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Deterioration of Engineered Unpaved Roads

using HDM Relationships, Version 1.0, 9/9/99

DETOUR10
Rural Roads & Transport Thematic Group The World Bank
Written by Rodrigo Archondo-Callao, The World Bank

Disclaimer The Deterioration of Engineered Unpaved Roads Model software and documentation is copyrighted by the World Bank. The World Bank makes no warranty in terms of correctness, accuracy, currentness, reliability or otherwise regarding the literature and software. The user relies on the products of the software and the results solely at his or her own risk. In no event will the World Bank or anyone else who has been involved in the creation of this product be liable for its application or misapplication in the field. The World Bank reserves the right to make revisions and changes from time to time without obligation to notify any person of such revisions and changes.

Warning The model is designed primarily for engineered unpaved roads, of either gravel or earth surfacing, because the empirical models are based on a variety of such roads. When necessary it is possible to use the relationships also for tracks as a first estimate, but the user needs to be aware that the environmental effects of drainage and rainfall may be poorly represented. The term "earth road" is sometimes used to denote a track as opposed to an engineered road. In this model, "earth road" denotes those engineered unpaved roads having a surface of predominantly fine soil materials with more than 35 percent finer than 0.075 mm particle size. The model makes no specific distinction between uniform and seasonal rainfall climates. Geometric cross-sectional characteristics, particularly crown, camber, table sidedrains and run-off points, have pronounced effects on drainage and deterioration during high rainfall. The prediction relations therefore apply to unpaved roads with moderate to good cross-sectional geometry and for dry to wet conditions but may not apply to 'bathtub' type roads with negative crown or lack of surface drainage in high rainfall conditions.

Instructions Deterioration of Engineered Unpaved Roads Model (DETOUR)

Road Deterioration The Deterioration of Unpaved Roads Model (DETOUR) implements in Excel the road

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deterioration relationships for unpaved roads of the Highway Design and Maintenance Standards Model (HDM-III), which are the same as the forthcoming Highway Development and Management Model (HDM-4). To use the model, go to the "Road Deterioration" worksheet of this Excel workbook and enter the following information in the input cells with yellow background located on the In Area. - Road environment, geometry, and traffic characteristics - Gravel layer characteristics - Earth layer characteristics - Recurrent maintenance policy - Periodic maintenance policy - Material loss calibration DETOUR automatically computes the road deterioration over twenty years (traffic progression, roughness progression, gravel thickness, and placement of new gravel layer timing) and presents the results at the Out area, which is located below the input data area. The table just below the input data area contains the main road deterioration results and a graph of roughness and gravel thickness progression, and the table to the right contains secondary road deterioration results. Below the results area, you will find four buttons, which perform the following tasks. Automatic Calculation On Automatic Calculation Off Manual Calculation Print Report Turns the automatic calculation on Turns the automatic calculation off Recalculates the workbook if automatic calculation is off Prints all the inputs and main road deterioration results in one page

The Inputs Enter the input data on the cells with yellow background. Don't change other cells or change the structure of worksheets by moving a range or by adding or deleting rows. When entering data, note the following. a) If you enter a gravel thickness equal to zero on the "Gravel Layer Characteristics" input area, the model considers the road an earth road and ignores all the other inputs on the "Gravel Layer Characteristics" input area. b) If you enter zero for current roughness, initial roughness, minimum roughness, or maximum roughness on the "Gravel Layer Characteristics", "Earth Layer Characteristics", or "Periodic Maintenance" input areas, the model estimates internally the corresponding values based on the layer material properties. You can view the estimated values on the road deterioration table below the input data (current roughness and initial roughness) and on the secondary road deterioration results table (minimum roughness and maximum roughness). c) If you enter zero for the "Grading Interval", no gradings will be done. d) If you enter zero for the "Spot Regravelling" amount, no spot regravelling will be done.

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e) If you enter zero for the "Regravelling at Thickness" threshold, no regravelling will be done and the model ignores the other periodic maintenance inputs.

