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Modeling of Collective Intelligence

ADEL MEFTAH INBAYA


COGS-UNITEN

Table of Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 3 Swarm Intelligence ....................................................................................................................................... 3 Comparison of Swarm Intelligence and Collective Intelligence................................................................... 4 Fuzzy Modeling of Collective Intelligence Using Augmented Reality ........................................................ 5 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................................. 10 Reference .................................................................................................................................................... 11

Introduction Due to growing advancement in the complex adaptive systems, the artificial life, swarms, and simulated societies, the notion of collective intelligence is coming progressively to the forefront. The collective intelligence is described as the capability of a group to solve more problems much effectively than its individual member (Heylighen, 2006). The paper illustrates swarm intelligence in animals, comparison of swarm intelligence and collective intelligence in human as well as mathematical modeling of collective intelligence.

Swarm Intelligence The swarm intelligence is the emerging field of biologically stimulated artificial intelligence that is based on the behavior models of the social insects that are ants, bees, and wasps. Moreover, the swarm intelligence is the scientific theory about in what way multifaceted and sophisticated behaviors can emerge from social creature group (Bonabeau et al., 1999). However, in swarm intelligence, the emergent behavior in software agent is usually described as the behavior that is not recognized to any single agent but is an overall result of the agent group. Moreover, the concept of emergent behavior comes from the natural phenomenon of bee colony behavior where the collective harvesting of the nectar is optimized through the waggle movement of individual worker bees. These days, swarm intelligence refers to the bottom up design of distributed control systems that demonstrates types of intelligence at the global level as an outcome of local interaction among the number of unobtrusive entities (Bonabeau et al., 1999). The major fundamental concept Ant Colony Optimization Model (ACO) is inspired by the behaviors of real ants, where ants searching for food primarily investigate the area

surrounding their nest in the arbitrary way. The moment discovers a food source; it analyzes the quality and quantity of the food and holds some of it back to the nest and in the return journey, the ant deposits the chemical pheromone trail on the ground. The amount of pheromone deposited may depend on the quality and quantity of the food that leads other ants to the food source and this indirect interaction between the ants through the pheromone tracks enables them to find the shortest paths between their nest and food sources. Hence, this characteristic of real ant colonies is emerged in artificial ant colonies to solve combinatorial optimization problems (Bonabeau et al., 1999).

Comparison of Swarm Intelligence and Collective Intelligence The things are quite different in the world of social insects where the way that ants map out their environment and bees decide which flower grassland to exploit, termites build complex mounds, cleaning activities of ant colony, food forage activities in ant colony and bird-flock-flyaction may create an impression that they are quite intelligent creatures. However, the individual insects have extremely limited information-processing capabilities but the ant nest, beehive or termite mound as a collective group are capable to survive with very difficult situations and it is termed as swarm intelligence (Bonabeau et al., 1999). However, when group of people aligns their individual intelligences in share inquiries and interaction in spite of using their intelligence to weaken each other in the pursuit of individual status, are capable to generate collective intelligence. The group of people is capable to demonstrate collective intelligence if it can provide much better solutions of problems than those found by its individual members. For instance, in the football teams the tactics that emerge

during a soccer match are not controlled by the single individual but outcome from the compound sequences of communications (Heylighen, 2006).

Fuzzy Modeling of Collective Intelligence Using Augmented Reality Education is enhanced in the recent years by utilizing the new technologies and augmented reality is one of these innovative technologies. Several researchers have identified that learning does occur in the virtual environment by applying augmented reality to the context of education which conceptualizes how it could be predictable to increase collaboration between the instructor and students. Moreover, using the augmented reality, students can manipulate the objects that are not visible and learned tasks and skills through it (Heylighen, 2006). According to
Squire (2006), the simulation technologies permit students to understand the entire globe otherwise; it is unavailable in the experience of the real world. Moreover, the higher education institutions utilized emerging educational technologies like augmented reality to match the recent learning style of students. These learning styles include facility of multimedia and simulation based virtual settings, collective learning involving various experience with knowledge distributed across a group of students as well as with the individual. Furthermore, it has provided the balance among experimental learning, guided monitoring and collective intelligence as well as re-designing of learning experiences modified to students needs and preferences (Stathacopoulou et al., 1997).

