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WILLY LOMANS AMBITION TOWARD HIS SON REFLECTED IN THE DEATH OF SALESMAN BY ARTHUR MILLER

By FIRDAUS RATNA PUTRA Reg. Number: 09.9202.6711;

SEKOLAH TINGGI ILMU BAHASA DAN SASTRA STIBA SATYA WIDYA SURABAYA

2012

WILLY LOMANS AMBITION TOWARD HIS SON REFLECTED IN THE DEATH OF SALESMAN BY ARTHUR MILLER

THESIS Presented in a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement For the Sarjana Degree in English

By: Firdaus Ratna Putra Reg. Number: 09.9202.6711;

SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE STIBA SATYA WIDYA SURABAYA

March, 2012

APPROVAL SHEET The Sarjana Degree on Literature Thesis by Firdaus Ratna Putra Reg. No (09.9202.6711) entitled : Willy Lomans Ambition Toward His Son that Reflected in The Death of Salesman by Arthur Miller has already been defended in front of board of examiners on Mar 2012

Board of Examiners

1. Dra. Chatarini SNL, M.Pd (Chairman)

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2. Prof. Dr. D. Wagiman A, MA (Member)

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3. Drs H. Hardono, M.Pd (Member )

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4. Drs. Andi Roestiono, M.Pd (Member)

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Acknowledged by The Dean of STIBA SATYA WIDYA

Dra. Chatarini Septi Ngundi Lestari, M. Pd

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Motto: There are only two ways to live your live. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle

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(Albert Einstein)

This thesis dedicated to: Everybody that I love and they love me,
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Especially his beloved father and (The Late) mother, His lovely wife and daughters
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Foremost, the writer thanks Allah SWT for the endless love, so that he was able to finish this final project. The writer would also like to thank Dra Chatarini Septi Ngundi Lestari, M. Pd, as the Dean of STIBA Satya Widya Surabaya and all the board of examination. This sincerest thanks go to Drs Andi Roestiono,M.Pd and Drs H. Hardono, M.Pd as the writers advisors, who have given continuous guidance and advice as well as encouragement, so he can complete his thesis. This appreciation also goes to all the lecturers at the English Department of STIBA Satya Widya Surabaya, who have given guidance and knowledge about English, namely Prof DR.H. Soekemi, MA, Prof DR.D. Wagiman A, MA, Prof DR. Abbas A. Badib, MA, MA, Dra. Hj. Masriatin, M.Pd, Drs Effendi, M.Pd, Dra Firda Djuita and many others lecturers who can not mentioned one by one. Moreover, these special thanks are extended to all staffs at STIBA Satya Widya Surabaya, who keep helping the writer to go on fighting in times of trouble. Last but not least, he also thanks his beloved wife, Dyna Ermanasari that always support him to complete this thesis as well as possible.

The Writer, FRP

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ABSTRACT FIRDAUS RATNA PUTRA, 2012, WILLY LOMANS AMBITION TOWARD HIS SON IN THE DEATH OF SALESMAN BY ARTHUR MILLER. ADVISOR: (1) Drs. ANDI ROESTIONO, M. Pd (II) Drs. H. HARDONO, M. Pd. This thesis concerns a study of Willy Lomans ambition toward his son in drama The Death of Salesman by Arthur Miller. The main problems of the study that the writer puts forward are: (1) What are kinds of need in Willy Lomans ambition toward his son and (2) How do the causes of conflict drive Willy Lomans ambition into the tragic life? In analyzing the problems, the writer uses qualitative approach since the data are taken in the form of words and sentences. Besides, the writer also uses content analysis technique since he wants to give descriptive information that gives clearer information to the problem. The writer takes the step of data collection is done by reading drama, quoting the evidence, and identifying the evidence. This data analysis are classifying the kinds of need in Willy Lomans ambition toward his son and describing the causes of conflict between Willy Loman and his son can drive him into the tragic life. After analyzing the writer has found some kinds of need in Willy Lomans ambition. They are four kinds of need are found in Willy Lomans ambition toward his son. They are: (1) The Physiological Need, (2) The Safety Needs, (3) The Love Need, and ((4) The Esteem Need. From four kinds of need that found, The Esteem Need is the most. Willy Loman becomes unrealistic and unreasonable with name of Esteem Need to reach his dream or ambition. In the second research, the writer also finding 4 causes of conflict in relationship between Willy Loman as parent and Biff as adult children, they are: (1) Communication and interaction style, (2) Habits and lifestyle choices, (3) Child rearing practices and values, and (4) Work habits and orientation. The main cause of conflict is occurred between Willy Loman and Biff as his son raises a high tension and depression because of bad interaction and communication which finally drive him into the tragic life. Willy Loman never try to build good communication with his son. Based on the research findings, the writer concludes that the main need in Willy Lomans ambition reflected in The Death of Salesman is The Esteem Need. The Esteem Need is everything according to Willy Loman. The Esteem Need can make person to be unrealistic or unreasonable. On the others side, bad communication and interaction between them can raise some conflicts and it tends to be unhelpful. It can drive them into the tragic life.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS MOTTO ........................................................................................ iii ...................................................................... iv

THESIS DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .. v ABSTRACT .. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I .. vii

INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background of the Problem .. 1.2. Statement of the Problem .. 1.3. Objective of the Problem .. 1.4. Significance of the Study .. 1.5. Scope and Limitation .. 1.6. Definition of Key Term ..

1 4 4 5 5 5 6 7 12 15 16 17 20 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 24

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE 2.1. Review of the Related Theories .. 2.1.1.Literary Appreciation .. 2.1.2.Psychological Approach .. 11 2.1.3.Definition of Ambition .. 12 2.1.4.Kind of Need in Ambition .. 2.1.5.Causes of Ambition .. 2.1.6.Causes of Conflict .. 2.2. Review of the Previous Study .. CHAPTER III METHOD AND PROCEDURES OF RESEARCH 3.1. Approach .. 3.2. Method of the Research .. 3.3. Technique of the Research .. 3.4. Source of Data .. 3.5. Procedures of Data Collection .. 22 3.5.1. Reading the Play .. 3.5.2. Quoting the Evidence .. 3.5.3. Identifying the Evidence .. 3.6. Procedures of Data Analysis .. 3.6.1. The Kinds of Need .. 3.6.2. The Causes of Conflict ..

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CHAPTER IV

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH FINDINGS

4.1.Data Analysis .. 25 4.1.1. The kinds of Need in Willy Lomans Ambition .. 26 4.1.2. How the cause of Conflict drives Willy Lomans Ambition .. 39 4.2.Research Findings .. 51 CHAPTER V BIBLIOGRAPH CONCLUSION .. 54 .. 56 .. 58

APPENDIX: SYNOPSIS

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

This chapter is divided into six points. First, the background of the problem that consists of any reason related to the study the writer wants to analyze. Second, the writer describes the statement of the problem based on the description about the background of the problem. The statement of the problem is based on the explanation of background of the problem. Third, the objective of problem that explains the writer aims or the objective in this study. Forth, the significance of the study explains some advantages of the writers research in this study. Fifth, the scope and limitation is used to specify the area of the analysis. Finally, there is the definition of the key term which talks about the definition of the variable term of the research

Background of the Problem Desire is quite a problem. The desire is for property, for position, for power, for comfort, for immortality, for continuity, the desire to be loved, to have something permanent, satisfying, lasting, something which is beyond time. Then based on those desires people have ambition as motivation. So ambition comes from a strong desire of someone. There are regular, moderate and strong of desire. The writer mentions a strong desire is what is called an ambition. Every person usually has ambition as motivation to get something what he wants in his life. He tends to improve his live. Ambition is motivation to achieve a

particular rank, fame, honor, superiority or power. It means that ambition can drive a person to reach his purposes by using any way. Generally, the purpose of person in this life is usually getting a better life. Thats a fact of life. According to the writer, in fact there is no wrong with ambition like this. Everyone is entitled to have ambitions for a better life, including the writer and the reader. It is like a father who wants his child to be successful and ambitious to realize this desire or an employee who wants to succeed in his career and ambitions to get promotion, and many other examples. No exception to the writer who wants to finish his education to earn a bachelor's degree of English literature and ambition to finish this thesis. Of course this is something that is sensible and reasonable. Due to the fact is that all people want a better life. Even this ambition can be said is a natural properties owned by every human being. Ambition is a strong motivation for someone to get something they want. Person even needs an ambition to make the motivation to achieve his dream goal. Although this ambition is natural or even necessary as a motivation for positive purposes, but not a few people who ends tragically because of ambition has mastered his senses. They can not distinguish the right and wrong way. There is only in their mind is what about the ambition that he can do anyhow to realize their desire. This is a fatal error of an ambition that would lead him to a tragic end. Therefore, according to the writer, that ambition can be a positive thing but it also can be a negative thing. The writer uses Arthur Millers play Death of a Salesman as source of data. This play is about Willy Lomans ambition who tries to reach his dream of which

life should be better, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. This play is a tragedy about the differences between a New York familys dreams and the reality of their lives. An immediate hit on Broadway, Arthur Millers play won a Pulitzer Prize in 1949. The play is a scathing critique of the American Dream and of the competitive, materialistic American society of the late 1940s. The storyline features Willy Loman, an average guy who attempts to hide his average ness and failures behind delusions of grandeur as he strives to be a "success." Live is driven by Willy Lomans ambition, so the conflicts that arise from this drama are derived from an Ambition The writer would like to analyze more detail about ambition. Those elements of ambition are appearing in the characters performance, especially Willy Loman as the leading character. This drama is very interesting to be discussed together because it contains a lot of well messages implied. The explicit meaning is a life reality about the story of a fathers figure who wants his family to live in sufficiency. He wants wife and child in happiness. He wants his son to achieve a good life by becoming a businessman. The implied meaning is how the cause of conflict in relationship between parents and adult children can drive a person's ambition into the tragic life. The objectives that underlie this study are because the writer wants to explore more detail about the meaning contained either the implicit or explicit. With the appreciation of this literary work will be able to tell more detail about life in artistic form, so his presence will give special meaning for the reader or the audience. This drama has presented the problem of life.

By coincidence, the writer also was an employee at foreign or private companies who started his career as a Salesman. So the title of this drama The Death of a Salesman is very interesting. The title of drama provokes the writer to read it completely then analyze this play as thesis material in literary appreciation.

Statement of Problem In this part the writer formulates two problems as seen in The Death of Salesman play. The writer wants to identify and analyze how far Willy Lomans ambition has the important rule to make this play life. Then the writer wants to solve and explain: What kinds of needs reflected in Willy Lomans ambition toward his son are found in The Death of Salesman? 1. How does the cause of conflict drive Willy Lomans ambition into the tragic life?

