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MTB-MLE Training of Trainers L2 and L3 Acquisition: Principles and Strategies What every MLE teacher
MTB-MLE
Training of Trainers
L2 and L3 Acquisition: Principles
and Strategies
What every MLE teacher needs
to know
Paraluman R. Giron, Ed.D.
The Big Pictures, The Big Rocks
The Big Pictures,
The Big Rocks
What are the big rocks in your life? -family- loved ones, education, dreams, teaching, worthy
What are the big rocks in
your life?
-family- loved ones,
education, dreams, teaching,
worthy cause, doing things that
you love, health.
Reflection: What are the big rocks of language development? Group Discussion Abstraction & Implications
Reflection:
What are the big rocks of
language development?
Group Discussion
Abstraction & Implications
Language Development How do children acquire their first language (L1)? L2? L3?
Language Development
How do children acquire their
first language (L1)?
L2?
L3?
Same or Different? Language acquisition and Language learning
Same or Different?
Language acquisition
and
Language learning
How is L1 developed? How do babies learn to talk?
How is L1 developed?
How do babies learn
to talk?
How do parents and family member help babies talk?
How do parents and
family member help
babies talk?
The Language Acquisition
The Language
Acquisition
Language Acquisition At Home In school Contrived Natural receptive way way expressive
Language Acquisition
At Home
In school
Contrived
Natural
receptive
way
way
expressive
Moving from Receptive: Expressive: Semantic processing (listening to Syntactic processing (formation of words
Moving from
Receptive:
Expressive:
Semantic
processing
(listening to
Syntactic
processing
(formation of
words &
understand)
sentences to
communicate)
Stages of Language Development 1. The silent or preproduction period
Stages of Language
Development
1. The silent or preproduction
period
• Communicates with gestures, actions and formulaic speech • Often still in silent period •
• Communicates with
gestures, actions and
formulaic speech
• Often still in silent period
• Building receptive
vocabulary
2. Early Production Characteristics • Can say. ― I don't understand‖ • Can label and
2. Early Production Characteristics
• Can say. ― I don't understand‖
• Can label and categorize
information
3. Speech Emergence Characteristics
• Use language purposely
• Can produce complete sentence
4. Intermediate Fluency Characteristics • Can produce connected narrative • Can use reading and writing
4. Intermediate Fluency
Characteristics
• Can produce connected
narrative
• Can use reading and writing
within the context of a lesson
• Can write answers to higher – level questions • Can resolve conflicts verbally
• Can write answers to
higher – level questions
• Can resolve conflicts
verbally
Stage Characteristics Approximate Time Frame Teacher Prompt Preproduction The child 0 – 6 mos. •show
Stage
Characteristics
Approximate
Time Frame
Teacher
Prompt
Preproduction
The child
0 – 6 mos.
•show me….
•has minimal
comprehension
•does not
•circle the…
•where is…?
•who has…?
verbalize
•what is … ?
•nods “yes” and
“no”
•draws and
paints
Stage Characteristics Approximate Teacher Time Frame Prompt Early • Yes/No Production The child •has minimal
Stage
Characteristics
Approximate
Teacher
Time Frame
Prompt
Early
• Yes/No
Production
The child
•has minimal
comprehension
•Produces one-or-
two word response
•Participates using
key words and
familiar phrase
•Uses present-tense
verbs
6 months
to
1 year
• Either/Or
•One-or-two
word answer
• Lists
• Labels
Stage Characteristics Approximate Teacher Time Frame Prompt Speech The child 1 – 3 years •Why?
Stage
Characteristics
Approximate
Teacher
Time Frame
Prompt
Speech
The child
1 – 3 years
•Why?
Emergence
• has good
•How?
comprehension
•Explain…
• can produce simple
sentences
•Phrase or
short-
• makes grammar
sentence
and pronunciation
error
answer
• frequently
misunderstands jokes
Stage Characteristics Approximate Time Frame Teacher Prompt Intermediate The child 3 – 5 years •What
Stage
Characteristics
Approximate
Time Frame
Teacher
Prompt
Intermediate
The child
3 – 5 years
•What will
Fluency
•has excellent
comprehension
•Makes few
happen if……?