Moreover, the fuzzy logic is the technique that helped to provide the human like approximate diagnose of the individuals collective knowledge and cognitive abilities. The neuro fuzzy model is utilized to evaluate students collective intelligence through different technologies. The neuro fuzzy modeling process has four stages, a fuzzifier, a fuzzy relational

system, a fuzzy aggregation network, and a defuzzifier respectively (Stathacopoulou et al., 1997). In order to understand the collective intelligence of the students using the augmented reality technology is taken place through 10 students comprised of five male and five-females. The utilization of the augmented reality technology as the learning tool was determined to be useful to find out the collective intelligence among group of students. However, the information tutoring system has different modules and interfaces for the communication that are teaching model, student model or discuss model and remote model that are demonstrated as follows: (Stathacopoulou et al., 1997). Teaching Model Initially, the teacher has described regarding the basic hardware components of the tutoring system to the students. Moreover, to demonstrate the more engaging way of learning, the three-dimensional representation of the hardware were combined with the tutoring system so that students were capable to understand the virtual information naturally (Deitel, 2009). Students and lecturer were gathered around the table on which the virtual tutoring system was overlaid and teacher has provided the augmented guidance to the students using labels. To focus on the three-dimensional representation of the symbols, the teacher has isolated the threedimensional models so that the students were more focused and capable to perform the fundamental collaboration on rotational, translational, and scaling operations (Squire, 2006). Moreover, the intelligent tutoring system collected the students knowledge in the numeric form and fuzzifier used it to simulate fuzziness in human cognition calculating the membership grade of the measured value x of students responses for every kind of information

such as answers , time and number of attempts (Bonabeau et al., 1999). Furthermore, depending on the kind of information k, the membership functions are demonstrated in different small, medium, and large shapes based on the estimation of teacher. However, a parameter m is utilized that permits the membership functions to be context sensitive and adapted to teachers personal view regarding students knowledge. Hence, the input pair (xk,mk) of the kth kind of information is changed into the triple [ySk(xk,mk), yMk(xk,mk), yLk(xk,mk)] for the small , medium and large terms correspondingly. The sigmoid function is used as a member function for the extreme terms like small and large while pseudotrapezoidal function is used for the middle term medium. The functions Ys, Ym and YL can be calculated as follows. Ys(x,m)=
))

YM(x,m)=

))

))

YL (x,m)=

))

The wci is the central position of the sigmoid function and wgi is the gradient of the sigmoid function where i= 1 to 4. However, the accurate shape of the member function is analyzed by the central position m* wci and the gradient wgi. Discuss Model It is identified that the collaboration among students is largely determined by the roles of students that led to improve the collective intelligence among them and the teacher was responsible for controlling the sequence of the demonstration utilizing the augmented reality interface environment (Bonabeau et al., 1999). Moreover, the topology of the university campus

was presented in an interactive three-dimensional form, students were provided with the marker cards, and each card demonstrating the different three-dimensional component of the university. The students were capable to determine the components of the puzzles collaboratively in the natural way by swapping the cards around and utilized all the types of communication that humans utilize when collaborating in the real world such as verbal communication and gesture (Dede, 2002). Hence, the augmented reality technology has provided the significant advantage of learning and improving the collective intelligence among the students as augmented reality offered students a selection of different communication techniques that is from natural collaboration among students to the software and hardware communication (Deitel, 2009). The fuzzy relational system is utilized to change the fuzzy measurement into the characteristics of the students like learning speed, knowledge level, and attention. However, the characteristic of the students are demonstrated in five terms predicates on the characteristics and the predicate modifiers such as rather and almost. For instance, for identifying learning speed of the students, slow, rather slow, normal, fast, and almost fast predicates are used. However, the fuzzy aggregation, network is utilized to determine the final fuzzy set of characteristics of students from different fuzzy outputs depending upon the kind of information made by fuzzy relational system. The preliminary decision to evaluate the characteristics of the students is demonstrated by the fuzzy subset related to the answers to the potential qualitative categorization of the characteristics of the students. Moreover, the union operator is used as it permits all the fuzzy outputs of the particular students characteristics to the final fuzzy set. The defuzzifier is utilized to make non-fuzzy evaluation of the characteristics of the students collective intelligence. A back-propagation network is trained for this task, simulating