The Objective of Study I have some objectives by writing the thesis. They are as the following: To find out the kinds of needs in Willy Lomans ambition reflected in The Death of Salesman. To describe how the causes of conflict driving Willy Lomans ambition into the tragic life.

The Significance of Study The writer expects this study can bring some significance. First is to give a better understanding about drama The Death of Salesman, especially for the writer. The second, it is supposed to be useful for the readers, especially all students at STIBA Satya Widya Surabaya. The last the writer also hopes that this study can give contribution for all researchers. They can use it as the reference when using the same topic later.

The Scope and Limitation of Study The scope of this analysis is literary appreciation. The writer limits his study on the Willy Lomans ambition in the play entitled The Death of Salesman by Arthur Miller, published in 1957 by The Viking Press, Inc.

Key Terms To avoid misunderstanding about the study, the writer wish to present the definition key of terms: Ambition can be closely related to motivation, especially achievement motivation and could be defined with Maslows theory of Human Motivation (Saberi Roy at www.ezinearticles.com)

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

The writer divides this chapter into review of the related theories and review of the previous study. In review of the related theories, the writer reviews the theories that can support the analysis including psychology science besides literary appreciation inside. The writer intentionally combines literary appreciation and the psychological approach because both have a correlation that allows authors to analyze a literary work, including drama. In review of the previous study, the writer reviews the important role of study belongs to student of Semarang State University, English Departement, Language and Art Faculty (2007). The title is A Deconstructive Analysis of Mans Hegemony over Woman in Love in Oscar Wilde A Florentine Tragedy that is written by Teguh Tri Imana (Reg. Number: 2250402029)

Review of the Related Theories In this sub-chapter, the writer quotes many theories that have relevance to the problem. These theories consist of the theory of literary appreciation, setting, character, conflict, psychological approach, kinds of ambition and how ambition is caused. The writer reviews some theories related to the topic Willy Lomans ambition reflected in Arthur Millers play The Death of Salesman. In this chapter, beside

literary appreciation the writer uses the Theory of Human Motivation by A.H Maslow to describe what kinds of ambition. This theory is supported by statement other book reference. The writer peels it and outlines based on those theory. The writer notices that Willy Lomans ambition has the important role to make this play life, because there is correlation between ambition and conflict relating from the beginning.

Literary Appreciation Literary appreciation is the understanding and mastery of the form and content of a literary work. On the others Literary appreciation can be called as a method of learning about literature. Literary appreciation include some elements such as plot, theme, conflict, character, setting that will be useful for analyzing a literary work include drama. Prof Shirley Santiago de Jimenez in Literature for today young adult 8th Ed (Nilsen A & Donelson, 2009: 326) described Literary appreciation as follow: Gain pleasure and understanding for literature Understand the value and importance of literature Esteem, honor, respect, and/or admire the beauty and complexity of literature Therefore develop the personal attitudes, reading, watching, and listening skill, that are a necessary part of literary appreciation. In order to appreciate literature, people must experience pleasure and profit from their reading, viewing, and

listening. Finally the goal is a society who is actually stimulated to read for personal fulfillment and pleasure and understand that it is beneficial. The writer uses literary appreciation in searching literary works especially the play. Because by using this method the author can explore the story in the drama in order to get the answers to the objective of study. In this study, the writer decides to use intrinsic element of drama, they are character, and conflict. Theory of setting is used to know time and place. The theory of character is used to know the characters in that story. Then, the theory of conflict is used as a tool to analyze the conflict that appears in that play.

Character Character is one of the basic elements, which hole an important role literary works together with other elements such as plot, setting, conflict and theme. The character in literary is any person who takes a part in story, narrative, poem, or play; second character refers to the personality of person who appears in a story. According to Abrams (1988: 22) character is the person presented in dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the header as being endowed with moral, dispositional, emotional qualities that are expressed in the say, the dialogue, and by what they do the action. From the quotation above, a character can be found through an expression or emotion of what they say in a dialogue or what theyre doing in a narrative. Dialogue or narration can be found when reading a work of dramatic literature in the text book. That is the function of character to analyze a drama. Every character

in a drama or novel has their own characters. In this the writer just studies a character of Willy Loman. Thats ambition. Studying character is supposed to help the writer in identifying Willy Lomans Ambition that happens in drama. According Dr Anthony Fernando at www.anthonyfernando.com/the nature of character state that Character are the people in the story but natural character goes much deeper than that. For People nature tends to describe those quirks and motivation that come automatically if thinking is not exercised very well. As a result, a persons nature tends to be linked much closer to physical demands or wants. Hunger, lust, greed, power, love, hate, jealousy, and happiness all reflect human nature. They tend to be reactions to human stimuli and represent primarily emotional reaction. Conflict Conflict is one of the elements in literary appreciation which always exist in the story both novel and play. It can make the story in literary works more interesting. It also makes the story alive. So conflict is the essence of drama. Arthur Quiller Couch (1944) in literary critic describes in details the seven basic of conflict as follows: Man vs Self When the main character is the story has a problem with him or herself Person vs Person A conflict arising between two or more character of the same kind Mans vs Society

The two parties are: the protagonist and the society in which the protagonist included Man vs Nature A character against forces of nature Man vs Machine/Technology A character against man made entities which may possess intelligence Man vs Destiny A conflict between fate and freewill From some common examples of conflict above, it becomes a much easier process to identify a conflict undergone in the drama. As Joffe and Scott (1968:3) state that conflict is a backbone of a story, it is conflict that provides us with pattern and the directions. In this study, the writer identifies the conflict include Person vs person and Man vs Self. Studying conflict is supposed to help the writer in identifying Willy Lomans ambition which happens in drama.

Setting The writer uses the theory of setting which helps the readers to visualize the action of the work and add credibility to the character. Setting is vital on a story because the story is always related to the location and time. The writes argues that this theory is needed in this analysis, as the setting is especially used to know time and place of the story.

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According to Brown and Yule (1983: 38), setting is where the event is situated in place, time and in terms of physical relation of the interaction with respect to posture and gesture and facial expression. Quotation above becomes a theory for the writer to analyze the performance of a literary work by looking at this setting element inside. These settings are usually found in a narrative drama before the dialogue between two characters or more as an actor or actress in this story. Studying setting is supposed to help the writer to identify where and when the conflict happens.

Psychological Approach The writer uses a psychological approach to support the theory of literature the theory of literature that is needed to analyze the ambition in the play The Death of Salesman by Arthur Miller. Psychological approach is also one of science that can be used to study literary work. At www.wikibooks.org/wiki/Psychology/Introduction explain that psychology is commonly defined as the science of behaviour and mental processes. So ambition which is deal the character can be analyzed deeper using psychological approach The relationship between psychology and literature may seem intuitively obvious given the ways that fictional narratives can create the impression that one has direct access to a character's thoughts and deepest feelings

(http://www.enotes.com/american-history-literature-cc/psychology). It shows that that is ideal if these two theories of psychology and literature are combined to

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analyze a character that comes from a literary drama or novel, the main works of American literature Ambition is one of the characters. In studying ambition, the writer needs to apply the psychological approach to get a better analysis and to describe based on the Theory of Human Motivation by A.H Maslow.

Ambition Ambition is the most potent motivation of human heart (Harvey, 2010: 12) as the key term of ambition. A quotation above is clear enough to explain the definition of ambition itself. Ambition is something that comes from a human motivation or desire contained in the recesses of his heart. That is why every action must be based on the motives behind them. Someone will act on motives that he had. The definition of ambition is the primary reference for the writer to use the Theory of Human Motivation by AH Maslow to analyze more detail about the kinds of ambition and the causes of ambition.

Kinds of Need in Ambition Ambition According to Saberi Roy, The Author of The Psychology of Ambition, an article at (www.articleslash.net) that ambition can be explained with different psychological theories. On the one hand, ambition can be closely related to motivation, especially achievement motivation and can be defined with Maslows theory of Human Motivation that presented book Hierarchy of Need (A.H. Maslow, 1943: 370-396).

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Based on statement from the expert, Saberi Roy as the author of The Psychology Ambition in above, the writer applies Theory of Human Motivation (A.H. Maslow, 1943: 370-396) to show kinds of needs reflected in ambition. They are at least five need of person as the motivation. 1. The Physiological Needs
The needs that are usually taken as the starting point for motivation theory are the so-called physiological drives. It seems be fairly efficient indication of actual needs or lacks in the body. It should be pointed out again that any of the physiological needs and the consummator behavior involved with them serves as channels for all sorts of other needs as well. That is to say, the person who thinks he is hungry may actually be seeking more for comfort, or dependence, than for vitamins or proteins. Conversely, it is possible to satisfy the hunger need in part by other activities such as drinking water or smoking cigarettes. In other words, relatively isolable as these physiological needs are, they are not completely so.

2. The Safety Needs


It emerges a new set of needs, which we may categorize roughly as the safety needs. The healthy, normal, fortunate adult in our culture is largely satisfied in his safety needs. The peaceful, smoothly running, 'good' society ordinarily makes its members feel safe enough from wild animals, extremes of temperature, criminals, assault and murder, tyranny, etc. Otherwise the need for safety is seen as an active and dominant mobilizer of the organism's resources only in emergencies, e. g., war, disease, natural catastrophes, crime waves, societal disorganization, neurosis, brain injury, chronically bad situation

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3. The Love Needs


It emerges the love and affection and belongingness needs. He will hunger for affectionate relations with people in general, namely, for a place in his group, and he will strive with great intensity to achieve this goal. He will want to attain such a place more than anything else in the world and may even forget that once, when he was hungry, he sneered at love. In our society the thwarting of these needs is the most commonly found core in cases of maladjustment and more severe psychopathology. Love and affection, as well as their possible expression in sexuality, are generally looked upon with ambivalence and are customarily hedged about with many restrictions and inhibitions. One thing that must be stressed at this point is that love is not synonymous with sex. Sex may be studied as a purely physiological need

4. The Esteem Needs All people in our society (with a few pathological exceptions) have a need or desire for a stable, firmly based, (usually) high evaluation of themselves, for selfrespect, or self-esteem, and for the esteem of others. By firmly based self esteem, the writer mean that which is soundly based upon real capacity, achievement and respect from others. These needs may be classified into two subsidiary sets. These are: First, the desire for strength, for achievement, for adequacy, for confidence in the face of the world, and for independence and freedom. Secondly, the desire for reputation or prestige (defining it as respect or esteem from other people), recognition, attention, importance or appreciation.

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5. The Need for self actualization


It refers to the desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially. This tendency might be phrased as the desire to become more, to become everything that one is capable of becoming.

