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Parts and Functions of Respiratory System

Introduction to parts and functions of respiratory system


Terms nasal cavity nasal septum Definitions Contains nasal septum, turbinates, and cilia. Divides nasal cavities into right and left sides. Bones that protrude into the nasal cavitythey increase surface area for filtering dust and dirt particles by the mucous membrane. Nose hairs, trap larger dirt particles. Cavities in the skull, ducts connect them to the nasal cavity, lined with mucous membrane to warm and moisten the air. Give resonance to voice. Frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid. Throat. Common passageway for air and food. 5" long. When food is swallowed, this closes over the opening to the larnyx, preventing food from entering the lungs. Voice box. Triangular chamber below pharynx. "Adam's Apple". Vocal cords within the larynx. Windpipe. 4.5" long. Walls are alternate bands of membrane and c-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage to keep it open. Lined with ciliated mucous membrane. Coughing and expectoration gets rid of dust-laden mucous. Similar to trachea with ciliated mucous membrane and hyaline cartilage. Lower end of trachea divides into right and left this. Cartilaginous plates (instead of c-shaped rings of trachea).

turbinates

cilia

sinuses

types of sinuses pharynx

epiglottis

larynx glottis

trachea

bronchi

bronchial tubes

bronchioles

Thinner walls of smooth muscle, lined with ciliated epithelium. Subdivision of bronci. At the end, alveolar duct and cluster of alveoli. Composed of single layer of epithelial tissue. Inner surfaces covered with surfactant to keep from collapsing. Each surrounded by capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange takes place between these and capillaries. Fill thoracic cavity. Tissue is porous and spongy- it floats. Upper part of lung. Lower part of lung. Larger and shorter (displaced by liver) and has three lobes. Smaller (displaced by heart) and has two lobes. Thin, moist, slippery membrane that covers lungs. Double-walled sac. Space is pleural cavity- filled with pleural fluid to prevent friciton. Respiration (external, internal, and cellular). Production of sound (vocal cords). Pulmonary venilation. Inspiration (intercostal muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward- this increases the volume of the lungs and the air rushes in). Breathing. 1 inspiration and 1 expiration= 1 respiration. Normal adult= 14-20 respirations per minute. Increases with exercise, body temperature, and certain diseases. Age (newborn= 40-60 per minute). Sleep= respirations go down. Emotion can bring respirations up or down. Deep breath followed by forceful expulsion of air to clean lower respiratory

alveoli

lungs apex base right lung left lung

pleura

functions of the respiratory system

pulmonary venilation

respiratory movement

coughing

tract. hiccups Spasm of diaphragm and spasmotic closure of the glottis- irritation to diaphragm or phrenic nerve. Air forced through nose to clear respiratory tract. Deep prolonged breath that fills the lungs, increases oxygen within the blood. Respiratory center located in medulla oblongata (in the brain). Increase in CO2 and decrease in O2 in the blood will trigger respiratory center. Stimulates the diaphragm. Depends on the levels of CO2 in the blood. Chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to the amount of blood oxygen

sneezing yawning neural factors of breathing control phrenic nerve chemical factors of breathing control

Introduction to the organs involved in the respiratory system The respiratory system consists of a set of organs that help in breathing of air in and out of the body. They provide a passage way for air to flow in and out of the body. The air taken in is stored in the lungs where oxygen from the air is diffused into the blood stream, and carbon di oxide from the blood stream diffuses out of into the air. Thus, the air which we breath in contains more Oxygen while the air which we breath out contains more of Carbon di oxide. The main respiratory organs are as follows:

Nose Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi Lungs

Structure and Functions of Organs Involved in the Respiratory System


Nose The nose has two external nostrils . These are separated by a cartilaginous (made up of cartilage) structure called septum. Hairs are present in the inner lining of the nostrils.

The nostrils open up into a wide cavity, the nasal chambers. The nose has many important functions as follows:

Prevents entry of dust particles. Otherwise, these particles could cause many problems for the smooth flow of gases in and out of the lungs. The mucus traps microorganisms, like bacteria and fungi and thus prevents them from entering the human body. Air breathed in is moisturized and warmed up on coming in contact with mucus. Sense of smell is provided

by sensory cells located in a pocket in the nasal chambers.

the

Pharynx

The nasal chambers open into a wide cavity called the pharynx. It is a common path for food and air. Prevents entry of food from into the wind pipe. The epiglottis is a covering over the wind pipe. If one talks during swallowing, the epiglottis is forced to open (to allow air to go outwards), and food enters the wind pipe, causing cough.