•Why do you
think….?
grammatical
errors
Stage Characteristics Approximate Teacher Time Frame Prompt Advanced The child 5 – 7 years •
Stage
Characteristics
Approximate
Teacher
Time Frame
Prompt
Advanced
The child
5 – 7 years
• Decide if….
Fluency
• Retell …….
• has a near-
• Make …….
native
level of
• Hypothesis
on
speech
Shifts in Classroom Structures for English Learners
Shifts in Classroom
Structures for English
Learners
We are moving from: and shifting to: Focus on product Teacher–controlled classrooms Pre-planned, rigid curricula
We are moving from:
and shifting to:
Focus on product
Teacher–controlled
classrooms
Pre-planned, rigid
curricula
Measuring only
performance
Praising correct answers
Focus on process
Student–involved
classrooms
Flexible, open–ended
curriculum
Gauging competence and
potential
Building on
approximation
Why do we learn language? What are the purposes of language?
Why do we learn
language?
What are the purposes of
language?
Halliday’s Language Functions Function Example Purpose Instrumental ―I want‖ To communicate desires &
Halliday’s Language Functions
Function
Example
Purpose
Instrumental
―I want‖
To communicate
desires & wishes
Regulatory
―Do as I
To control behavior
say‖
of others
Representation
―Me and
you‖
To manage the
social environment
Function Example Purpose Personal ―Here I come‖ To express self, feelings Heuristics ―Tell me To
Function
Example
Purpose
Personal
―Here I
come‖
To express self,
feelings
Heuristics
―Tell me
To ask about the
why‖
words
Imaginative
―Lets
pretend‖
To create new
words
Literacy functions that children demonstrate Function Example Purpose Exploratory How does it work To experiment
Literacy functions that children
demonstrate
Function
Example
Purpose
Exploratory
How does it work
To experiment with
print
Instructional
―Between you
and me‖
To share information
Personal
―For me‖
To claim ownership
Authenticating
―To legitimate‖
To act grown up
Transactional
“Between me and
Text”
To make meaning
Learning Trajectories links letters with Alphabet Letter Knowledge Estimated Root Word Vocabulary sounds links
Learning Trajectories
links letters with
Alphabet Letter
Knowledge
Estimated Root
Word Vocabulary
sounds
links letters with
words
Growth root
words–consist of
2400
one meaning unit
tall, fish, eat
words
3000
name more
1200
Ages 3–5
words
letters
words
1800
words
name familiar
letters
Print Knowledge
•explore books
•uses both language
600
Ages 1–5
• points to words; labels pictures
words
say letter
name
• helps tell stories, pretends to read
• recognize some familiar words
uses
Phonological
Oral Language
Comprehension
complex
awareness
grammar
takes turns
Retells,
specialized
beginning
syllables
vocabulary
sounds
uses new
shows
words
alliteration
words in
keeps to
interest
sentences
topic
Contributes
takes a turn
, ask
Ages 3–5
rhyming
Ages 3–5
questions
What is language proficiency? • The ability to hold a conversation in familiar face- to-face
What is language proficiency?
• The ability to hold a conversation in familiar face-
to-face situations. This is also called BICS – Basic
Interpersonal Communicative Skills
• Mostly developed in the Mother Tongue by age 5.
• Can be developed in school in a second language in
two years or so.
• The discrete forms of language – phonological
awareness, phonics, spelling, grammar,
punctuation etc. can be learned in school through
direct instruction or through a literacy-rich
environment, or both, but takes longer.
What is CALP – Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency? • This involves less frequent vocabulary, academic
What is CALP – Cognitive
Academic Language Proficiency?
• This involves less frequent vocabulary,
academic terms, and ability to produce
increasingly complex written language.
• English language learners require 5 or
more years to attain grade level
expectations in academic language.
• Lots of reading strengthens academic
language acquisition since much of
these terms are found in books.
How do we begin to develop second language oral proficiency? • Developmental Interdependence Hypothesis •
How do we begin to develop
second language oral proficiency?