David Harvey in book entitled Rescuing Ambition (2010:12) also support above statement that Ambition is the most potent motivation of human heart. So it can be concluded that ambition comes from human motivation like in above.

The Causes of Ambition Sabery Roy at www.articleslash.net also adds the statement that ambition is complex process and trait in humans can be triggered by negative and positive factors as follow: 1. Negative Factor Factors that is caused by negative inputs like fear of failure in professional or social life, fear of rejection in personal life, feeling of inferiority, feelings of superiority, mental illness, jealousy, narcissism of love, lack of confidence. For example: they can be more ambitious because they want social status, they are afraid of rejection of failure in the personal and professional life. 2. Positive Factor Factors that is caused by positive inputs, like increased confidence, social and financial needs, creative urges, competitiveness, emotional and intellectual needs, life drive, survival instinct and personal motivation. For example: they can be more

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ambitious because they are in competitive situation, so that they need to be the winner. Those two distinct types of factor can make person to be ambitious. Thus ambition should be about using our energies of positive or negative factors in life. The healthy ambition is the one in which a good balance is attained between the negative and positive factors. So an extreme positive like excessive confidence or extreme negative such as heightened fear of rejection would only be a hindrance to one's ambitions and will ultimately be an obstacle to an individual's personal, social, professional and moral development.

The Cause of Conflict in relationship between parent and adult children The majority of parents experience some tension and aggravation with one another. But parent generally more bothered by the tension. The writer uses the study of relationship between parents and adult children to find how it became some cause of conflict which lead a tension including a parents ambition toward their adult children can drive a person who involved into the tragic life, especially in that family. At www.gerontologist.oxfordjournal.org, Clarke, Preston, Raksin, and Bengston describes the cause of conflict between parents and their children which may have grown up adulthood: Communication and interaction style Habits and lifestyle choices Child-rearing practices and values

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Politics, religion, and ideology Work habits and orientations Household standards or maintenance. According to Kira Birdith, the lead author of the study and researcher at the University of Michigan Institute for Social Resesearch (ISR) at

www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases in psychology category that the parent-child relationship is one of the longest lasting social ties human beings establish. According to Kira Birditt that tensions may be more upsetting to parents than to children because parents have more invested in the relationship. Parents are also concerned with launching their children into successful adulthood. For the parents whose relationship is strained, Dr. Kathryn Bechkam Mims of Albany State University at www.troubledwith.com/Relationships makes this recommendation as advice for repairing the relationship: Always tell the truth to one another Keep the lines of communication open Be sensitive to each others feeling Respect one another, despite differences in opinions Do not hold on to the past or judge their decisions. We all make mistakes, and each slip up provides an opportunity for a life lesson. Dont blame another. Blame is not always necessary and its often unhelpful Decide that your relationship with your child or parent is more important than most disagreement

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Those recommendations are believed works as a strategy for dealing with conflicts. Let the conflict like let it appear to make things worse tragedy

Review of The Previous Study The writer describes any related information about the similar previous study, which the approach is used by Teguh Tri Imana as student in English Department, Language and Art Faculty at Semarang State University with NIM : 22504020209 is deconstructive analysis. It is presented in dealing with play which she used. He collects some sentences from the script of her data. A source of data, she took play entitled Deconstructive Analysis of Mans Hegemony Over Woman In love In Oscar Wildes Drama A Florentine Tragedy which have the statement of problem, are: 1. Is there any hegemony in love in Oscar Wildes drama A Florentine Tragedy? 2. How does hegemony in love work in drama? 3. How does the deconstructive analysis can help to interpret hegemony in love in
the drama? To support his analysis, the theories are used are element of drama are plot, character, dialogue, theme, setting and Psychological Approach. According to him, psychological approach the easiest approach to analyze a persons character, where it is part of drama element. In this study, the writer needs to analyze a tragedy drama by using the theory of

elements of a drama and psychology. With the hope of both theories can help

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authors to analyze further and complete information about the existence of a meaning of love in the drama, hegemony in love with using deconstructive There are several differences between the previous study and the writer. In the study of previous study take some element of drama such as plot, setting, theme and character while the writer uses only the intrinsic element of play are character, conflict and setting. On the other side the writer focuses to analyze Ambition from psychology approach to explain the definition of ambition. Then apply the theory in accordance with these definitions in order to obtain a more complete picture of the kinds and cause while in the study of previous study, put hegemony beside love to be analyzed.
While the similarities between the previous study and the writer lies on the theory psychological. The last similarity in both of these studies is qualitative approach.

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CHAPTER III METHOD AND PROCEDURES OF RESEARCH

This chapter is divided into four parts; they are approach, source of data, procedures of data collection and procedures of data analysis. The first part is approach which discusses an approach is used in thesis. Second part is source of data that is The Death of Salesman by Arthur Miller. Third is procedures of data collection, the writer tells how to collect the data. Fifth is procedures of data analysis, the writer explains how to analyze the data. Approach The writer uses qualitative approach as her analysis. This approach is suitable for her analysis dealing with ambition that concerns with the play The Death of Salesman by Arthur Miller. The writer uses qualitative research because the data are used in the form of words and there are numbers at all. It is in line with the statement according to Bogdan and Biklen in Qualitative Research for Education (1992: 30-31): Qualitative research is descriptive, the data collected are in the form of word or pictures rather than number and they often contain quotations and try to describe what particular situation or view of the world like in the narrative form. Qualitative research tends to analyze the data inductively. They do not search but the data evidence to prove and disapprove hypothesis they use before the study. More over Bogdan and Taylor (1975: 4-5) explain Qualitative Methodologies as follow: Qualitative methodologies refer to research procedures which produce descriptive data: peoples own written or spoken words and observable behavior. Qualitative methods allow us to know people personally to see them as they are

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developing their own definition of the word. Finally, qualitative methods enable us to explore concepts whose essence is lost in other research approaches. From the description above it, clearly shows that qualitative methodologies are used to research procedure which data is appeared in the form written, spoken and observable behavior. The use of qualitative approach allows the writer to give an idea to analyze it more deeply. With some of the above quotation is so very correct when in appreciating this literature, the writer uses a qualitative rather than quantitative. On the other side qualitative approach is more suitable because the data is the play that contain of words than number.

Method of the Research The writer uses descriptive research as her method in order to get a better understanding of the problem. There are several types of studies that classified as descriptive research, such as (1) survey, (2) developmental studies, (3) follow-up studies, (4) documentary analyses, (5) trend analyses and (6) correlation study. From all of descriptive research in above, the writer prefers to analyze documentary to get the evidence. The writer believes that by using descriptive research could achieve one of the following objectives as Donald Ary (1990: 381) states that descriptive research studies are designed to obtain information concerning the current status of phenomena.

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Technique of the Research The writer uses content analysis as her technique in order to analyze the data. Content analysis is needed to get better understand by gathering and analyzing any message or information in the text or story. According to Borg and Gall (1983: 511) state: Content analysis is a research technique for the objective, systematic and qualitative descriptive of the manifest content of communication. Content analysis may used to ant form of communication which usually written such as textbook, composition, novel, newspaper, magazine. By analyzing the content that is in such literary works, authors may be easier to analyze any form of communication, which is usually written. This technique usually is applied by some researches to analyze written such as text book, novel, drama, magazine or newspaper.

Source of Data The writer takes the play entitled The Death of Salesman as source of data. It is a 1949 play written by American playwright Arthur Miller (1915-2005). He is popular figure in American theater including writing drama. The play runs for 745 performances, winning both the Tony Award and the Pulitzer Prize for drama. Procedures of Data Collection In collecting the data, the writer uses the following procedures: Reading the Play In this step, the writer reads the drama The Death of Salesman by Arthur Miller many times and carefully in order to know and understand the content of the

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story. By understanding all of the content of a drama from start to finish will be easier for the writer to master right about the theme and storyline. Quoting the Evidence In this step, the writer quotes part of the play that contains Willy Lomans ambition in The Death of Salesman by Arthur Miller. Quotation can be a dialogue of scene or narration of act, inside of textbook. Willy, with casual irritation: I said nothing happened. Didnt you hear me? Linda: Dont you feel well? Willy: Im tired to death. The flute has faded away. He sits on the bed beside her, a little numb. I couldnt make it. I just couldnt make it, Linda. Linda, very carefully, delicately: Where were you all day? You look terrible (Arthur Miller, 1949: 2). Identifying the Evidence In this step, the writer identifies kinds of need that reflected in Willy Lomans ambition toward his son and cause of conflict which drive him into tragic life in The Death of Salesman: Willy, with casual irritation: I said nothing happened. Didnt you hear me? Linda: Dont you feel well? Willy: Im tired to death. The flute has faded away. He sits on the bed beside her, a little numb. I couldnt make it. I just couldnt make it, Linda. Linda, very carefully, delicately: Where were you all day? You look terrible (Arthur Miller, 1949: 2). Procedures of Data Analysis Classifying the Kinds of Need in Willy Lomans Ambition Willy, with casual irritation: I said nothing happened. Didnt you hear me? Linda: Dont you feel well? Willy: Im tired to death. The flute has faded away. He sits on the bed beside her, a little numb. I couldnt make it. I just couldnt make it, Linda. Linda, very carefully, delicately: Where were you all day? You look terrible (Arthur Miller, 1949: 2).

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The writer classifies the kinds of need with showing on italic font. On the italic font, the writer classifies it as the Safety Need in Willy Lomans ambition. Finding out the kinds of needs reflected in Willy Lomans ambition toward his son in this step, the writer defines clearly what kinds of need in Willy Lomans ambition toward his son based on the Theory of Human Motivation by A.H. Maslow Willy, with casual irritation: I said nothing happened. Didnt you hear me? Linda: Dont you feel well? Willy: Im tired to death. The flute has faded away. He sits on the bed beside her, a little numb. I couldnt make it. I just couldnt make it, Linda. Linda, very carefully, delicately: Where were you all day? You look terrible (Arthur Miller, 1949: 2). In above evidence, the writer finds the safety need in Willy Lomans ambition. He feels his current position as salesman is no longer safe and comfortable. He feels that career is being threatened. He worries about the economic future that is only supported his job as salesman Showing how the cause of conflict in relationship between parents and adult children drive Willy Lomans ambition toward his son drive him into tragic life WILLY: Dont blame everything on me! I didnt flunk math you did! What pen? HAPPY: That was awful dumb, Biff, a pen like that is worth WILLY, seeing the pen for the first time: You took Olivers pen? BIFF, weakening: Dad, I just explained it to you. WILLY: You stole Bill Olivers fountain pen! BIFF: I didnt exactly steal it! Thats just what Ive been explaining to you!(Arthur Miller 1949: 72)

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From the above evidence shows the cause of conflict in communication and interaction style. Willy never supports Biff or giving him the advice to solve a problem. In the dialogue Willy does not care any Biffs explanation. Willy directly judge Biff stoles Olivers pen.