Road Agency and User Costs To estimate annual road agency maintenance costs and annual road user costs, got to the "Road Agency and User Costs" worksheet of this Excel workbook and enter the following information in the input cells with yellow background. - Recurrent maintenance unit costs - Periodic maintenance unit costs - Coefficients of cubic polynomials relating roughness to road user costs DETOUR computes the resulting annual road agency, user costs and total society costs, and displays the results below the input area every time the "Road Deterioration" worksheet is recalculated. Therefore, if you change any of the inputs on the "Road Agency and User Costs" worksheet the results will not be updated automatically until the "Road Deterioration" worksheet is recalculated. To manually update the results of the "Road Agency and User Costs" worksheet, press: ctrl-m or the button named "Calculate Results" located at the bottom of the table. To print the table, press the Excel print button.

Maintenance Levels To perform a sensitivity analysis of a series of maintenance levels, go to the "Maintenance Levels" worksheet of this Excel workbook and enter the following information in the input cells with yellow background. - Grading interval - Spot regravelling - Regravelling threshold and thickness To perform the sensitivity analysis, press the button "Press Here to Compute Results" located at the top of the table. The model will compute the average values over the twenty year analysis period of the following indicators. - Roughness - Gravel Thickness - Road Agency Costs - Road User Costs - Society Costs To print the table, press the Excel print button.

Grading Curves Graph The "Grading Curves Graph" graph presents a grading curve graph of the gravel and earth (subgrade) layer.

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Support Tables The "Support Tables" worksheet contains some suggested values, collected from many sources, for material properties, environments, and geometry of roads. Use these values as a guide to your inputs.

Glossary GVW IRI km m mm RUC veh vpd Gross Vehicle Weight International Roughness Index Kilometer Meter Milimeter Road User Costs Vehicles Vehicles per Day

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DETOUR - Deterioration of Engineered Unpaved Roads - Version 1.0


In Road Name Holeta-Muger Environment, Geometry, and Traffic Rainfall (m/month) Road Width (m) 6.0 Shoulder Width (m) Rise and Fall (m/km) 19 Horizontal Curvature (degree/km) Light Vehicle Traffic, GVW<3.5 tons (vpd) 10 Light Vehicle Traffic Growth (%) Heavy Vehicle Traffic, GVW>3.5 tons (vpd) 50 Heavy Vehicle Traffic Growth (%) Gravel Layer Characteristics Maximum Roughness (IRI) Thickness (mm) 50 Maximum Particle Size (mm) Age (years) 10 Plasticity Index (#) Mechanical Compaction (Y/N) Y % Passing 2.000 mm Sieve Current Roughness (IRI) 22 % Passing 0.425 mm Sieve Minimum Roughness (IRI) 2 % Passing 0.075 mm Sieve Earth Layer Characteristics Plasticity Index (#) Minimum Roughness (IRI) 0 % Passing 2.000 mm Sieve Maximum Roughness (IRI) 0 % Passing 0.425 mm Sieve Maximum Particle Size (mm) 4.8 % Passing 0.075 mm Sieve Recurrent Maintenance Policy Grading Interval (days) 180 Spot Regravelling (m3/km/year) Periodic Maintenance Policy Maximum Roughness (IRI) New gravel layer at gravel thickness (mm) 50 Maximum Particle Size (mm) New gravel layer thickness (mm) 200 Plasticity Index (#) Mechanical Compaction (Y/N) Y % Passing 2.000 mm Sieve Initial Roughness (IRI) 2 % Passing 0.425 mm Sieve Minimum Roughness (IRI) 2 % Passing 0.075 mm Sieve Material Loss Calibration Gravel Loss Factor 1.0 Traffic-induced Loss Factor 0.08 0.0 68 6% 6% 15 30.0 7.0 65.0 40.0 10.0 7.0 70.0 50.0 20.0 5 0 21.9 10.1 51.1 41.6 25.5 1.0

Out Traffic (vpd) 60 64 67 71 76 80 85 90 96 101 107 114 121 128 136 144 152 162 171 182 110 68 91 121 162

Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Average 1-20 1-5 6-10 10-15 15-20

Road Deterioration 16.0 Gravel Gravel 14.0 Roughness Thickness Layer 12.0 (IRI) (mm) (in year) 10.0 12.6 234 1 8.0 3.0 218 6.0 5.0 201 4.0 7.1 184 2.0 8.5 167 0.0 9.1 149 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 9.4 131 Year 9.6 113 9.8 95 300 10.0 77 10.2 58 250 10.4 239 12 200 3.5 219 150 6.3 199 9.1 179 100 10.6 158 50 11.3 136 0 11.6 115 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 11.8 92 Year 12.0 69 Average Note: 9.0 152 Interval 7.2 201 (years) 9.6 113 7.9 179 6.0 RURAL ROADS THEMATIC GROUP 11.5 114 THE WORLD BANK, DETOUR10.XLS, 9/9/99, RAC
Gravel Thickness, mm