the evaluation procedure of the teacher. The function of the network is taken as heuristic defuzzification process and the network is trained using the BPVS algorithm to simulate the teachers assessment process (Stathacopoulou et al., 1997). Remote Model In the multiuser virtual environment, students have utilized the augmented reality technology by means of omnipresent computing that the mobile wireless devices have submerged the students in the virtual resources, as they moved through the real world (Dede, 2002). Students in the distributed simulations has utilized the hand held devices with the global positioning system technology that has permitted the students to physically move all through the real world locations, collected the place dependent simulated field data, and collaboratively investigated the simulated scenarios. Hence, working as a team, students attempted to identify different symbols through the environment of the university and performed the desktop research utilizing the mini webs of data (Dede, 2002). The students have compiled their data using the peer to peer communication and combined their findings and this augmented reality based on educational simulation demonstrated the immersive collective leaning that increased their collective intelligence in thinking critically concerning to different scenarios (Kaufmann, 2003). The collective intelligence received from the students can be categorized into the visualization experience, collaboration and movement and usefulness in learning (Stathacopoulou et al., 1997). Several students were agreed that the utilization of the augmented reality was responsive and helpful with user-friendly interface as well as to enhance collective intelligence among students. It is observed that the tangible interface was quite effective and three-dimensional visualization through augmented reality was the better way of learning, as it

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was closer to the reality (Deitel, 2009). Moreover, students have improved the collective intelligence by manipulating the learning material through natural collaboration as well as navigating into new places in three dimensions to find from one position to another (Kaufmann, 2003). Moreover, it is also observed that the students were more effectual in learning that has improved their collective intelligence and problem solving skills when they have collectively sought, separated and amalgamated experiences rather than individually locating and gathering information from different sources.

Conclusion

It is concluded that the main idea of collective intelligence is that the group for instance individuals, insects, software agents or robots can be that much intelligent in a way that none of its individual member alone. Moreover, this intelligent behavior can come out from the synergy made by the interactions between individuals that pursue straightforward rules and modeling. It is identified that the students participated in the augmented reality simulation using the fuzzy modeling demonstrated that the students were devoted in the scenario and were motivated to find the solutions of the problems collectively. Moreover, the students moved almost effortlessly between the real and the virtual world as well as the information that was demonstrated to them on their handheld mobile devices, as they have composed their data from virtual scientific instruments and concerning with the teachers that helped to improve their collective intelligence.

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Reference
Bonabeau, E., Dorigo, M. & Theraulaz, G., 1999. Swarm intelligence: from natural to artificial systems. Oxford University Press. Dede, C., 2002. Vignettes about the future of learning technologies. In 2020 visions: Transforming education and training through advanced technologies. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce. Deitel, 2009. Internet and World Wide Web. Pearson Education. Heylighen, F., 2006. Collective Intelligence and its Implementation on the Web: algorithms to develop a collective mental map. Research Associate FWO. Kaufmann, H., 2003. Collaborative Augmented Reality in Education. Keynote speech at the Imagina. Squire, K.D., 2006. From content to context: Video games as designed experiences. Educational Researcher, 35(8), pp.19-29. Stathacopoulou, R., Magoulas, G.D. & Grigoriadou, M., 1997. Neural Network-based Fuzzy Modeling of the Student. Department of Informatics, University of Athens.