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CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH FINDINGS

In this chapter, the writer needs to analyze the data take from novel The Death of Salesman by Arthur Miller. This chapter is divided into two subchapters, namely data analysis and research findings. In data analysis, the writer presents what kinds of need that reflected in Willys ambition toward his son and how the cause of conflict regarding the relationship between parents and adult children drive his ambition into the tragic life. In the research findings, the writer presents the result of the analysis.

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Data Analysis In this part the writer want to discuss Willy Lomans Ambition toward his son

that happens in drama entitled The Death of Salesman by Arthur Miller. Willy Lomans Ambition toward his son is coming from the situation that happened to Willy Lomans live. It can be seen from Willy Lomans character himself, conflict that happened, theme and setting during reading that play. Here the writer finds kinds of needs in Willy Lomans ambition toward his son and how the cause of conflict drive Willy Lomans ambition toward his son into the tragic live. Here the writer answers two research questions in the first. It can be seen what Willy Loman expression in the following evidences below are:

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4.1.1. Kinds of Need in Willy Lomans Ambition The writer would like to answer the research problem in the first. The detail analysis can be seen below: From the right, Willy Loman, the salesman, enters, carrying two large sample cases. The flute plays on. He hears but is not aware of it. He is past sixty years of age, dressed quietly. Even as he crosses the stage to doorway of the house, his exhaustion is apparent. He unlocks the door, comes into the kitchen, and thankfully lets his burden down, feeling the soreness of his palms. A word sigh escapes his lips it might be Oh, boy, oh boy. He closes the door, the carries his cases out into the living room, through the draped kitchen doorway (Arthur Miller, 1949: 2) The above evidence tells about the condition of Willy Loman 60 years of age. He is not young anymore for salesman. He is required to do a lot of traveling from town to town to conduct sales activities. This age is a factor to affect the emotional and mental state. It seems from the evidence his exhaustion is apparent. He complains about the apparent fate of the son, Biff who has no good job according to Willy Lomans expectation. There is conflict it Willy Loman himself which makes him exhausted. Physically he is too old to work as salesman which is full of pressure to reach the target of sales. In above evidence, the writer finds the physiological need in Willy Lomans ambition. Willy Loman realizes that he is old enough to work as a salesman but the familys economy needs him to exist. The fact is his boy Biff who he expects much to have no good job yet. Linda: hearing Willy outside the bedroom, calls with some trepidation: Willy! Willy: Its all right. I came back Linda: Why? What happened? Slight pause. Did something happen, Willy? Willy: No, nothing happened. Linda: You didnt smash the car, did you Willy, with casual irritation: I said nothing happened. Didnt you hear me?

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Linda: Dont you feel well? Willy: Im tired to death. The flute has faded away. He sits on the bed beside her, a little numb. I couldnt make it. I just couldnt make it, Linda. Linda, very carefully, delicately: Where were you all day? You look terrible (Arthur Miller, 1949: 2). The above evidence tells the dialogue between Willy Loman and Linda, his wife. He wants to reveal his wife about his work. Im tired to death explaining a sale is not good at this time. It is clear by stating the phrase I just could not make it which mean there is no deal or sale. It is about Willy Lomans character that he is the exhausted man due to of his work pressure. In above evidence, the writer finds the safety need in Willy Lomans ambition. He feels his current position as salesman is no longer safe and comfortable. He feels that career is being threatened. He worries about the economic future that is only supported his job as salesman. Willy: No, I see everything. I came back ten miles an hour. It took me nearly four hours from Yonkers. Linda, resigned: Well, youll just have to take a rest, Willy, you cant continue this way. Willy: I just go back from Florida Linda: But you didnt rest your mind. Your mind is overactive, and the mind is what counts, dear. Willy: Ill start out in the morning. Maybe Ill feel better in the morning in the morning. She is taking off his shoes. These goddam arch supports are killing me Linda: Take an aspirin. Should I get you an aspirin? Itll soothe you Willy, with wonder: I was driving along, you understand? And I was fine. I was even observing the scenery, on the road every week of my life. But its so beautiful up there, Linda, the trees are so thick, and the sun is warm. I opened the windshield and just let the warm air bathe over me. And then all of sudden Im goin off the road! Im tellin ya, I absolutely forgot I was driving. If Idve gone the other way over the white line I mightve killed somebody. So I went on again. And five minutes later Im dreamin again, I nearly. He presses two fingers against his eyes. I have such thought, I have such strange thought (Arthur Miller, 1949: 3)

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The above evidence tells about Willy Loman and Linda, his wife. Linda is very worried about her husband Willy Loman who looks exhausted. Linda wants to be Willy not have the burden of his mind, with an abundance of ambition. Willy Loman wants to show that he is doing well, saying "it's beautiful up there, Linda." Willy Loman seems to indicate a person who loves his job for his family. There is conflict in himself make him over the mind. He is so obsessed to be good salesman and to much imagine being successful in many ways. He needs everybody love him include his wife. In above evidence, the writer finds the love need in Willy Lomans ambition. Willy Loman needs Linda, his wife always loves him as salesman. Willy Loman wants to be seen as successful salesman in the eyes of Linda, his wife. That way, Willy Loman hopes Linda is always at his side to support and love him. Willy: Figure it out. Work a lifetime to pay off a house. You finally own it, and there is no body to live in it Linda: Well, dear, Life is a casting off. Its always that way. Willy: No, no, some people some people accomplish something. Did Biff say anything after I went this morning? Linda: You shouldnt have criticized him, Willy, especially after he just got off the train. You must lose your temper with him. Willy: When the hell did I lose my temper? I simply asked him if he was making any money. Is that criticism? Linda: But, dear, how could he make any money? Willy, worried and angered: There is such undercurrent in him. He became a moody man. Did he apologize when I left him this morning? Linda: He was crestfallen, Willy. You know how he admires you. I think if he finds himself, then youll both be happier and not fight anymore. Willy: How can he find himself on a farm? Is that a life? Is that a life? A farmhand? In the beginning, when he was young, I thought, well, a young man, its good for him to tramp around, take a lot of different jobs. But its more than ten years and he has yet to make thirty-five dollars a week! Linda: He is finding himself, Willy Willy: Not finding yourself at the age of thirty four is disagree Linda: Shh! Willy: The trouble is hes lazy, goddammit!

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(Arthur Miller, 1949: 4) The above evidence tells about the future of his son Biff who has yet to get a good job. While the cost of living harder because they have to pay off the house. He is very angry and disappointed. He is unhappy to see that Biff still do not get a job, and think that Biff is just lazy. Willy can not accept the excuse as if Biff is still looking for a suitable job, as the phrase is said by Linda "He is finding Himself, Willy". Willy expects Biff to follow in his footsteps as a salesman or a worker in the business industry. Not as a farmer. This is about Willy Lomans nature character as man who gets easily tempered when seeing something unexpected. In above evidence, the writer finds the Esteem need in Willy Lomans ambition. Willy Loman does not like if Biff become a farmer. He thinks this work has no good prospect for Biffs future. In addition, work as farmer does not have an exclusive image in eyes of Willy Loman. There is only the esteem that over to Willys mind. On Willys last line, Biff and Happy raise themselves up in their beds, listening. Linda: Go down, try it. And be quiet. Willy, turning to Linda, guilty: Youre not worried about me, are you, sweetheart? Biff: Whats the matter? Happy: Listen! Linda: Youve got too much on the ball to worry about. Willy: Youre my foundation Linda: Just try to relax, dear. You make mountains out of mole hills Willy: I wont fight with him any more. If he wants to go back to Texas, let him go. Linda: Hell find his way Willy: Sure. Certain men just dont get started till later in life. Like Thomas Thomas Edison, I think. Or B. F. Goodrich. One of them was deaf. He starts for the bedroom doorway. Ill put my money on Biff. (Arthur Miller, 1949: 9)

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The above evidence tells Willy expects Biff immediately to get a good job. Willy wants Biff to get a good job immediately. Willy seems not like to see Biff just stay at home for all day long. Willy needs Biff to find a good job soon. This is about Willy Lomans nature character as man who gets easily tempered when seeing something unexpected. Willy sees no change in Biff after he comes back from a lot of traveling. In above evidence, the writer finds the Esteem need in Willy Lomans ambition. He wants Biff to become a successful man later. Willy Loman also hopes Biffs life does not depend on his parent. Biff: Whered you go this time, Dad? Gee we were lonesome for you Willy, pleased, puts a arm around each boy and they come down to the apron: Lonesome, heh? Biff: Missed you every minute Willy: Dont say? Tell you a secret, boys. Dont breathe it to a soul. Someday Ill have my own business, and Ill never have to leave home any more. Happy: Like Uncle Charley, heh? Willy: Bigger than Uncle Charley! Because Charley is not liked. Hes liked, but hes not well liked (Arthur Miller, 1949: 15) The above evidence tells about Willy Loman has dream that one day will have own business. Willy says Someday Ill have my own business, and Ill never have to leave home anymore and bigger than uncle Charley. There is conflict in Willy himself to much obsessed having a rich man. In above evidence, the writer finds the Esteem need in Willy Lomans ambition. He wants to be a success. He dreams of being rich one day, even richer than Charley. He is jealous with Charley who as matter of fact is better than Willy Loman. Willy Loman always needs to be superior to Charley. The esteem need as

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the superior man brings Willy Loman to have big ambition that finally opens disaster. Biff: Gee, Id love to go with you sometime, Dad Willy: Soon as summer comes. Happy: Promises? Willy: You and Hap and I, and Ill show you all the towns. America is full of beautiful towns and fine, upstanding people, And they know me, boys, they know me up and down New England. The finest people. And when I bring you fellas up, therell be open sesame for all of us, cause one things, boys: I have friends. I can park my car in any street in New England, and the cops protect it like their own. This summer, heh? BIFF and HAPPY, together: Yeah! You bet! WILLY: Well take our bathing suits. HAPPY: Well carry your bags, Pop! WILLY: Oh wont that be something! Me comin into Boston stores with you boys carryin my bags. Whats a sensation! Biff is prancing around, practicing passing the ball. Willy: You nervous, Biff, about the game? Biff: Not if youre gonna be there WILLY: What do they say about you in school, now that they made you captain? HAPPY: Theres a crowd of girls behind him everytime the classes change. Biff, taking Willys hand: This Saturday, Pop, this Saturday just for you, Im going to break through for a touchdown. HAPPY: Youre supposed to pass BIFF: Im takin one play for Pop. You watch me, Pop, and when I take off my helmet, that means Im breakin out. Then you watch me crash through that line! WILLY, kisses Biff: Oh, waitll I tell this in Boston (Arthur Miller, 1949: 16) The above evidence tells about Willy Loman wants to show a successful life in America with saying America is full of beautiful town and fine, upstanding people, and they know me, boys. They know me up and down New England. There is conflict in Willy Loman himself which hallucinate him as famous salesman whom every body knows him. In above evidence, the writer finds the Esteem need in Willy Lomans ambition. He wants his son to be obsessed with achieving success and wealth as a