Larynx

It is made up of two cartilaginous chords. They are located at eh point of joining of the pharynx and trachea. It is also called the voice box, or Adam's apple. It is the part which rises and falls when one swallows food. It produces sound as air passes through the hollow in the middle.

Trachea

The trachea, or the wind pipe, emerges from below the larynx and goes down below through the neck. Walls of trachea are made up of C shaped cartilaginous rings, which provide strength to the trachea and keep it fully distended.

Bronchi

The trachea divides into two tubes called bronchi, which enter each lung respectively. The bronchi divides further into secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, and thenbronchioles. The bronchioles further divide into small air sacs called alveoli. The alveoli are small sacs of air so thin walled that their walls are just one cell thick. These provide an interface for the

diffusion of respiratory gases in and out of the blood stream, because the air sacs containing respiratory gases are in contact with the blood stream of blood vessels

Lungs

They are the main centers of respiration.

The one cell thick walls of alveoli, on one side of which is present the air breathed in and on the other side of which is present the blood stream of blood vessels, provides for the diffusion of respiratory gases in and out of the blood stream.

The gaseous exchange essential for life is the primary function parts of the respiratory system.

Six basic parts of respiratory system are:


Nose Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi Lungs

Lets us now see the diagram of the respiratory system

Parts and Functions of Respiratory System -i

Nose

Structure: Nose has a basic framework of bone and cartilage attached to muscle and the outer skin lined with mucous membrane. The internal structure of the nose is connected to the pharynx by two openings called internal nares.

Function: Air breathed in through the nose is warmed, moistened and filtered as it passes through the conchae, three bony projections which are lined with mucous membrane composed of cells which can trap particles of dust and germs. The filtered air flows through the internal nare into the pharynx.

Pharynx:

Structure: Pharynx is shaped like a funnel. First portion of pharynx is known as nasopharynx. Middle portion as oropharynx. Lowest portion as laryngopharynx. Function: Pharynx has three major functions; the passage of air and foo, forms a chamber for vocal sounds produced by larynx. Nasopharynx transports air and mucus downwards. It has an opening known as Eustachian tubes which equalizes air pressure between ears, nose and throat. Oropharynx receives air, food and fluid from the mouth. Laryngopharynx acts as a passageway for food, fluids and air.

Larynx:

Structure: The structure of ligaments, muscles and cartilage in the larynx control the tension in the cords. Epiglottis is a piece of elastic cartilage which is situated at the base of the tongue and is joined, while a flap of the cartilage can move freely. Function: Larynx produces vocal sounds when air is expelled over the vocal cords, two membranes vibrate to produce sound. When food is swallowed the larynx rises and this triggers the free flap of the epiglottis to move downwards, thereby creating a lid over the larynx and channelling the food into the esophagus and not into the respiratory tract.

Parts and Functions of Respiratory System -ii

Trachea:

Structure: Trachea or wind pipe is approximately 10 cm long and its walls are supported by incomplete cartilage rings which provide support but also flexibility. Inner walls of trachea are covered with mucosal lining. The trachea then divides into the left and right bronchus. Function: Trachea forms a passage for air to travel from larynx to lungs. The inner wall of trachea traps particles of dust and microorganisms which are moved upwardss and expelled from the respiratory tract.

Bronchi:

Structure: Trachea divides into left and right bronchus which are similar in structure to trachea and lead into left and right lung respectively. The bronchi then branch into secondary bronchi, then tertiary bronchi and the process of branching continues.

Bronchioles branch into respiratory bronchioles then into alevolar ducts and finally into the alveolar sacs and the alveoli. Function: Bronchi help in gaseous exchange within lungs.

Lungs:

Structure: Lungs are cone-shaped and extend from the collar bone to the surface of the diaphragm. The mid-line of each lung contains a region known as the hilus, the area through which blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves and primary bronchi enter and leave. Each lung is divided into lobes, three in the right lung and two in the left, within which there are smaller divisions known as lobules. Function: Once the air reaches the alveoli, exchange of gases occur. Diffusion of gases takes place across the thin capillary and alveolar walls. Oxygen is passed into the capillaries for supply to body tissues and carbon dioxide is passed from the capillaries to the alveoli to be expelled from the body during exhalation.

