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THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING

The Effect of Calculator Use on High Stakes Testing in Math Students Michelle New, Jennifer Guest, Devin Biggers, and Sylvia Hodge University of South Carolina Aiken EDET 780 Group Research Project

THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING Abstract

This study will assess the effectiveness of 10th grade students using calculators in conjunction with a high stakes test, specifically the South Carolina High School Exit Exam, HSAP (High School Assessment Program). According to Hembree and Dessart, calculators can prove beneficial to overall problem solving when used in correlation with mathematics instruction. Similarly, Clark and Dion charge that prior to integration, both teachers and students should become trained in calculator technology. The presence and absence of various calculators (scientific and graphing) are analyzed within this study. We hope to see a correlation between calculator use and student scores. An extended question is to be answered as well: Does lack of familiarity with a specific calculator negate its ability to enhance student performance? Conclusions may be used to direct future classroom instruction and make appropriate accommodations to state assessments.

THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING

Introduction The fact that students tend to have higher failure rates in mathematics than in other academic disciplines, provides the impetus for research into methods to improve skills in mathematics calculations as well as confidence in the study of mathematics. While extensive research is available concerning methods of improvement, including the utilization of graphing calculators in higher level mathematics, further research is warranted. Since the 1980s, with the publication of A Nation at Risk, continuing through the era of No Child Left Behind, and still today, standardized testing in the area of mathematics, is a high-stakes reality in American schools. As a result of testing such as the PASS and the HSAP in South Carolina, as well as the looming Common Core testing that will be national in scope, the need for improvements in mathematical skills and abilities of American students has never been more pronounced. Many technological tools exist for assistance with computational skills, but none is more affordable and accessible than the graphing calculator.

Literature Review The notion that K-12 and university students struggle with mathematics has long been understood. The fact that students tend to have higher failure rates in mathematics than in other disciplines explains the need for research into ways of helping students be more successful in upper level mathematics. Significant research has been conducted concerning the usefulness of graphing calculators in mathematics education throughout the past three decades. The possibility that a simple tool such as a graphing calculator might improve understanding and successful

THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING computation on the part of the students provides the reasoning behind the need for research in this area. It may well be the case that technology does not help or hinder students in the memorization of facts, but technology does help students to develop conceptual understanding and problem-solving abilities, Tan cites Griffith (p. 76) (Tan, 2012, p. 1117). Similar to Griffith, Hembree & Dessart agree that the use of calculators in concert with traditional mathematics instruction apparently improves the average students basic skills with paper and pencil, both in working exercises and in problem solving. (as cited by Merriweather; p. 8) Brown also indicates this in his paper when he refers to the findings of another study that state, ...the use of calculators facilitated skill development and students had a more positive attitude toward mathematics than students who did not use calculators. (T. Brown; 2007; p. 109-10)

Tans research involved 65 pre-university students in Malaysia which were divided into a control and a treatment group for twelve weeks of instruction concerning probability. At the end of the study, the experimental (treatment) group, who had been taught utilizing graphing calculators, scored significantly higher than the control group on a posttest of the mathematics covered throughout the course of the experiment. In a study similar to Tans, Merriweather also used control and experimental groups. Merriweathers study, however, focused on changes in attitude of the students about math when they were given calculators to use. Merriweathers results found that the students...were able to solve problems with the graphing calculator that they were not able to solve before. (p.11) Her results also showed that ..76% of the control group thought that using the graphing calculator would make math fun... (p. 11). Most studies have found that when given the chance to use calculators in everyday math instruction, students seem to inherit not only a better attitude about math but also seem to improve their level of achievement.

THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING According to both Clark and Dion, it is crucial that calculators are integrated into math classrooms. Clark refers to calculators as valuable instructional tools. In Dions study, he concludes by saying that There is strong support among mathematics educators that calculators should be an integral part of the mathematics curriculum. (p. 433) Clark states, however, that students need to develop an understanding of the mathematical calculations of a topic before they are allowed to use a calculator. Clarks idea is supported by Brown when he states, ...teachers must first, acknowledge the significance of calculator use in students conceptual understanding of mathematics and second, actually employ the appropriate use of calculators in

mathematics instruction. (T. Brown 2007; p. 103) Before calculators can be integrated fully into everyday math instruction, both teachers and students need to have both training and experience with these technologies. One study revealed higher test scores for students of teachers who received training about how to use calculators when delivering mathematics content to students. (Wolfe; 2010; p4) Brown offers a fitting solution when he states, Therefore, teachers at all grade bands need to be informed of the latest research through meaningful professional development. (T. Brown, 2007; p. 111) In his research of the introduction of graphing calculators into three centralized examination systems in Denmark, Australia, and the International Baccalaureate, R. Brown found that only two out of the six mathematics examinations considered demonstrated any significant change in the types of skills assessed in conjunction with the introduction of the graphics calculator (R. Brown; 2010, p. 181). According to R. Brown, the graphing calculator is a revolutionary tool in mathematics education, but its introduction will not by itself lead to a change in the mathematics skills assessed in high stakes examinations (p. 200). Clearly further

THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING study is necessary which delves into the changes, or lack thereof, that widespread graphing calculator usage has brought about in terms of standardized testing. Currie, in a dissertation study conducted in Tennessee, found that students taught algebra with the use of graphing calculators achieved at higher levels than students taught without the use of graphing calculators (Currie, 2006, p. 7). An interesting finding of Curries work was that teachers attitude about when graphing calculators should be used did not determine whether they used the technology (p.8, citing NCLB study of 2002). This research

involved Algebra 1 and Algebra 1B students in a large urban high school in west Tennessee, and the results from the study showed that students of average ability, as determined by their placement of Algebra 1 in grade 9 or Algebra 1B in grade 10, who used graphing calculators in Algebra 1 did show a significant positive difference in level of achievement when compared to students who did not use graphing calculators , and the effect of teachers mastery orientation on their use of graphing calculators was found to be non-significant ( p. 74). The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), in 2000, stated that technology is an essential component in teaching mathematics; it influences the way mathematics is taught and learned (Ye, 2009, p. 134). Since mathematics is such an important academic field of study throughout the world, and since it is seen as a universal language, it is significant to realize that these issues are the focus of research worldwide. Ye argued that Chinese mathematics educators have struggled with whether to use graphing calculators in mathematics classrooms and wondered what the vital roles of graphing calculators are in student learning and teaching mathematics (p. 134). This study involved a collaborative project between Texas Instruments and Chinese teachers in secondary schools in Zhejiang Province, and the participants were 400 high school students. The Chinese teachers were hesitant to use the

THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING graphing calculators (TI 92+ for Algebra and Geometry). Yes conclusions included that the use of graphing calculators in secondary mathematics teaching is conducive to the reform of evaluation systems; especially in the way exams are constructed (p. 137). In a meta-analysis of the effects of calculators on student attitude and achievement, Ellington concluded that when calculators were included in instruction but not testing, the operational skills and the ability to select the appropriate problem-solving strategies improved for the participating students and when calculators were part of both testing and instruction,

the operational skills, computational skills, skills necessary to understand mathematical concepts, and problem-solving skills improved for participating students (Ellington, 2003, p. 455). Wolfe states in his articles that several studies have documented higher test scores for students who use calculators regularly during mathematics instruction. (Wolfe; 2010; p. 4) Merriweather also discusses the topic of test scores in her study. She states that, it has been shown that calculator use in the classroom increases test scores for low and average students. (Merriweather; 1999; p. 7) Ellington found no significant difference between scores of students who used scientific, compared with graphing calculators, when calculators were not allowed during testing. But when calculators were an integral part of the testing process, the results based on graphing calculator use were significantly better than the results of basic or scientific calculators in two areas: conceptual skills and problem-solving skills (Ellington, 2003, p. 457). Dions study included several references to SAT testing as well. According to her study, the Educational Testing Service conducted a survey on calculator use to discover how calculators were being used in the classroom. (Dion; 2001; 428) The results of this study showed that allowing calculators on the SAT Mathematics tests is a reflection of what is occurring in classrooms. (Dion; 2001; p.433 ) These results refer directly back to the discussions, studies, and findings on

THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING

implementing calculators in classroom instruction. These prove her statement that calculators are an integral part of the mathematics curriculum. Most standardized tests given today now include opportunities for the use of calculators. Calculator use on standardized tests, according to Brown, prompted teachers to provide opportunities for students to use calculators in classroom activities. (T. Brown 2007 p. 110) This would then give the students an advantage when it came time to take the test. In his review of The Didactical Challenge of Symbolic Calculators: Turning a Computational Device into a Mathematical Instrument, Fey stated that there has been a substantial amount of empirical research exploring the benefits and risks of encouraging/allowing students to use scientific and graphing calculators, with the consistent finding that thoughtful use of such tools tends to enhance student understanding and problemsolving ability, with no significant diminution of learning traditional computational skills (Fey, 2006, p. 350). This review emphasized that with the significance of technology, both graphing calculators and computers, in contemporary mathematics classrooms, teacher training institutions must adapt their programs to ensure that future K-12 mathematics educators are competent and comfortable in teaching with such technologies. Less research is available concerning the inequities among access to technology in mathematics, both in schools and in homes. Students from certain minority populations; both in terms of ethnicity and socioeconomic status, have less consistent access to graphing calculators and computer technology, and the achievement gap continues to be an issue as a result. Nzukis dissertation, which investigated African American students identity and agency in a mathematics and graphing calculator environment stated that the major gap in the research that attempted to examine equity issues with graphing calculators is that rather than being the

THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING

fundamental problem for investigation, the equity issues were often included as incidental and/or as an afterthought (p. 90). Nzukis study attempted to fill in this void by exploring African American students identities and agencies that emerge in action as they participate in social practices of learning mathematics mediated by graphing calculators (p. 90). The case study involved both quantitative and qualitative data collection, with study participants comprised of two high-achievers and three-low achievers from an intermediate Algebra III classroom at a lowSES high school. According to Nzuki, the highest level of using technology is in the role of technology as an extension of self. Here the technology provides an extension of students mathematical abilities and becomes an integral part of their mathematical repertoire (p. 144). Very few of the participants in the case study felt that they had achieved the level of technology as an extension of self. In conclusion, Nzuki argued that although there is a great deal of equity research in mathematics education that has been conducted to highlight disparities and limited persistence along racial lines, there has been a general lack of theorizing about race and racism and their relationships to mathematics learning and participation (p. 221-222). Clearly technologies such as graphing calculators are of significance in assisting students mastery of problem solving in mathematics. Graphing calculators simplify tedious calculations, and they allow students to contemplate higher level topics at earlier ages than in years past. Significant research has been conducted concerning the utility of the graphing calculator to mathematics students across the globe, yet further research is warranted. Where inequities exist concerning access to technologies such as the graphing calculator, students are placed at a disadvantage to their counterparts who use the technology every day. Although much

THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING

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data supporting the use of graphing calculators in mathematics education exists, more extensive and specific research is needed on this extremely important topic.

Hypotheses Hypotheses for Part 1: Null Hypothesis The presence of calculators will have no impact in general on student HSAP scores. Research Hypothesis The presence of calculators will have an impact in general on student HSAP scores.

Hypotheses for Part 2: Null Hypothesis The presence of calculators will have no impact on the HSAP scores of students with a GPA of 4.0 or higher. Research Hypothesis The presence of calculators will have an impact on the HSAP scores of students with a GPA of 4.0 or higher.