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dream of many people in America. He says that he is known to many people there. He can not accept the fact that he is not rich man. He is obsessed and acts like a rich man. WILLY: Cause I get so lonely especially when business is bad and theres no body to talk to. I get feeling that Ill never sell anything again, that I wont make a living for you, or a business, business for the boys. He talks through The Womans subsiding laughter! The Woman primps at the mirror. There is so much I want to make for. The Woman: Me? You didnt make me, Willy. I picked you. WILLY, pleased: You picked me? THE WOMAN, who is quite proper looking, Willys age: I did, Ive been sitting at that desk watching all the salesmen go by, day in, day out. But youve got such sense of humor, and we do have such a good time together, dont we? WILLY: Sure, sure. He takes her in his arms. Why do you have to go now? THE WOMAN: Its two oclock WILLY: No, come on in! He pulls her THE WOMAN: my sistersll be scandalized. Whenll you be back? WILLY: Oh, two weeks about. Will you come up again? THE WOMAN: Sure thing. You do make me laugh. She squeezes his arms, kisses him. And I think youre wonderful man. WILLY: You picked me, heh? THE WOMAN: Sure. Because youre so sweet. And such a kidder. WILLY: Well, Ill see you next time Im in Boston. THE WOMAN: Ill put you right through to the buyers WILLY, slapping her bottom: Right. Well, bottoms up THE WOMAN, slaps him gently and laughs: You just kill me, Willy. He Suddenly grabs her and kisses her roughly. You kill me. And thanks for the stockings. I love a lot of stockings. Well, good night. WILLY: Good night. And keep your pores open! THE WOMAN: Oh, Willy! (Arthur Miller, 1949: 21) The above evidence tells about dialogue between Willy Loman in an affair with a woman. He admits to often feeling lonely when sales is not good. He needs someone who can make him happy when the trouble comes to his life. This is about Willy Lomans nature character. When he feels unhappy then he becomes lonely. Willy Loman. Willy is a person that is identified a short tempered, easily frustrated, and easily discouraged. His work as salesman builds Willy Lomans character to be

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ambitious man who lives with the dream and spirit but the fact his nature character contradicts it. In this above evidence, the writer finds the Love need in Willy Lomans ambition. He needs to be understood. He needs to be loved. He always wants to be person who accompany him and makes him happy or entertain him. He often feels lonely because his job as salesman which forces him to do a lot of business trip makes him far away from Linda, his wife. HAPPY: Pop, I told you Im gonna retire you for life WILLY: Youll retire me for life on seventy goddam dollars a week? And your women and your car, and your apartment, and youll retire me for life! Christs sake, I couldnt get past Yonkers today! Where are you guys, where are you? The woods are burning! I cant drive a car! (Arthur Miller, 1949: 23) The above evidence tells about Willy is angry with his son, Happy. How can he follow the advice to pension from his job as salesman, while the necessity of life is more and more like he said Youll retire me for life on seventy goddam dollars a week?. This is about Willy Lomans nature character who gets easily temper when he disagrees about his sons opinion. In above evidence, the writer finds the Safety need in Willy Lomans ambition. He does not want his family to be poor because he has to resign from job as salesman. According to Willy, money is the important tools to have safety in his life. WILLY: No! Boys! Boys! Young Biff and Happy appear. Listen to this. This is your Uncle Ben, a great man! Tell my boys, Ben! Ben: Why, boys, when I was seventeen I walked into the jungle, and when I was twenty one I walked out. He laughs. And by God I was rich. WILLY, to the boys: You see what I been talking about? The greatest things can happen!

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BEN, glancing at his watch: I have an appointment in Ketchikan Tuesday week. WILLY: No, Ben! Please tell about Dad. I want my boys to hear. I want them to know the kind of stock they spring from. All I remember is a man with a big beard, and I was in Mammas lap, sitting around a fire, and some kind of high music. BEN: His flute. He played the flute. WILLY: Sure, the flute, thats right! New music is heard, a high, rollicking tune. BEN: Father was a very great and a very wild-hearted man. We would start in Boston, and hed toss the whole family into the wagon, and then hed drive the team right across the country; through Ohio, and Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, and all the Western states. And wed stop in the towns and sell the flutes that hed made on the way. Great inventor, Father. With one gadget he made more in a week than a man like you could make in a lifetime. WILLY: Thats just the way Im bringing them up, Ben rugged, well liked, all around. (Arthur Miller, 1949: 28) The above evidence tells about Willy Loman wants to show a sense of success of hard work by saying Listen to this. This is your Uncle Ben, a great man! Tell my boys, Ben! This is about conflict in Willy Loman himself. His ambition toward his son drives him to steer his son follow him. Willy wish to Biff can be like Ben whom is categorized as great man according to him. Willy Lomans expectation is making Biff to be ambitious man who like working hard and getting successful. In above evidence, the writer finds the Esteem need in Willy Lomans ambition. For Willy, success and wealth are everything. Those can only be gained by working in the field of business rather than as a farmer. He wants all of his son follow him BIFF: Ill see Oliver tomorrow. Hap, if we could work that out LINDA: Maybe things are beginning to WILLY, wildly enthused, to Linda: Stop interrupting! To Biff: But dont wear sport jacket and slack when you see Oliver

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BIFF: No, Ill WILLY: A business suit, and talk as little as possible, and dont crack any jokes BIFF: He did like me. Always like me LINDA: He loved you! WILLY, to Linda: Will you stop! To Biff: Walk in very serious, you are not applying for boys job. Money is to pass. Be quiet, fine, and serious. Everybody likes a kidder, but nobody lends him money. HAPPY: Ill try to get some myself, Biff. Im sure I can WILLY: I see great things for you kids, I think your troubles are over. But remember, start big and youll end big. Ask for fifteen. How much gonna ask for? (Arthur Miller, 1949: 39) The above evidence tells about Willy Loman wants to steer Biff to apply for a job to Olivers company. He said clearly A business suit, and talk as little as possible, and dont crack any jokes which means the appearance of the show as successful man who deserves to get a good job. This is about conflict Willy Loman and Biff who have different orientation to realize a live. In above evidence, the writer finds the Esteem need in Willy Lomans ambition. According to Willy working as a salesman is a prestigious reputation for his family and his son. There is no best choice than a salesman or worker in business industry. Willy Loman thinks this profession can raise his family reputation. WILLY: Will you let me finish? To Biff: Tell him you were in business work in the West. Not farm work. BIFF: All right, Dad. LINDA: I think everything WILLY, going right through her speech: And dont undersell yourself. No less than fifteen thousand dollars. BIFF, unable to bear him: Okay. Good night, Mom. He starts moving (Arthur Miller, 1949: 41) The above evidence tells Willy asks Biff to pose as a worker in a business industry or salesman, and charging high salaries, as Willy Loman said : Tell him

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you were in business work in the West. Not farm work and dont undersell yourself. No less than fifteen thousand dollars This is conflict between Willy and Biff which Biff has no courage to fight him, because Willy is easily tempered when he does not want to follow him. In above evidence, the writer finds the Esteem need in Willy Lomans ambition. Willy Loman feels proud if Biff is accepted as a worker in business industry as salesman and earns a high salary. In order to reach the esteem need, Willy Loman forces Biff to lie that he has job experience as salesman. WILLY: You wait, kid, before its all over were gonna get a little place out in the country, and Ill raise some vegetables, a couple of chickens LINDA: Youll do it yet, dear Willy walks out of his jacket. Linda follows him WILLY: And theyll get married, and come for a weekend. Id need build a little guest house. Cause I got so many fine tools, and Id need would be a little lumber and some peace of mind. LINDA, joyfully: I sewed the lining WILLY: I could build two guest houses, so theyd both come. Did he decide how much hes going to ask Oliver for? (Arthur Miller, 1949: 45) The above evidence tells about Willys dream I could build two guest houses, so theyd both come. By saying things like that he hopes his son, Biff follow him as salesman. This is about Willy Lomans character who is obsessed to be rich man. In above evidence, the writer finds the Esteem need in Willy Lomans ambition. Having a luxury home is a dream in his life. It is a symbol of success and social status. WILLY: I tell ya Howard. The kids are all grown up, yknow. I dont need much any more. If I could take home well, sixty five dollars a week, I could swing it HOWARD: Yeah, but Willy, see I

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WILLY: I tell ya why, Howard. Speaking frankly and between the two of us, yknow Im just little tired. HOWARD: Oh, I could understand that, Willy. But youre a road man, Willy, and we do a road business. Weve only got a half dozen salesmen on the floor here (Arthur Miller, 1949: 50) The above evidence tells about dialogue between Willy Loman and his boss, Howard. Willy Loman proudly says If I can take home well, sixty five dollars a week, I could swing it He wants to show his son have a good job, easy for him earn a lot of money. This is about conflict in Willy Loman himself who is hallucinated as successful man as having successful son. He does not realize that Howard is his boss. In this above evidence, the writer finds the Esteem need in Willy Lomans ambition. Willy Loman does not like to be underestimated by other. He always wants to look good and to be seen as a successful man. BERNARD: Im staying with a friend whos got a court WILLY: Dont say. His own tennis court. Must be fine people, I bet BERNARD: They are, very nice. Dad tells me Biffs in town WILLY, with a big smile: Yeah, Biffs in. Working on a very big deal, Bernard BERNARD: Whats Biff doing? WILLY: Well, hes been doing very big things in the West. But he decided tp establish himself here. Very big. Were having dinner. Did I hear your wive had a boy? BERNARD: Thats right. Our second WILLY: Two boys! What do you know! BERNARD: What kind of a deal has Biff got WILLY: Well, Bill Oliver very big sporting goods man he wants Biff very badly. Called him in from the West. Long distance, carte blanche, special deliveries. Your friends have their own private tennis court? BERNARD: You still with the old firm, Willy? WILLY, after pause: Im Im overjoyed to see how you made the grade, Bernard, overjoyed. Its an encouraging thing to see a young man really really Looks very good for Biff very He break off (Arthur Miller, 1949: 59)

