nape Moon face Wheezing Holding of throat Single transverse palmar crease Ventricular septal defect Pulmonary stenosis Overriding aorta Right ventricular hypertrophy Tunnel vision Flashes of light Shadow with curtain across vision Ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelids) Hermans sign (petechial rash) Bloody mucoid stool Whoop sound from inspiration of air after cough

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Pneumonia Peritonitis Basilar Skull Fracture Buergers Disease Chickenpox Diabetic Ketoacidosis Pregnancy Induced Hypertension Rusty sputum Rigid, board-like abdomen Raccoon eyes (periorbital ecchymosis) Battles sign (mastoid ecchymosis) Intermittent claudication (pain at buttocks or legs from poor circulation resulting in impaired walking) Vesiculopapular rash Acetone breath Proteinuria Hypertension Edema Polydipsia Polyphagia Polyuria Heartburn Ribbon-like stool Currant jelly stool Cushings Triad (increased BP, decreased RR & HR) Orange eyes Descending paralysis Ascending paralysis White spots on tongue Kyphosis Azotemia (nitrogen compounds in urine) Uremic frost (urea deposits in skin) Uremic fetor (ammoniacal breath)

Diabetes Mellitus Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Hirschsprungs Disease (Toxic Megacolon) Volvulus and Intussusception Increase Intracranial Pressure Leptospirosis Multiple Sclerosis Guillain-Barr Syndrome Oral Thrush/Candidiasis Osteoporosis Acute Renal Failure

STD Herpes Simples Type II Genital Warts Syphilis Chancroid Gonorrhea Chlamydia Trichomoniasis Candidiasis

MALE

FEMALE Painful vesicles on genitalia Warts 1-2mm in diameter Painless chancres Painful chancres Green, creamy discharge and dysuria Milky discharge and dysuria Yellow, itchy, frothy, foul-smelling N/A vaginal discharges White, cheesy, odorless vaginal N/A discharges