Hypotheses for Part 3: Null Hypothesis The presence of calculators will have no impact on the HSAP scores of students with a GPA of 3.0-3.9. Research Hypothesis The presence of calculators will have an impact on the HSAP scores of students with a GPA of 3.0-3.9.

THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING Hypotheses for Part 4: Null Hypothesis The presence of calculators will have no impact on the HSAP scores of students with a GPA of 2.9 or below. Research Hypothesis The presence of calculators will have an impact on the HSAP scores of students with a GPA of 2.9 or below.

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Research Problems Graphing and scientific calculators have been the subjects of much discussion for many years. Although criticized, calculators are one of the most recognized technologies for mathematics or science based classrooms. The ubiquitous nature of these tools present many important questions about their effectiveness and roles in the classroom. Therefore, three research questions are posed in this study: 1. Do calculators inhibit student performance in mathematics courses? 2. Are students dependent on calculators to perform mathematical assessments? 3. Which type of calculator (scientific or graphing) serves as the greatest asset to students on a high stakes test? To answer these questions, we will implement different approaches to collect essential data. We will conduct a survey for teachers, an assessment for students, and a pre- and post-assessment survey for the students in order to learn more about how the students are using the calculators. The aim of this study is to determine whether the presence of calculators during the math portion of the HSAP will impact student scores, and if so, which type of calculator proves most beneficial.

THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING Method A mixed methods approach is appropriate for this research. On the qualitative side, we will use a survey of students confidence and attitudes toward using graphing calculators with mathematics. As to quantitative, we will conduct a randomized comparative experiment involving treatment and control methods for each participant, within each part.

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Setting and Participants Participants will be selected from eight high schools in the Columbia area and include 10th grade students in their second semester. The study will include four parts. A total of 240 students will take part in this study. Part 1 involves 120 students of varying ability levels. For parts 2, 3,and 4 students are selected based on their cumulative GPAs. A roster of all students will be compiled. The initial group will be selected using a simple random sample design. The names will be alphabetized and the 120 individuals will be randomly selected using a random number generator from a TI-84+ calculator with a seed of 26. The remaining students will be categorized based on their GPAs, creating a stratified sample. The strata (the students GPAs) will be categorized as 4.0 and above, 3.0 - 3.9, and 2.9 and below. There will be 40 students selected to participate in each of the remaining three parts. Again, the names will be alphabetized. Once the remaining students are divided among the three parts, they will be selected for participation, again using a random number generator, but this time a seed of 77 will be chosen. We will change the seed after the first selection to ensure that the students placement on the alphabetic list is not the automatic means of selection. When all members of each group have been selected, the individuals within each part: 1, 2, 3, and 4, will be divided among three sub-groups.

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Design Each group will begin the study with a pre-test survey. This survey will consist of questions regarding students use and familiarity with calculators prior to the testing experience. Upon completion of the pre-test survey, a practice HSAP math test will be administered with no calculator offered. The results of the first HSAP practice test will be used to analyze the results and discuss implications of later practice HSAP scores. Within each part (1, 2, 3, and 4) the participants will be divided into one of three sub-groups. The sub-groups will distinguish between the type of calculator (or lack thereof) each student is allowed to use during the given trials. Sub-group membership will be randomly assigned. Each individual, regardless of part or sub-group, will take three HSAP practice math tests during the experiment: one with no calculator offered, one with a scientific calculator offered, and one with a graphing calculator offered (TI-84+). The first sub-group will not be allowed to use a calculator during the first trial, be given a scientific calculator during the second trial, and a graphing calculator during the third. Participants selected for the second sub-group will use the graphing calculator during the first trial, a scientific during the second, and no calculator will be offered during the third trial. Individuals chosen to be in the third sub-group will be given a scientific calculator during the first trial, the calculator will be taken away and no calculator will be permitted during the second trial, and a graphing calculator will be given during the third trial. The order in which the calculators are presented will vary to ensure better assessment of the enhancements the calculator provides for student scores. If all students progressed through the same patterns of use with the calculators, then the number of times the student had taken the test may be a lurking variable. To eliminate this possibility, order will be altered as stated above.

THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING The study will take place over the course of three days. We want to keep the trials together to better eliminate the possibility of outside factors impacting and skewing our data.

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This study will be conducted in various classrooms of the Swearingen building on the University of South Carolinas campus. Transportation to and from the study will be provided to participants as needed. The pre-test will be administered on the first day of the study; the practice tests will be graded and the results recorded. The three trials will take place on the second day of the study. Students will be allowed a fifteen minute break between the administration of the three practice HSAP tests. It should be noted that though the technology tools allowed will vary among members of the sub-groups, the test being taken during each trial will be consistent. By administering the same test to each participant during a given trial we will eliminate the possibility of a more difficult practice HSAP math test skewing our results. Additionally, students will not be informed of their scores on the pretests or any of the three trial tests during the study. This stipulation is put in place to ensure students enter into each test with the same base knowledge as they did the previous test. The three practice math HSAP tests will be graded and the scores will be recorded at the end of the second day. On the third day of the study, students will answer questions to a written survey describing their experiences and thoughts while taking each of the three tests. The students teachers will also be asked to participate in this portion of the study. Teachers will take part in a similar survey discussing the use of calculators in their respective classrooms during instruction Data Analysis Procedures Using an analysis of variance test (ANOVA), we should compare individuals within each sub-group on a pretest to ensure homogeneity and academic ability.

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Results of this study will be analyzed using a matched t-test. A matched pairs study will allow researchers to analyze a students results under various conditions. The results will be discussed with respect to part in the study (1, 2, 3, or 4) and sub-group within the part. Aspects of an ANOVA test will be used for the sub-groups. Sub-group results will be calculated by determining the measures of central tendency, central variance, and the five number summary for the statistics of each sub-group. We will use mean and median for the measures of central tendency, standard deviation for the measure of central variance, and the minimum, maximum, and quartile values for the five number summary (the median will have previously been established within the measures of center). The Null and Research hypotheses for each of the parts are as follows: Null Hypothesis The presence of calculators will have no impact on student HSAP scores. Research hypothesis The presence of calculators will have an impact on student HSAP scores. The stated null and research hypotheses are the basis for each part and will be tested in this manner within the study. If the null hypothesis is rejected, we will use results from the sub-group analysis to determine which calculator serves as the greater asset to students while taking the HSAP. Rejection or failure to reject the null hypothesis in any part of the study will not affect the results of another part. Each of the parts of this study is

independent from the others. Therefore, assumptions can be drawn as to the effectiveness of calculator use in high stakes testing within specific strata, for this study - cumulative GPA.

THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING Recommendations

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Limitations to this study may exist, including length of study, calculator knowledge, geographic constraints, and prior mathematics instruction. This study is designed to take place over the course of three days, with all practice HSAP math tests taken on the second day. The design is in place to eliminate outside factors from affecting student scores; however, taking three tests in one day may have effects as well. Students could become tired and disengaged by the end of the testing period. A second possible limitation would be a students familiarity with calculators prior to the study. To address this concern, we are including a pre-test survey to gather related information. Close proximity of subjects can make performing a study much simpler. When participants are located within a close area, they are more easily contacted and tested, but they may share certain demographic characteristics that affect the results. Finally, a students math background will play a huge part in his/her performance on a high stakes test. While a pre-test will be administered to determine homogeneity among individuals taking part in the study, various techniques, instructors, and methods of mathematics instruction may impact student scores.

Conclusion Null and research hypotheses were established for each part of this study. Rejection of the null hypothesis will imply that calculators do enhance student performance on high-stakes tests, specifically the South Carolina Exit Exam, HSAP. Upon rejection of the null hypothesis students scores can be further analyzed to determine whether more advanced calculator technology serves as an asset or hindrance. Failure to reject the null hypothesis at any part of the study will support the belief that calculators do not impact student scores on the test.