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The above evidence tells about Willy is very proud to tell the success of his son as he said Yeah, Biffs in. Working on a very big deal This is about Willy Lomans character that likes to lie to cover his lack. There is conflict in Willy Loman himself to be obsessed as great man or father. So he has a big ambition. In above evidence, the writer finds the Esteem need in Willy Lomans ambition. Willy Loman wants everyone to know his success including his son, so he gets the praise of it. He wants to be regarded as successful family. That is one of his ambitions. CHARLEY: I offered you a job. You can make fifty dollars a week. And I wont send you on the road. WILLY: Ive got a job CHARLEY: Without pay? What kind of job without pay? He rises. Now, look, kid, enough is enough. Im no genius but I know when Im being insulted. WILLY: Insulted! CHARLEY: Why dont you want to work for me? WILLY: Whats the matter with you? Ive got a job CHARLEY: Then whatre you walkin in here every week for? WILLY, gettingup: Well, if you dont want me to walk in here CHARLEY: I am offering you a job. WILLY: I dont want your goddam job! CHARLEY: When the hell are you going to grow up? WILLY, furiously: You big ignoramus, if you say that to me again Ill rap you one! I dont care how big you are! Hes ready to fight. Pause CHARLEY, kindly going to him: How much do you need, Willy? WILLY: Charley, Im strapped, Im strapped. I dont know what to do. I was just fired CHARLEY: Howard fired you? WILLY: That snotnose. Imagine that? I named him. I named him Howard. CHARLEY: Willy, whenre you gonna realize that them things dont mean anything? You named Howard, but you cant sell. And the funny things is that youre a salesman, and you dont know that. WILLY: Ive always tried to think otherwise, I guess. I always felt that if a man impressive, and well liked, that nothing CHARLEY: Why must everybody like you? Who liked J.P. Morgan? Was he impressive? In a Turkish bath hed look like a butcher. But with his pockets on he was very well liked. Now, listen, Willy, I know you dont like

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me, and nobody can say Im in love with you, but Ill give you a job because just for the hell of it, put it that way. Now what do you say? WILLY: I cant work for you, thats all, dont ask me why. CHARLEY, angered, takes out more bills: You been jealous of me all your life, you damned fool! Here, pay your insurance. He puts the money in Willys hand (Arthur Miller, 1949: 62) The above evidence tells about dialogue between Willy Loman and Bernard. He feels embarrassed to receive Bernards job offer. He does not want to be seen as subordinate to Charley. He wants to seem superior to Charley. He declines the job offer, saying You big ignoramus, if you say that to me again Ill rap you one! I dont care how big you are! . It shows Willys nature character who jealousy to charley. In above evidence, the writer finds the Esteem need in Willy Lomans ambition. He does not want to be regarded as loser. He does not want the pity by Charley. He wants to be more superior to Charley. According to Willy that self esteem is everything. He does anyhow to show that he is more superior to others.

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4.1.2. Causes of Conflict Driving Willy Lomans Ambition into the Tragic Life. The writer would like to answer the second problem in research. The detail analysis can be seen below: Happy: He just wants you to make good, thats all. I wanted to talk to you about Dad for a long time, biff. Somethings happening to him. He talks to himself. Biff: I noticed that this morning. But he always mumbled. Happy: But not so noticeable. It got so embarrassing. I sent him to Florida. And you know something? Most of the time hes talking to you. Biff: Whats he say about me? Happy: I cant make it out Biff: Whats he say about me? Happy: I think the fact that youre not settled, that youre still kind of up in the air Biff: Theres one or two other things depressing him, Happy (Arthur Miller, 1949: 9) The above evidence tells about Biffs comment. They give each others comment about Willy Loman, their father. Biff disagrees with that way of Willy Loman thinking about Biff that makes Willy Loman so depressed about Biff. This is about Willy Lomans nature character that is easily tempered. In above evidence shows the cause of conflict gets the habit and orientation. Biff has working habits and orientation which is different with the wishes of Willy Loman. Willy Loman wants Biff to work in business industry, but Biff is actually not interested this field. This is the crucial conflict between them. Happy: Youre a poet, you know that, Biff? Youre a youre an idealist! Biff: No, Im mixed up very bad. Maybe I ought to get married. Maybe I get into stuck into something. Maybe thats my trouble. Im like a boy. Im not married; Im not in business, I just Im like a boy. Are you content, Hap? Youre a success, arent you? Are you content? (Arthur Miller, 1949: 10)

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The above evidence tells about Biff feels frustrated with the wished of his father which is always supported by Happy. In Frustration he said Im mixed up very bad. Maybe I ought to get married. Maybe I get stuck into something. Maybe thats my trouble. Im like a boy. Im not married. Im not in business, Im just like a boy. This happens at home, when Willy comes back from traveling then he is always tempered looking Biff. Home makes Willy to be frustrated. So if Biff stays at home, he can make Willy more depressed. The condition happens every day. In above evidence shows the cause of conflict in habit and orientation. Biff is uncomfortable with the wished of his father, Willy Loman to be a salesman or worker in business industry, but Willy Loman always forces Biff to follow his expectation to be worker in business industry or salesman, not a farmer. WILLY: Even your grandfather was better than a carpenter. Pause. They watch him. You never grew up. Bernard does not whistle in the elevator, I assure you. BIFF, as though to laugh Willy out of it: Yeah, but you do, pop. WILLY: I never in my life whistled in an elevator! And who in the business world thinks Im crazy? BIFF: I didnt mean it like that, Pop. Now dont make a whole thing out of it, will ya? WILLY: Go back to the West! Be a carpenter, a cowboy, enjoy yourself! LINDA: I heard what he said! HAPPY, trying to quiet WILLY: Hey, Pop, come on now WILLY, continuing over Happys line: They laugh at me, heh? Go to Filenes, go to Slatterys, Boston. Call out the name Willy Loman and see what happens! Big shot! BIFF: All right, Pop WILLY: Big! BIFF: ALL right (Arthur Miller, 1949: 37) The above evidence tells about they are engaging argument. Willy always feels the greatest in many ways. This is about conflict in Willy Loman himself who is obsessed much to be a great man. That obsession makes him frustrated.

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In above evidence shows the cause of conflict in communication and interaction style. Willy Loman always wants to be heard and considered without regarding to Biffs explanation. Willy Loman as the parents should listen Biffs explanation first as the son to have good discussion. Willy Loman always monopolizes the conversation. It is indicated there is no good communication and interaction style. Biff, takes a breath, then reaches out and grasps Willys hand: Pal He is smiling bravely, and Willy is smiling too. I had an experience today. HAPPY: Terrific, Pop. WILLY: That so? What happened? BIFF, high, slightly alcoholic, above the earth: Im going to tell you everything from first to last. Its been a strange day. Silence. He looks around, composes himself as best he can, but his breath keeps breaking the rhythm of voice. I had to wait quite a while for him, and WILLY: Oliver? BIFF: Yeah, Oliver. All day, as a matter of cold fact. And a lot of instances facts, Pop, facts about my life came back to me. Who was it, Pop? Who ever said I was a salesman with Oliver? WILLY: Well, you were. BIFF: No, Dad, I was shipping clerk WILLY: But you were practically BIFF, with determination: Dad, I dont know who said it first, but I was never a salesman for Bill Oliver. WILLY: Whatre you talking about? BIFF: Lets hold on to the fact tonight, Pop. Were not going to get anywhere bullin around. I was a shipping clerk. WILLY, angrily: All right, now listen to me BIFF: Why you dont you let me finish? WILLY: Im not interested in stories about the past or any crap of that kind because the woods are burning, boys, you understand? Theres a big blaze going on all around. I was fired today (Arthur Miller, 1949: 69) The above evidence tells about Willy Loman asks Biff to lie with asking that is salesman, a job which he never does. There is conflict between Willy Loman and Biff (person versus person). Biff disagrees with Willy Lomans character that asks to Biff to lie. Biff does not like to follow this way. Biff does not like lies so he

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has great argument to Willy Loman. Conflict is arisen from this great argument. As salesman, Willy is accustomed to do anyhow to reach the target. There are different character happens in this evidence In above evidence, it shows the cause of conflict in child rearing practices and values. Willy wants Biff to lie while Biff himself feels uncomfortable with this lie. That is about live value. They have different value in the view of live. Willy sees live as the game, so he does anyhow to achieve it while Biff can not tolerate a lie. BIFF, at the table, now audible, holding up a gold fountain pen: so Im washed up with Oliver , you understand? Are you listening to me? WILLY, at a loss: Yeah, sure. If you hadnt flunked. BIFF: Flunked what? Whatre you talking about? WILLY: Dont blame everything on me! I didnt flunk math you did! What pen? HAPPY: That was awful dumb, Biff, a pen like that is worth WILLY, seeing the pen for the first time: You took Olivers pen? BIFF, weakening: Dad, I just explained it to you. WILLY: You stole Bill Olivers fountain pen! BIFF: I didnt exactly steal it! Thats just what Ive been explaining to you! HAPPY: He had it in his hand and just then Oliver walked in, so he got nervous and stuck it in his pocket! WILLY: My god, Biff! BIFF: I never intended to do it, Dad! (Arthur Miller, 1949: 72) The above evidence tells they involved a great argument about event which Biff accidentally brings Olivers ballpoint when applying for a job to Oliver. Willy does not want to hear Biff explanation. He accuses him of being a thief. This is about Willy Lomans nature character that is easily tempered. In above evidence shows the cause of conflict in communication and interaction style. The good communication is talking and listen each other. Biff in this case is not given time to talks and explains things to his father, Willy Loman.

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Willy Loman positions himself as person of the most eligible to be heard and followed. WILLY: No, youre no good, youre no good for anything. BIFF: I am, Dad, Ill something else, you understand? Now dont worry about anything He holds up Willys face: Talk to me, Dad. OPERATOR: Mr. Loman does not answer. Shall I page him? WILLY, attempting to stand, as though to rush and silence the Operator: No, no, no! BIFF, desperately, standing over Willy: Pop, listen! Listen to me! Im telling you something good. Oliver talked to his partner about the Florida idea. You listening? He- he talked to his partner, and he came to me Im going to be all right, you hear? Dad, listen to me, he said it was just a question of the amount! WILLY: Then you got it? HAPPY: Hes gonna be terrific, Pop! WILLY, trying to stand: Then you go it, havent you? You got it! You got it! BIFF, agonized, holds Willy down: No, no. Look. Pop. Im supposed to have lunch with them tomorrow. Im just telling you this so youll know that I can still make an impression, Pop. And Ill make good somewhere, but I cant go tomorrow, see? (Arthur Miller, 1949: 73) The above evidence tells about Biff needs his father to understand his problem, not only forces him to follow Willy Lomans expectation. Willy Loman always forces his mind without listening Biffs expectation. Biff as the son needs more support and advice, not a charge. In above evidence shows the cause of conflict in communication and interaction style. Willy Loman always blames Biff in all things without need to know the reason how he does. This is about Willy Lomans nature character that is easily tempered and blames others without knowing the reason. WILLY: Dont you want to be anything? BIFF: Pop, how can I go back? WILLY: You dont want to be anything, is that what behind it?