Introduction to respiratory system alveoli


Lungs are the organs of respiratory system involved in respiration, the process of gaseous exchange. Respiratory system alveolus forms the functional unit of the lungs. They tiny air sacs arising from the bronchioles. Each adult lung has about300-400 millions of alveoli. Alveolus has an average diameter of 200 to 300 microns. They have collagen and elastic fibers and are lined with layer of epithelial cells. The pores between alveoli are called pores of Kohn. The spaces between the alveoli of the lungs are made up of elastic connective tissue which plays a role in exhalation.

Types of Cells Present in Respiratory System Alveoli


Squamous alveolar cells: These cells form the structure of an alveolar wall. The capillaries are made up of squamous epithelial cells. These capillaries cover about 70% of the area. Capillaries help in diffusion of gases. Great alveolar cells: Great alveolar cells secrete surfactant continuously through the process called exocytosis. Surfactant This reduces the surface tension of water and allows the membrane to separate and increase exchange of gases. These cells repair the endothelium of the alveolus when gets damaged. Macrophage cells: Macrophage cells present in alveolus destroy foreign particle such as bacteria and plays a role in immune response.

Role of Respiratory System Alveoli in Gas Exchange

Alveoli of lungs are the site of gaseous exchange. Alveoli are extensively surrounded by network of blood vessels called capillaries. The exchange for oxygen in air for carbon dioxide in the blood occurs through the walls of alveolus of lungs. When a breath is taken through the nostrils, then the air pass through nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, main bronchi, smaller bronchial tubules, bronchioles, and finally into a microscopic air sac called an alveolus. It is here that external respiration occurs. The exchange of oxygen in air for carbon dioxide in the blood occurs in alveolus of lungs. This oxygenated or oxygen enriched blood then flows out through capillaries and feeds oxygen for the cells through circulatory system. Thus alveoli functions in gas exchange.

Diseases Associated with Respiratory System Alveoli


Some of diseases associated with respiratory system alveoli are Lung cancer, acute respiratory distress syndrome, infant respiratory distress syndrome, asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, cavitary pneumonia, etc.
1. Air forced through nose to clear respiratory tract. INCORRECT: You said exhalation ANSWER: sneezing 2. Spasm of diaphragm and spasmotic closure of the glottis- irritation to diaphragm or phrenic nerve. INCORRECT: You said glossitis ANSWER: hiccups 3. 4. Fill thoracic cavity. Tissue is porous and spongy- it floats. CORRECT: lungs Voice box. Triangular chamber below pharynx. "Adam's Apple". INCORRECT: You said pharynx ANSWER: larynx 5. Thinner walls of smooth muscle, lined with ciliated epithelium. Subdivision of bronci. At the end, alveolar duct and cluster of alveoli. INCORRECT: You said larynx ANSWER: bronchioles

5 Matching Questions
1. pleura CORRECT: a Thin, moist, slippery membrane that covers lungs. Double-walled sac. Space is pleural cavity- filled with pleural fluid to prevent friciton. 2. 3. coughing CORRECT: b Deep breath followed by forceful expulsion of air to clean lower respiratory tract. chemical factors of breathing control CORRECT: e Depends on the levels of CO2 in the blood. Chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to the amount of blood oxygen. 4. 5. cilia CORRECT: d Nose hairs, trap larger dirt particles. yawning CORRECT: c Deep prolonged breath that fills the lungs, increases oxygen within the blood.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

a Thin, moist, slippery membrane that covers lungs. Double-walled sac. Space is pleural cavity- filled with pleural fluid to prevent friciton. b Deep breath followed by forceful expulsion of air to clean lower respiratory tract. c Deep prolonged breath that fills the lungs, increases oxygen within the blood. d Nose hairs, trap larger dirt particles. e Depends on the levels of CO2 in the blood. Chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to the amount of blood oxygen.