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The use of calculators in math classrooms and on various high stakes tests is an issue of great contention. Prior studies have addressed this topic approaching it from differing sides. Dissenting thoughts center on the loss of basic calculation skills, the lack of training with the tool, and the ultimate creation of a crutch. Those in favor of calculator use support thoughts of more efficient process, creation of more integrated curriculums, and elimination of basic computational mistakes which can nullify any success in process. It is the author's belief that calculators do enhance student learning when used in the correct manner. With pre-developed understanding of fundamental math concepts and proper instruction on the use of the tool, calculators may be able to grow student success. The data gathered from the surveys and assessments will definitely have significant implications about the use of calculators to increase learning outcomes. These surveys will help to determine teachers attitudes about calculators within the classroom. Analysis of the data should reveal if students are using calculators as a crutch to complete assignments, or if utilizing these technologies is actually beneficial for learning outcomes. This data is essential to allow instructors within mathematics realms to develop the most effective curriculum possible.

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References Brown, R. (2010). Does the introduction of the graphics calculator into system-wide examinations lead to change in the types of mathematical skills tested? Educational Studies in Mathematics, 181-203. Retrieved on May 15, 2012 from http://libcore.csd.sc.edu:50080/ebsco-web/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=35edc02e4018-4b0f-86c0-6bf4304e6643%40sessionmgr111&vid=2&hid=111

Brown, Todd E; Karp, Karen; Petrosko, Joseph M.; Jones, Jane; Beswick, Gloria; Howe, Carrie; Swaging, Kathy. (2007) School Science and Mathematics (107/3: 102). Retrieved on May 17, 2012 from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=DASORT&inPS=true&prodId=PROF&userGroupName=uscaiken&tabID=T002&searchId= R6&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&contentSegment=&searchType=AdvancedSearchF orm&currentPosition=2&contentSet=GALE%7CA162785533&&docId=GALE|A162785 533&docType=GALE&role=

Clark, Jeff. (2011) Mathematical Connections: A Study of Effective Calculator Use in Secondary Mathematics Classrooms. Retrieved on May 17, 2012 from http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch _SearchValue_0=ED519032&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED519032

THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING Currie, D. (2006). The effect of teachers attitudes and practices regarding graphing calculator use on the academic achievement of their students. Union University. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Retrieved on May 15, 2012 from

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http://search.proquest.com.pallas2.tcl.sc.edu/pqdtft/docview/304913413/136CBFE14032 0DE4D1E/13?accountid=13965

Dion, Gloria; Harvey, Anne; Carol Jackson, Patricia Klag, Gingham Liu, and Craig Wright. (2001) School Science and Mathematics (101/8:427-438). Retrieved on May 17, 2012 from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=DASORT&inPS=true&prodId=AONE&userGroupName=uscaiken&tabID=T002&searchId =R1&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&contentSegment=&searchType=BasicSearchFor m&currentPosition=1&contentSet=GALE%7CA81102647&&docId=GALE|A81102647 &docType=GALE&role=

Ellington, A. (2003). A Meta-Analysis of the effects of calculators on students' achievement and attitude levels in precollege mathematics classes. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 433-463. Retrieved on May 14, 2012 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/30034795

Fey, J. (2006). Connecting Technology and School Mathematics: a Review of "The Didactical Challenge of Symbolic Calculators: Turning a Computational Device into a Mathematical Instrument". Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 348-352. Retrieved on May 15, 2012 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/30034854

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Hembree, R., & Dessart, D. (1992) Research On Calculators In Mathematics Education. Calculators in Mathematics Education: 1992 Yearbook (pp 23-32). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Merriweather, Michelle; Tharp, Marcia L. (1999) The Effect of Insruction with Graphing Calculators on How General Mathematics Students Naturalistically Solve Algebraic Problems. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching (18/1: 7-22). Retrieved on May 17, 2012 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/delivery?sid=8c0d8472-0454-4dcd-85f195fdcd3b1182%40sessionmgr113&vid=5&hid=126