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BIFF, now angry at Willy for not crediting his sympathy: Dont take it that way! You think it was easy walking into that office after what Id done to him? A team of horses couldnt have dragged me back to Bill Oliver! WILLY: Then whyd you go? BIFF: Why did I go? Why did I go! Look at you! Look at whats become of you! (Arthur Miller, 1949: 73) The above evidence tells about Biff now does not want to follow Willys direction. Biff angrily says Why did I go? Why did I go! Look at you! Look at whats become of you! Biff see the fact that Willy not see himself, while need other to follow him. This is about conflict between Willy Loman and Biff ( person vs person ). Biff does not want to be steered anymore to fulfill Willys character that has conflict in him. Willy is to obsessed and need Biff to be a Salesman. In above evidence, it shows the cause of conflict in communication and Interaction style. He just wants him to be heard, regardless of how Biff feels. This communication and interaction style is unhelpful to solve the conflict. It can make this conflict to be complicated and crucial. BIFF: somebody in there? WILLY: That was next door. The woman laugh offstage BIFF: Somebody got in your bathroom! WILLY: No, its the next room, theres a party THE WOMAM, enters, laughing. She lisps this: Can I come in? Theres something in the bathtub, Willy, and its moving! Willy looks at Biff, who is staring open-mouthed and horrified at The Woman. WILLY: Ah you better go back to your room. They must be finished painting by now. Theyre painting her room so I let her take a shower here. Go back, go back He pushes her. THE WOMAN, resisting: But Ive got to get dressed, Willy, I cant WILLY: Get out of here! Go back, go back Suddenly striving for the ordinary: This is Miss Francis, Biff, shes a buyer. Theyre painting her room. Go back, Miss Francis, go back THE WOMAN: But my clotes, I cant go out naked in the hall!, Willy pushing her offstage: Get outa here! Go back, go back! Biff slowly sits down on his suitcase as the argument continues offstage.

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THE WOMAN: Wheres my stockings? You promised me stockings, Willy! WILLY: I have no stocking here! THE WOMAM: You had two boxes of size nine sheers for me, and I want them! WILLY: Here, for Gods sake, will you get outa here! THE WOMAN, enters holding a box of stockings: I just hope theres no body in the hall. Thats all I hope. To Biff: Are you football or baseball? BIFF: Football THE WOMAN, angry, humiliated: Thats me too. Gnight. She snatches her clothes from Willy, and walks out (Arthur Miller, 1949: 78) The above evidence tells about Willy Lomans affair who accidentally seen Biff. Biff finds Willys affair at home. Biff finally realizes that his father, Willy is a man that full of lie. It happens at home where makes Biff getting shock to find it. In above evidence shows the cause of conflict in child rearing practicing and value. Biff finds untruth in Willy Loman which makes him does not respect anymore to Willy Loman. Willy Loman seems frustration to steer Biff because finally Biff does not want to follow him after knowing Willy Lomans affair. WILLY, after a pause: Well, better get going. I want to get to the school first thing in the morning. Get my suits out of the closet. Ill get my valise. Biff doesnt move. Whats the matter? Biff remains motionless, tears falling. Shes a buyer. Buys for J.H. Simmons. She lives down the hall theyre painting. You dont imagine He breaks off. After a pause: Now listen, pal, shes just a buyer. She sees merchandise in her room and they have to keep it looking just so Pause. Assuming command: All right, get my suits. Biff doesnt move. Now stop crying and do as I say. I gave you an order. Biff, I gave you an order! Is that what you do when I give you an order? How dare you cry! Putting his arm around Biff; Now look, Biff, when you grow up youll understand about these things. You mustnt you mustnt overemphasize a thing like this. Ill see Birnbaum first thing in the morning. BIFF: Never mind. WILLY, getting down beside Biff: Never mind! Hes going to give you those points. Ill see to it. BIFF: He wouldnt listen to you. WILLY: He certainly will listen to me. You need those points for the U. of Virginia BIFF: Im not going there.

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WILLY: Heh? If I cant get him to change that mark youll make it up in summer school. Youve got all summer too. BIFF, his weeping breaking from him: Dad WILLY, infected by it: Oh, my boy BIFF: Dad WILLY: Shes nothing to me, Biff. I was lonely, I was terribly lonely. BIFF: You you gave her Mamas stocking! His tears break through and he rises to go WILLY, grabbing for Biff: I gave you an order! BIFF: Dont touch me, you liar! WILLY: Apologize for that! BIFF: You fake! You phony little fake! You fake! Overcome, he turns quickly and weeping fully goes out with his suitcase. Willy is left on the floor on his knees. WILLY: I gave you an order! Biff, come back here or Ill beat you! Come back here! Ill whip you! (Arthur Miller, 1949: 79) The above evidence tells about Biff finds Willy Lomans affair. Willy Loman now feels guilty. Biff tell to Willy anger Dont touch me, you liar! Biff can not accept there is Willys affair at home. In above evidence shows the cause of conflict in child rearing practicing and value. Biff sees that the fact there is no value in Willy Loman,his father. He knows who Willy Loman is, after finding Willy Lomans affair. His Father, Willy Loman is no longer his hero. He even gives Lindas stocking to the woman. BIFF, taking the hoe from Willy: Im saying good by to you, Pop. WILLY looks at him, silent, unable to move. Im not coming back anymore WILLY: Youre not going to see Oliver tomorrow? BIFF: Ive got no appointment, Dad. WILLY: He puts his arms around you, and youve got no appointment BIFF: Pop, get this now, will you? Everytime Ive left its been a fight that sent me out of here. Today I realize something about myself and I tried to explain it to you and I I think Im just not smart enough to make any sense out of it for you. To hell with whose fault it is anything like that. He takes Willys arm. Lets just wrap it up, heh? Come on in, well tell Mom. He gently tries to pull Willy to left WILLY, frozen, immobile, with guilt in his voice: No I dont want to see her BIFF: Come on! He pulls again, and Willy tries to pull away. WILLY, highly nervous: No, no, I dont want to see her

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BIFF, tries to look into Willys face, as if to find the answer there: Why dont you want to see her? WILLY, more harshly now: Dont bother me, will you? BIFF: What do you mean, you dont want to see her? You dont want them calling you yellow, do you? This isnt your fault; its me, Im a bum. Now come inside! Willy strains to get away. Did you hear what I said to you? Willy pulls away and quickly goes by himself into the house. Biff follows (Arthur Miller, 1949: 84) The above evidence tells about Biff sees Willy Loman not dare to meet Linda, her mother and telling her the truth about Willy Lomans affair. Biff finds full of lies at home. Biff thinks that home should be beautiful landscape now becomes terrible place. Willy always seems to be tempered to ask Biff follow him but the fact Willy does a big lie. In above evidence shows the cause of conflict in child rearing practicing. Biff increasingly convinces that a lot of untruth on his father, Willy Loman. So, there is no reason for Biff to follow him. BIFF: People ask where I am and what Im doing, you dont know, and you dont care. That way itll be of your mind and you can start brightening up again. All right? That clears it. Doesnt it? Willy is silent, and Biff goes to him. You gonna wish me luck, scout? He extends his hand. What do you say? LINDA: Shake his hand, Willy. WILLY, turning to her, seething with hurt: Theres no necessity to mention the pen at all, yknow BIFF, gently: Ive got no appointment, Dad. WILLY, erupting fiercely: He put his arm around ? BIFF: Dad, youre never going to see what I am, so whats the use of arguing? If I strike oil Ill send you a check. Meantime forget Im alive. WILLY, to Linda: Spite, see? BIFF: Shake hands, Dad. WILLY: Not my hand BIFF: I was hoping not to go this way WILLY: Well, this is the way youre going. Good by. Biff looks at him at the moment, the turn sharply and goes to the stairs. WILLY, stops him with: May you rot in hell if you leave this house! BIFF, turning: Exactly what is it that you want from me? WILLY: I want you to know, on the train, in the mountains, in the valleys wherever you go, that you cut down your life for spite!

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BIFF: No, no. WILLY: Spite, spite is the word of your undoing! And when youre down and out, remember what did it. When youre rotting somewhere beside the railroad tracks, remember, and dont you dare to blame it on me. BIFF: I wont blame it on you WILLY: I wont take the rap for this, you hear? (Arthur Miller, 1949: 85) The above evidence tells about Willy Loman who is frustrated saying May you rot in hell if you leave this house! When Biff need to say goodbye. He feels that this house is full of lie and falsehood, till he does not know himself. He needs to realize who he is. It is about conflict between person vs person, Willy and Biff who knows now who is Willy Lomans character. In above evidence shows the cause of conflict in some aspect like communication and interaction style, habits and lifestyle choice, value and orientation. Thats all because of Willy Lomans ambition toward his son. WILLY, not looking at it: What is that BIFF: You know goddam well what that is WILLY, caged, wanting to escape: I never saw that. BIFF: You saw it. The mice didnt bring it into the cellar! What is this supposed to do, make a hero out of you? This supposed to make sorry for you? WILLY: Never heard of it BIFF: Therell be no pity for you, you hear it? No pity! WILLY, to Linda: You hear the spite! BIFF: No, youre going to hear the truth what you are and what I am! LINDA: Stop it! WILLY: Spite! HAPPY, coming down toward Biff: You cut it now! BIFF to Happy: The man dont know who we are! The man is gonna know! To Willy: We never told the truth for ten minutes in this house (Arthur Miller, 1949: 87) The above evidence tells about they are in very serious conflict. There is no relationship again between Will Loman and Biff, his son. Willy Lomans character as tempered man brings him in high tension and frustration.