5 Multiple Choice Questions


1. Composed of single layer of epithelial tissue. Inner surfaces covered with surfactant to keep from collapsing. Each surrounded by capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange takes place between these and capillaries. a. b. c. d. . CORRECT: alveoli pleura lungs apex Contains nasal septum, turbinates, and cilia. CORRECT: nasal cavity a. b. c. . alveoli nasal septum glottis Vocal cords within the larynx. INCORRECT: epiglottis a. b. c. . lungs CORRECT: glottis alveoli Larger and shorter (displaced by liver) and has three lobes. left lung a. b. c. coughing CORRECT: right lung lungs Respiratory center located in medulla oblongata (in the brain). Increase in CO2 and decrease in O2 in the blood will trigger respiratory center. . INCORRECT: pulmonary ventilation a. b. c. chemical factors of breathing control respiratory movement CORRECT: neural factors of breathing control

5 True/False Questions
1. phrenic nerve Stimulates the diaphragm. CORRECT: This is true. 2. functions of the respiratory system 1 inspiration and 1 expiration= 1 respiration. Normal adult= 14-20 respirations per minute. Increases with exercise, body temperature, and certain diseases. Age (newborn= 40-60 per minute). Sleep= respirations go down. Emotion can bring respirations up or down. INCORRECT: This is false, but you marked it true.

It should be functions of the respiratory system Respiration (external, internal, and cellular). Production of sound (vocal cords). Pulmonary venilation. Inspiration (intercostal muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward- this increases the volume of the lungs and the air rushes in).. 3. turbinates Cavities in the skull, ducts connect them to the nasal cavity, lined with mucous membrane to warm and moisten the air. Give resonance to voice. INCORRECT: This is false, but you marked it true. It should be turbinates Bones that protrude into the nasal cavity- they increase surface area for filtering dust and dirt particles by the mucous membrane.. 4. pulmonary venilation Voice box. Triangular chamber below pharynx. "Adam's Apple". CORRECT: This is false. It should be pulmonary venilation Breathing.. 5. trachea Lower part of lung. INCORRECT: This is false, but you marked it true. It should be trachea Windpipe. 4.5" long. Walls are alternate bands of membrane and c-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage to keep it open. Lined with ciliated mucous membrane. Coughing and expectoration gets rid of dust-laden mucous..

5 Written Questions
1. Frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid. INCORRECT: You said sinus ANSWER: types of sinuses 2. 3. 4. Nose hairs, trap larger dirt particles. CORRECT: cilia Contains nasal septum, turbinates, and cilia. CORRECT: nasal cavity Smaller (displaced by heart) and has two lobes. INCORRECT: You said right lungs ANSWER: left lung 5. Depends on the levels of CO2 in the blood. Chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to the amount of blood oxygen. INCORRECT: You said ariola ANSWER: chemical factors of breathing control

5 Matching Questions
1. bronchi CORRECT: a Similar to trachea with ciliated mucous membrane and hyaline cartilage. Lower end of trachea divides into right and left this. 2. alveoli CORRECT: b Composed of single layer of epithelial tissue. Inner surfaces covered with surfactant to keep from collapsing. Each surrounded by capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange takes place between these and capillaries. 3. 4. base CORRECT: d Lower part of lung. turbinates CORRECT: e Bones that protrude into the nasal cavity- they increase surface area for filtering dust and dirt particles by the mucous membrane.

5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

sneezing CORRECT: c Air forced through nose to clear respiratory tract.

a Similar to trachea with ciliated mucous membrane and hyaline cartilage. Lower end of trachea divides into right and left this. b Composed of single layer of epithelial tissue. Inner surfaces covered with surfactant to keep from collapsing. Each surrounded by capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange takes place between these and capillaries. c Air forced through nose to clear respiratory tract. d Lower part of lung. e Bones that protrude into the nasal cavity- they increase surface area for filtering dust and dirt particles by the mucous membrane.

5 Multiple Choice Questions


1. Larger and shorter (displaced by liver) and has three lobes. a. b. c. d. . coughing lungs CORRECT: right lung left lung Fill thoracic cavity. Tissue is porous and spongy- it floats. CORRECT: lungs a. b. c. cilia base pleura 1 inspiration and 1 expiration= 1 respiration. Normal adult= 14-20 respirations per minute. Increases with exercise, body temperature, and certain diseases. Age (newborn= 40-60 per minute). Sleep= respirations go down. Emotion can bring respirations up or down. . phrenic nerve a. b. c. right lung pharynx CORRECT: respiratory movement When food is swallowed, this closes over the opening to the larnyx, preventing food from entering the lungs. . lungs a. b. c. . cilia INCORRECT: glottis CORRECT: epiglottis Stimulates the diaphragm. pharynx a. b. c. CORRECT: phrenic nerve trachea hiccups

5 True/False Questions
1. apex Lower part of lung. CORRECT: This is false. It should be apex Upper part of lung.. 2. pulmonary venilation Breathing. INCORRECT: This is true, but you marked it false.