• Developmental Interdependence
Hypothesis
• The level of development of the second
language competence is partly dependent
on the level of competence already
achieved in the first language. The more
developed the first language, the easier it
will be to develop the second language.
Thus, the MT subject is crucial to
developing the L2. Learning to use
language, to articulate one’s thoughts, ask
and answer questions, debate, explore etc.
in the L1 first will make it easier to develop
those skills in the L2 later.
Context Reduced/ Unfamiliar or new ideas Cognitively Undemanding Easy thinking Greeting someone Talking about the
Context Reduced/
Unfamiliar or new ideas
Cognitively Undemanding
Easy thinking
Greeting someone
Talking about the
weather today
Making their own books
based on their own
spoken or written stories
Reciting nursery rhymes
Listening to a story or poem
on cassette
Describing something seen
or heard on TV
Giving instructions about
making a painting
Use simple measuring
skills
Role play
Dramatic stories
Solution seeking
Explaining & justifying
Listening to the news
Reading a book and
discussing the contents
Relate new information in a
book to existing knowledge
Discuss ways that language is
written, styles and
conventions
Reflecting on feelings
Cognitively Demanding/
Difficult thinking
Context Embedded/
Familiar ideas
Why focus on Oral L2 before L2 Literacy? • Researchers say… …oral proficiency in the
Why focus on Oral L2 before
L2 Literacy?
• Researchers say…
…oral proficiency in the target
language (L2) [is] of critical
importance for the development
of second language reading
comprehension among 3 rd and 4th
grade students (Droop and Verhoeven,
2003)
Principles for planning for oral L2 • Very early stages: Emphasize listening and responding with
Principles for planning for oral L2
• Very early stages: Emphasize
listening and responding with
action (―activity listening‖). Make
the activities fun and non-
threatening—build confidence!
• During oral L2 phase, focus on
vocabulary and grammar…but do
not stress the teaching of grammar
rules through lots of drills.
From the researchers… • … children must hear the second language spoken in a rich
From the researchers…
• … children must hear the second
language spoken in a rich oral
language environment. And they
must have opportunities for talk,
and talk, and more talk in that
second language (Marie Clay,
1995).
For later oral L2
For later oral L2

1) Encourage talking (―everyday‖ language first in the L1 during MT subject, then in the L2) 2) Begin using the language for activities that require higher order thinkingapplication, analysis, evaluation, synthesis 3) Begin using the language for regular subjects (but provide plenty of help from the L1 to ensure comprehension)

General principles Learning a new language should be… • meaningful • relate to everyday activities
General principles
Learning a new language should be…
• meaningful
• relate to everyday activities
• use familiar everyday language
• be non-threatening, enjoyable, F u N !
―Total Physical Response (TPR) CABLA—what & why? TPR allows learners to acquire L2 vocabulary in
―Total Physical Response
(TPR) CABLA—what & why?
TPR allows learners to acquire L2
vocabulary in a manner similar to
the way that they learned their first
language. All language is
immediately understandable,
involves actions and allows
learners to pass through a silent
period whereby they build a
comprehension base before being
asked to speak (like we did learning
our L1).
To plan for early CABLA 1) List the most productive/important vocabulary items (naming words, describing
To plan for early CABLA
1) List the most productive/important
vocabulary items (naming words,
describing words, action words-roots
and affixes) that the students will
need to learn
2) Develop a plan for introducing these in
a gradual process that includes plenty
of review.
3) Put the plan into a clear, readable
format that is easy for teachers to
use.
4 basic kinds of CABLA CABLA Body CABLA Object CABLA Picture CABLA Story
4 basic kinds of CABLA
CABLA Body
CABLA Object
CABLA Picture
CABLA Story
CABLA (using the Body) Learners listen, observe and then follow the teachers’ commands that involve
CABLA (using the Body)
Learners listen, observe and then
follow the teachers’ commands
that involve general body
movement (Examples: stand up,
sit down, turn around, turn right,
turn left, lift up your arm, touch
your nose, etc.) At first, the
learners do not speak; later they
give commands to each other.
CABLA (using objects) Learners listen, observe and then follow commands relating to objects (example: pick
CABLA (using objects)
Learners listen, observe and then
follow commands relating to
objects (example: pick up the
mango; put down the mango; give
me the banana; take the orange
to Lee, show me the leaf, etc.)