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In above evidence shows the cause of conflict in communication and interaction style. No respect each others again. Blame each others. No sensitive to each others feelings. That is all is bad communication and unhelpful. BIFF: Pop! Im a dime a dozen, and so are you! WILLY, turning on him now in a controlled outburst: I am not a dime a dozen! I am Willy Loman, and you are Biff Loman! Biff starts for Willy, but is blocked by Happy. In his fury, Biff seems on the verge attacking his father. BIFF: I am not a leader of men, Willy, and neither are you. You were never anything but a hard working drummer who landed in the ash can like all the rest of them! Im one dollar an hour! In the ash can like all the rest of them! Im one dollar an hour, Willy! I tried seven states and couldnt raise it. A buck an hour! Do you gather my meaning? Im not bringing home any prizes any more, and youre going to stop waiting for me to bring them home! WILLY, directly to Biff: You vengeful, spiteful mut! Biff breaks from Happy. Willy, in fright, starts up the stairs. Biff graps him. BIFF, at the peak of his fury: Pop, Im nothing! Im nothing, Pop. Cant you that? Theres no spite in it any more. Im just what I am, thats all (Arthur Miller, 1949: 88) The above evidence tells about Biff saying a phrase that can break Willy Lomans heart Pop! Im a dime a dozen, and so are you! and I am not a leader of men, Willy, and neither are you. It means no special in Willy Loman like him. He is Just the ordinary man. This is about conflict in Willy Loman himself that there is big obsession always over his mind. In above evidence, it shows cause of conflict in habits and lifestyle choice, works habit and orientation. Now Biff knows who he is, he doesnt want to follow Willy Lomans expectation. Biff needs to realize who he is. Willy Loman is obsessed to be rich man and behaves like his ambition. Willy Loman prefers the lifestyle of the rich and successful man in America. WILLY: Oh Biff! Staring wildly: He cried! Cried to me. He is choking with his love, and now cries out his promises: That boy that boy is going to be magnificent!

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BEN: Yes, outstanding, with twenty thousand behind him. LINDA, sensing the racing of his mind, fearfully, carefully: Now come to bed, Willy. Its all settled now. BEN: The jungle is dark but full of diamonds, Willy Willy turns, move, listening to Ben. BEN: Not like an appointment at all. A diamonds is rough and hard to the touch. WILLY: Sure, its the best thing. BEN: Best thing! (Arthur Miller, 1949: 89) The above evidence telling about Willys hallucination which Ben appears and say The jungle is dark but full of diamonds, Willy It means the jungle as a metaphor for life, and the diamonds the symbol of success. Finally Willy realizing that Biff although failure but really love him. He thinks if the greatest contribution is to commit suicide, then Biff can use the life insurance money to start a business. To commit suicide show that the jungle is dark while life insurance money show that full of diamond. His temper and obsession as Willy Lomans conflict brings him into the tragic life In above evidence, it shows the tragic life is driven by some causes of conflict regarding relationship between Willy and Biff his son. Some causes of conflict make high tension and frustration to person who involved. Willy Loman who is easily tempered can be easily frustrated. Because of frustration Willy Loman finally does unrealistic and unreasonable to suicide. Ben hallucinate his mind to do that. 4.2 Research Findings There are sixteen evidences that show kinds of need, thirteen evidences that show the cause of conflict and one evidence show about the tragic life that is driven by the causes of conflict regarding relationship between Willy as the parent and Biff as the son. After analyzing the evidence, the writer presents the research

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findings. First, answering the first problem that writer finds some kinds of needs in Willy Lomans ambition toward his son. They are only 4 kinds of needs that found in The Death of Salesman by Arthur Miller. They are The Physiological Needs, The Safety Needs, The Love Needs, The Esteem Needs. The writer does not find the self actualization need in that play. From four kinds of needs that reflected in Willy Lomans ambition toward his son, the writer finds the fact that the most kinds of needs in Willy Lomans ambition toward his son is the esteem needs. The writer does not think that Willys hope and desire to Biff to get the good future is wrong, because the writer thinks all parents also has the same wish to all children including the writer. The writer notes that because of esteem needs in Willy Lomans ambition toward his son makes him behave unrealistic and unreasonable. He does anyhow to reach his ambition. It can be seen on how Willy asks and gives direction to Biff to lie as salesman before. How Willy does not accept Charleys job offer when he is jobless because of esteem or pride. How Willy finally takes the way to end of his live by suicide for the name of ambition. The second findings, writer finds the cause of conflict in the relationship between parents represented by Willy and adult children represented by Biff. The writer finds how the communication and interaction as cause of conflict can drive person that involved in conflict into the tragic life. In the most part of dialogue between Willy and Biff is seen Willy always blames Biff. Willy wants to be heard but does not want to hear Biff, Willy always using pessimistic word to deliver his mind to Biff. The most importing is Willy as the parent never supports and gives

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Biff as the son a good spirit. The writer finds bad communication and interaction is the most cause of conflict which drive Willy Lomans ambition into the tragic. Ambition and depression together can drive person to behave unrealistic and unreasonable. Something unrealistic and unreasonable can drive a person into the tragic life.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSION

After analyzing the evidence the writer draws the conclusion that Willy Lomans ambition toward his son seems very clearly seen as a conflict source. It can be seen from the attitude and expression Willy Loman from beginning to end. The second is showing clearly how the large ambitions toward his son can make a failure. Like Biff says in last scene that Willy Loman has wrong dream The main kind of need in Willy Lomans ambition toward his son reflected in The Death of Salesman is The Esteem Need. Evidence is used by the writer to describe kinds of need which is reflected in ambition itself that tend to open disaster or failure. In addition to finds the cause of conflict in this play mostly due to of the failure of relationship between parents and adult children. Communication and interaction style can be serious factor should be considered to build good relationship between Willy Loman as the parent with Biff as the soon. This cause of conflict in communication and interaction style drives Willy Lomans to be high tension and depression The relationship between parents and adult children can be filled with joy or disappointment. As parents, they should act like best friends to their adult children, go on weekly shopping trips or seek one another's advice.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abrams, M.H, 1988 A Glossary of Literary Terms. 5th ed. United States of America: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Andrian H. Jaffe, and Virgil, Scott. 1968. Studies in the Novel 3rd ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Ary, Donald and Asghar Razavieh. 1990. Introduction to Research in Education 4th ed. Harcourt Brace College Publisher. Biklen, SK and Bogdan, Robert. 1992. Qualitative Research for Education. Boston: Advisson of Sinn an Schuster Inc. Bogdan, R., & Taylor, S.J. 1975. Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods. New York: John Wiley Borg, Walter R. and Gall, Meredith D. 1984. Educational Research: An Introduction. Newyork: Longman Brown, Gillian and Yule, George. 1983. An Introduction of Educational Research. New York: Longman, Inc David Harvey, 2010. Rescuing Ambition. USA: Crossway Maslow, A.H, 1943. Hierarchy of Needs The Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological review 50, 370 396 Merriam Websters. 1990 Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. USA: MerriamWebsters incorporated Miller, Arthur, 1949. The Death of Salesman. England: Penguin Books, Ltd. www.deathofsalesman Synopsis.htm/ Nielsen, A. & Donelson, K. (2009). Literature for today youngs adult. (8th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education Inc. pp. 10-16 English 326 Tri Irmana, Teguh, 2007. A Deconstructive Analysis of Mans Hegemony over Woman in Love in Oscar Wilde A Florentine Tragedy. Thesis (unpublished).Semarang: Semarang State University. http://www.articleslash.net/The-Psychology-of-Ambition.htm http://www.wikibooks.org/wiki/Introduction_to_Psychology/Introduction

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http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conflict http://www.gerontologist.oxfordjournals.org/content/39/3/261.abstract

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APPENDIX SYNOPSIS THE DEATH OF SALESMAN (www.shmoop.com/death-of-a-salesman)

The Death of Salesman tells about Willy Loman, an old salesman, returns early from a business trip. After nearly crashing multiple times, Willy has a moment of enlightenment and realizes he shouldnt be driving. Seeing that her husband is no longer able to do his job as a traveling salesman, Willys wife, Linda, suggests that he ask his boss, Howard, to give him a local office job at the New York headquarters. Willy thinks that getting the new job is a sure thing since he (wrongly) sees himself as a valuable salesman. Willy begins to learn some family background and hear about Willy and Lindas grown sons, Biff and Happy. Biff has just returned home from working as a farmhand in the West. Willy thinks Biff could easily be rich and successful, but is wasting his talents and needs to get on track. Willy thinks Biff is being wish-washy to spite him. Later that night, Willy starts having flashbacks and talking to imagined images as if they were real people. You guessed it. Something is wrong. Hes ranting so loudly that Happy and Biff wake up. The brothers are legitimately worried, as they have never seen their father like this. Biff, feeling as though he should stay close to home and fix his relationship with his dad, decides to talk to a former employer, Bill Oliver, about getting a loan to start a business.

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In the middle of the night, Willys talking to himself so loudly that everyone wakes up. Linda admits to her sons that she and Willy are struggling financially. Worse, Willy has been attempting suicide. Shes worried and takes it out on her boys, accusing Biff of being the cause of Willys unhappiness. Now Willy gets in on the family discussion and the situation goes downhill. He and Biff begin to argue, but Happy interjects that Biff plans to see Oliver the following morning. Willy is overjoyed. Everyone goes to sleep believing that tomorrow will fulfill their dreams: Willy expects to get a local job, and Biff expects to get a business loan. The next day, of course, everything goes wrong. Willy feels happy and confident as he meets with his boss, Howard. But rather than give him a transfer to the New York office, Willy ends up fired. Destroyed by the news, he begins to hallucinate and, yes, once again speak with imaginary people as he heads out to meet his sons at a restaurant. Waiting for their dad at the restaurant, Biff explains to Happy that Oliver wouldnt see him and didnt have the slightest idea who he was. Distressed, spiteful, and something of a kleptomaniac, Biff stole Olivers fountain pen. By now, Biff has realized that he was crazy to think he would ever get a loan, and that he and his family have been lying to themselves for basically their entire lives. When Willy comes into the restaurant demanding good news, Biff struggles to explain what happened without letting his father down. Willy, who cant handle the disappointment, tries to pretend it isnt true. He starts drifting into the dreamy past again, reliving the moment when Biff discovered Willys affair with a woman in

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Boston. While their dad is busy being detached from reality, Biff and Happy ditch him for two girls. Biff and Happy return home from their dates to find their mother waiting for them, fuming mad that they left their father at the restaurant. A massive argument erupts. No one wants to listen to Biff, but he manages to get the point across that he cant live up to his dads unrealistic expectations and is basically just a failure. Hes the only one who sees that theyve been living a lie, and he tells them so. The nights fight ends with Willy realizing that Biff, although a "failure," seems to really love him. Unfortunately Willy cant get past the "failure" bit. He thinks the greatest contribution that he himself can make toward his sons success is to commit suicide. That way, Biff could use the life insurance money to start a business. Within a few minutes, theres a loud crash. Willy has killed himself. In the final scene, Linda, sobbing, still under the delusion that her husband was a well liked salesman, wonders why no one came to his funeral. Biff continues to see through his familys lies and wants to be a better man who is honest with himself. Unfortunately, Happy wants to be just like his dad.

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