3.

yawning Deep prolonged breath that fills the lungs, increases oxygen within the blood. CORRECT: This is true.

4.

glottis When food is swallowed, this closes over the opening to the larnyx, preventing food from entering the lungs. INCORRECT: This is false, but you marked it true. It should be glottis Vocal cords within the larynx..

5.

functions of the respiratory system 1 inspiration and 1 expiration= 1 respiration. Normal adult= 14-20 respirations per minute. Increases with exercise, body temperature, and certain diseases. Age (newborn= 40-60 per minute). Sleep= respirations go down. Emotion can bring respirations up or down. INCORRECT: This is false, but you marked it true. It should be functions of the respiratory system Respiration (external, internal, and cellular). Production of sound (vocal cords). Pulmonary venilation. Inspiration (intercostal muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward- this increases the volume of the lungs and the air rushes in).

5 Written Questions
1. Breathing. INCORRECT: You gave no answer ANSWER: pulmonary venilation 2. Thinner walls of smooth muscle, lined with ciliated epithelium. Subdivision of bronci. At the end, alveolar duct and cluster of alveoli. INCORRECT: You said alveolar sac ANSWER: bronchioles 3. Lower part of lung. INCORRECT: You said diaphragm ANSWER: base 4. Cartilaginous plates (instead of c-shaped rings of trachea). INCORRECT: You said trachea ANSWER: bronchial tubes 5. When food is swallowed, this closes over the opening to the larnyx, preventing food from entering the lungs. CORRECT: epiglottis

5 Matching Questions
1. 2. right lung CORRECT: d Larger and shorter (displaced by liver) and has three lobes. trachea CORRECT: e Windpipe. 4.5" long. Walls are alternate bands of membrane and c-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage to keep it open. Lined with ciliated mucous membrane. Coughing and expectoration gets rid of dust-laden mucous. 3. 4. pharynx CORRECT: b Throat. Common passageway for air and food. 5" long. neural factors of breathing control CORRECT: c Respiratory center located in medulla oblongata (in the brain). Increase in CO2 and decrease in O2 in the blood will trigger respiratory center. 5. alveoli CORRECT: a Composed of single layer of epithelial tissue. Inner surfaces covered with surfactant to keep from collapsing. Each surrounded by capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange takes place between these and capillaries.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

a Composed of single layer of epithelial tissue. Inner surfaces covered with surfactant to keep from collapsing. Each surrounded by capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange takes place between these and capillaries. b Throat. Common passageway for air and food. 5" long. c Respiratory center located in medulla oblongata (in the brain). Increase in CO2 and decrease in O2 in the blood will trigger respiratory center. d Larger and shorter (displaced by liver) and has three lobes. e Windpipe. 4.5" long. Walls are alternate bands of membrane and c-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage to keep it open. Lined with ciliated mucous membrane. Coughing and expectoration gets rid of dust-laden mucous.

5 Multiple Choice Questions


1. Divides nasal cavities into right and left sides. a. b. c. d. . INCORRECT: sinuses nasal cavity base CORRECT: nasal septum Frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid. epiglottis a. b. c. . base a. b. c. . lungs CORRECT: cilia apex Deep prolonged breath that fills the lungs, increases oxygen within the blood. larynx a. b. c. . coughing CORRECT: yawning sneezing Air forced through nose to clear respiratory tract. yawning a. b. c. pharynx coughing CORRECT: sneezing sinuses turbinates CORRECT: types of sinuses Nose hairs, trap larger dirt particles.