Again, no oral response is
expected at first. Later, the
learners give the commands to
each other.
CABLA (using pictures) Learners look at a picture of a familiar scene while the teacher
CABLA (using pictures)
Learners look at a picture of a
familiar scene while the teacher
describes some of the activities
taking place in the picture. Teacher
asks the learners questions.
Example: ―Here is a girl getting
water from the well. Here is a
woman carrying firewood. Show me
the girl getting water from the
well.‖ Learners are not expected to
respond orally at first.
• CABLA-Story picture
• CABLA-Story picture
OR Teacher tells learners to draw objects— on chalkboard, in their books, slates, etc. (Draw
OR
Teacher tells learners to draw
objects— on chalkboard, in their
books, slates, etc. (Draw a tree;
draw a chicken under the tree;
draw a girl standing by the
chicken, etc.) Learners follow the
directions. Later, learners give
these same kinds of directions to
the teacher, to each other,
CABLA. Drawing a picture as instructed by the teacher
CABLA. Drawing a picture as
instructed by the teacher
CABLA (using stories) Teacher introduces new vocabulary that will be used in the story and
CABLA (using stories)
Teacher introduces new vocabulary
that will be used in the story and
learners become familiar with it.
T. tells the story while doing
actions. Teacher tells the story a
second time and volunteers act
out the story (without words) as
the teacher talks.
Later, the learners tell the story to
each other and act it out.
CABLA Re-telling a story
CABLA Re-telling a story
CABLA—Acting out a story
CABLA—Acting out a story
More CABLA—Acting out another story
More CABLA—Acting out another story
Other activities for more advanced oral 2LA Asking open-ended questions that require learners to describe,
Other activities for more
advanced oral 2LA
Asking open-ended questions that
require learners to describe,
explain, critique
)
Assignments that build awareness of
and confidence in different types
of oral language use (examples:
describing things, explaining
things, arguing a point, critiquing,
etc.)
IMPORTANT REMINDER… If the program is for children… Make sure their 2LA activities are… F
IMPORTANT REMINDER…
If the program is for children…
Make sure their 2LA activities are…
F U N !
!
!
!
Introducing Reading L2 • Begin with a transition primer, reviewing five letters a day from
Introducing Reading L2
• Begin with a transition primer, reviewing
five letters a day from the L1 until that
orthography is all reviewed, then adding
letters in the L2 that do not occur in the
L1 in individual lessons.
• Use the primer format of the Two Track
Method. And encourage creative writing
as in the story track component.
Adapted from Dennis Malone, adapted from Hudelson, Sarah. (1994) Literacy
development of second language children. in F. Genesee (Ed.), Educating
Second Language Children, 126-158. Cambridge: CUP, and from others.
General strategies • Create a print-rich environment – Charts with terms relating to subject content
General strategies
• Create a print-rich environment
– Charts with terms relating to subject content
– Charts for attendance, classroom chores
– Words of favorite chants or songs
– Labels on objects around the classroom (door,
window, desk, etc.)
– Student-generated stories
students to find a word, define it, find the
equivalent in the L2 etc.
• Encourage collaborative learning
• Include lots of reading in all the learners languages.

- Word walls in each language. During lessons write key words on the word wall for L1, L2 or L3. Every day refer to some of those words by asking

Reading • Read to the students daily; ask questions to make sure they understand the
Reading
• Read to the students daily; ask
questions to make sure they
understand the text.
• Write short, repetitious, familiar
songs on chart paper; point to the
words while singing the song with
the children.
• Provide a variety of short, simple
stories for the children to read.
Begin with words the children have
already learned orally
• Use a ―transfer primer‖ to teach the
L2 letters
Writing • Encourage students to draw a picture and label it; later encourage them to
Writing
• Encourage students to draw a picture
and label it; later encourage them to
write a short story about the picture.
• Encourage students to tell a short
story and then write it.
• Dictate short L2 sentences as
students practice writing, focusing on
correct grammar, spelling,
punctuation. Ask them to retell the
meaning in their L1.