Nzuki, F. (2008). "I dont care for mathematics...mathematics dont care for me...": Investigating african american students identity and agency in a mathematics and graphing calculator environment at a low-SES school. Syracuse University. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Retrieved on May 15, 2012 from http://search/proquest.com.pallas2.tcl.sc.edu/pqdtft/docview/304372566/fulltextPDF/136 CBFE140320DE4D1E/2?accountid=13965

Tan, C. (2012). Effects of the application of graphing calculator on students' probability achievement. Computers & Education, 1117-1126. Retrieved on May 15, 2012 from http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0360131511003083/1-s2.0-S0360131511003083-

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main.pdf?_tid=1a383e65bbd2bc610cc35a3963e22ec5&acdnat=1337608554_e1ffbc033d 172a229bfc3c2173cab954

Wolfe, Edward W. (2010) What Impact Does Calculator Use Have On Test Results? Pearson: Test, Measurement & Research Service Bulletin (Issue 14). Retrieved on May 17, 2012 from https://www.pearsonassessments.com/NR/rdonlyres/8612144A-D4A5-4823-B64357B087B83F12/0/Bulletin_14.pdf

Ye. (2009). Integration of Graphing Calculator in Mathematics Teaching in China. Journal of Mathematics Education, 134-146. Retrieved on May 15, 2012 from http://educationforatoz.com/images/_9734_11_Lijun_Ye.pdf

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Appendix Teacher Survey Yes/No Questions 1. 2. Can students use scientific calculators to complete assignments in your class? Can students use graphing calculators to complete assignments in your class?

If you answered no for the above questions, you do not need to complete the rest of the survey.

3.

Do you train your students on how to use their calculators?

Multiple Choice 1. 2. Do your students use calculators daily, monthly, or weekly? (pick one) Do your students use calculators to complete homework, tests, in class work, state testing?

(pick multiple if needed)

Short Answer 1. 2. What mathematics class(es) do you teach? (Geometry, Trigonometry, etc.) What grade level do you teach?

Rate (1 [very little] 4 [very much]) 1. 2. What level of comfort do students have with calculators in your class? Do students use calculators as a crutch?

THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING 3. Do calculators inhibit performance on standardized tests like the PSAT, HSAP, SAT, or

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ACT?

THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING Student Pre-Survey Yes/No Questions 1. 2. Does your teacher allow calculators for assignments? Do you use calculators for simple algebraic equations?

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Rate (1 [very little] 4 [very much]) 1. 2. 3. How comfortable are you with using a scientific calculator? How comfortable are you with using a graphing calculator? How much do you depend on using a calculator for completing assignments?

THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING Sample Test Questions

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1.

What is the product of 572.33 multiplied by 122.32? a. b. c. d. 700.07 7,000.74 70,007,40 700,0704.05

2.

In a right triangle, use the Pythagorean theorem to find the length of the hypotenuse if a=4

and b=3. a. b. c. d. 3 4 5 6

3.

What is the quotient of 52.1 divided by 251.3? a. b. c. d. 0.21 2.07 20.73 207.32

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4.

Convert 5 feet to meters (1 foot = 0.3048 meters) a. b. c. d. 0.15 1.52 15.24 152.40

5.

What is the sum of the following numbers: (+123.45); (-293.32); (+900.21); (-52.75);

(+420.12)? a. b. c. d. 450.29 1097.71 -450.29 -1097.71

THE EFFECT OF CALCULATOR USE ON HIGH STAKES TESTING Student Post-Survey

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Rate (1 [very little] 4 [very much]) 1. 2. 3. 4. How difficult was this assessment? How useful was the calculator for this assessment? How comfortable are you about taking a real assessment at this same level of difficulty? Do you believe the calculator enabled you to perform the math tasks more easily?