5 True/False Questions
1. glottis When food is swallowed, this closes over the opening to the larnyx, preventing food from entering the lungs. CORRECT: This is false. It should be glottis Vocal cords within the larynx.. 2. hiccups Cavities in the skull, ducts connect them to the nasal cavity, lined with mucous membrane to warm and moisten the air. Give resonance to voice. INCORRECT: This is false, but you marked it true. It should be hiccups Spasm of diaphragm and spasmotic closure of the glottis- irritation to diaphragm or phrenic nerve.. 3. apex Upper part of lung.

CORRECT: This is true. 4. turbinates Bones that protrude into the nasal cavity- they increase surface area for filtering dust and dirt particles by the mucous membrane. CORRECT: This is true. 5. bronchi Similar to trachea with ciliated mucous membrane and hyaline cartilage. Lower end of trachea divides into right and left this. CORRECT: This is true. 1. Thin, moist, slippery membrane that covers lungs. Double-walled sac. Space is pleural cavity- filled with pleural fluid to prevent friciton. CORRECT: pleura 2. Windpipe. 4.5" long. Walls are alternate bands of membrane and c-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage to keep it open. Lined with ciliated mucous membrane. Coughing and expectoration gets rid of dust-laden mucous. CORRECT: trachea 3. Cartilaginous plates (instead of c-shaped rings of trachea). INCORRECT: You said epiglottis ANSWER: bronchial tubes 4. Throat. Common passageway for air and food. 5" long. INCORRECT: You said larynx ANSWER: pharynx 5. When food is swallowed, this closes over the opening to the larnyx, preventing food from entering the lungs. CORRECT: epiglottis

5 Matching Questions
1. functions of the respiratory system CORRECT: e Respiration (external, internal, and cellular). Production of sound (vocal cords). Pulmonary venilation. Inspiration (intercostal muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward- this increases the volume of the lungs and the air rushes in). 2. 3. 4. 5. hiccups CORRECT: a Spasm of diaphragm and spasmotic closure of the glottis- irritation to diaphragm or phrenic nerve. right lung CORRECT: c Larger and shorter (displaced by liver) and has three lobes. glottis CORRECT: d Vocal cords within the larynx. turbinates CORRECT: b Bones that protrude into the nasal cavity- they increase surface area for filtering dust and dirt particles by the mucous membrane. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a Spasm of diaphragm and spasmotic closure of the glottis- irritation to diaphragm or phrenic nerve. b Bones that protrude into the nasal cavity- they increase surface area for filtering dust and dirt particles by the mucous membrane. c Larger and shorter (displaced by liver) and has three lobes. d Vocal cords within the larynx. e Respiration (external, internal, and cellular). Production of sound (vocal cords). Pulmonary venilation. Inspiration (intercostal muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward- this increases the volume of the lungs and the air rushes in).

5 Multiple Choice Questions


1. Lower part of lung.

a. b. c. d. .

larynx CORRECT: base cilia apex Fill thoracic cavity. Tissue is porous and spongy- it floats.

CORRECT: lungs a. b. c. pleura sinuses larynx Thinner walls of smooth muscle, lined with ciliated epithelium. Subdivision of bronci. At the end, alveolar duct and cluster of alveoli.

bronchial tubes a. b. c. bronchi trachea CORRECT: bronchioles Stimulates the diaphragm.

INCORRECT: hiccups a. b. c. bronchioles CORRECT: phrenic nerve bronchi Frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid.

CORRECT: types of sinuses a. b. c. bronchioles sinuses turbinates

5 True/False Questions
1. apex Lower part of lung. CORRECT: This is false. It should be apex Upper part of lung.. 2. larynx Throat. Common passageway for air and food. 5" long. INCORRECT: This is false, but you marked it true. It should be larynx Voice box. Triangular chamber below pharynx. "Adam's Apple".. 3. coughing Deep breath followed by forceful expulsion of air to clean lower respiratory tract. CORRECT: This is true. 4. nasal septum Divides nasal cavities into right and left sides. INCORRECT: This is true, but you marked it false. 5. respiratory movement Larger and shorter (displaced by liver) and has three lobes. CORRECT: This is false. It should be respiratory movement 1 inspiration and 1 expiration= 1 respiration. Normal adult= 14-20 respirations per minute. Increases with exercise, body temperature, and certain diseases. Age (newborn= 40-60 per minute). Sleep= respirations go down. Emotion can bring respirations up or down.. 1. Throat. Common passageway for air and food. 5" long.

INCORRECT: You said phaynx ANSWER: pharynx 2. 3. 4. Larger and shorter (displaced by liver) and has three lobes. CORRECT: right lung Contains nasal septum, turbinates, and cilia. CORRECT: nasal cavity Windpipe. 4.5" long. Walls are alternate bands of membrane and c-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage to keep it open. Lined with ciliated mucous membrane. Coughing and expectoration gets rid of dust-laden mucous. CORRECT: trachea 5. Cavities in the skull, ducts connect them to the nasal cavity, lined with mucous membrane to warm and moisten the air. Give resonance to voice. INCORRECT: You said turbinates ANSWER: sinuses

5 Matching Questions
1. functions of the respiratory system INCORRECT: a 1 inspiration and 1 expiration= 1 respiration. Normal adult= 14-20 respirations per minute. Increases with exercise, body temperature, and certain diseases. Age (newborn= 40-60 per minute). Sleep= respirations go down. Emotion can bring respirations up or down. ANSWER: d Respiration (external, internal, and cellular). Production of sound (vocal cords). Pulmonary venilation. Inspiration (intercostal muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward- this increases the volume of the lungs and the air rushes in). 2. respiratory movement INCORRECT: d Respiration (external, internal, and cellular). Production of sound (vocal cords). Pulmonary venilation. Inspiration (intercostal muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward- this increases the volume of the lungs and the air rushes in). ANSWER: a 1 inspiration and 1 expiration= 1 respiration. Normal adult= 14-20 respirations per minute. Increases with exercise, body temperature, and certain diseases. Age (newborn= 40-60 per minute). Sleep= respirations go down. Emotion can bring respirations up or down. 3. 4. 5. sneezing CORRECT: b Air forced through nose to clear respiratory tract. yawning CORRECT: c Deep prolonged breath that fills the lungs, increases oxygen within the blood. epiglottis CORRECT: e When food is swallowed, this closes over the opening to the larnyx, preventing food from entering the lungs. 1. a 1 inspiration and 1 expiration= 1 respiration. Normal adult= 14-20 respirations per minute. Increases with exercise, body temperature, and certain diseases. Age (newborn= 40-60 per minute). Sleep= respirations go down. Emotion can bring respirations up or down. 2. 3. 4. b Air forced through nose to clear respiratory tract. c Deep prolonged breath that fills the lungs, increases oxygen within the blood. d Respiration (external, internal, and cellular). Production of sound (vocal cords). Pulmonary venilation. Inspiration (intercostal muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward- this increases the volume of the lungs and the air rushes in). 5. e When food is swallowed, this closes over the opening to the larnyx, preventing food from entering the lungs.

5 Multiple Choice Questions


1. Deep breath followed by forceful expulsion of air to clean lower respiratory tract. a. lungs

b. c. d. .

CORRECT: coughing INCORRECT: sneezing yawning Smaller (displaced by heart) and has two lobes.

CORRECT: left lung a. b. c. larynx lungs right lung Nose hairs, trap larger dirt particles.

base a. b. c. pleura CORRECT: cilia apex Voice box. Triangular chamber below pharynx. "Adam's Apple".

base a. b. c. CORRECT: larynx apex pharynx Breathing.

pharynx a. b. c. CORRECT: pulmonary venilation turbinates larynx

5 True/False Questions
1. hiccups Spasm of diaphragm and spasmotic closure of the glottis- irritation to diaphragm or phrenic nerve. CORRECT: This is true. 2. base Upper part of lung. CORRECT: This is false. It should be base Lower part of lung.. 3. bronchioles Similar to trachea with ciliated mucous membrane and hyaline cartilage. Lower end of trachea divides into right and left this. INCORRECT: This is false, but you marked it true. It should be bronchioles Thinner walls of smooth muscle, lined with ciliated epithelium. Subdivision of bronci. At the end, alveolar duct and cluster of alveoli.. 4. neural factors of breathing control Depends on the levels of CO2 in the blood. Chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to the amount of blood oxygen. INCORRECT: This is false, but you marked it true. It should be neural factors of breathing control Respiratory center located in medulla oblongata (in the brain). Increase in CO2 and decrease in O2 in the blood will trigger respiratory center.. 5. types of sinuses Frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid. CORRECT: This is true.