Roughness, IRI

DETOUR - Deterioration of Engineered Unpaved Roads - Version 1.0


In Road Name Holeta-Muger Environment, Geometry, and Traffic Road Width (m) 6.0 Rise and Fall (m/km) 19 Gravel Thickness (mm) 50 Light Vehicle Traffic, GVW<3.5 tons (vpd) 10 Heavy Vehicle Traffic, GVW>3.5 tons (vpd) 50 Gravel Layer Characteristics Plasticity Index (#) 7.0 Maximum Particle Size (mm) 30.0 % Passing 2.000 mm Sieve 65.0 % Passing 0.425 mm Sieve 40.0 % Passing 0.075 mm Sieve 10.0 Recurrent Maintenance Policy Grading Interval (days) 180 Spot Regravelling (m3/km/year) 5 Periodic Maintenance Policy New gravel layer at gravel thickness (mm) 200 New gravel layer thickness (mm) 50 Light Vehicles Road User Costs Coefficients RUC = 0.381600 ($/veh-km) + -0.000428 * IRI + 0.000928 * IRI ^2 + -0.000018 * IRI ^3

Shoulder Width (m) Horizontal Curvature (degree/km) Rainfall (m/month) Light Vehicle Traffic Growth (%) Heavy Vehicle Traffic Growth (%) Earth Layer Characteristics Plasticity Index (#) Maximum Particle Size (mm) % Passing 2.000 mm Sieve % Passing 0.425 mm Sieve % Passing 0.075 mm Sieve Recurrent Maintenance Unit Costs Grading ($/km) Spot Regravelling ($/m3) Routine Maintenance ($/km-year) Periodic Maintenance Unit Cots Gravel Layer ($/m3)

0.0 68 0.08 6% 6% 7.0 4.8 70.0 50.0 20.0 400 12.00 1000.00 10.00

Heavy Vehicles Road User Costs Coefficients RUC = 1.117900 ($/veh-km) + 0.017005 * IRI + 0.000808 * IRI ^2 + -0.000014 * IRI ^3

Out Gradings ($/km) 811 811 811 811 811 811 811 811 811 811 811 811 811 811 811 811 811 811 811 811

Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Average 1-20 811 60 1,000 Years 1 to 20 Average Agency Costs per Average Roughness Average Road User Costs per Average Roughness Average Society Costs per Average Roughness

Road Agency Costs Spot Routine Gravel Regravelling Maintenance Layer ($/km) ($/km) ($/km) 60 1,000 12,000 60 1,000 0 60 1,000 0 60 1,000 0 60 1,000 0 60 1,000 0 60 1,000 0 60 1,000 0 60 1,000 0 60 1,000 0 60 1,000 0 60 1,000 12,000 60 1,000 0 60 1,000 0 60 1,000 0 60 1,000 0 60 1,000 0 60 1,000 0 60 1,000 0 60 1,000 0 1,200 340 5,322 5,662

Total Recurrent ($/km) 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871

Total Periodic ($/km) 12,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,200

Total Agency ($/km) 13,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 13,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 1,871 3,071

Road User Costs ($/km) 27,905 24,240 26,664 29,516 32,214 34,598 36,918 39,317 41,850 44,544 47,413 50,473 46,420 51,974 58,429 64,116 68,906 73,543 78,343 83,431 48,041

Society Costs ($/km) 41,776 26,111 28,535 31,387 34,085 36,470 38,789 41,188 43,721 46,415 49,285 64,344 48,291 53,845 60,300 65,987 70,777 75,414 80,214 85,303 51,112

RURAL ROADS & TRANSPORT GROUP THE WORLD BANK, DETOUR10.XLS, 9/9/99, RAC

DETOUR - Deterioration of Engineered Unpaved Roads - Version 1.0


In Maintenance Level Spot New Gravel New Gravel Regravelling Threshold Thickness (m3/km/year) (mm) (mm) 5 50 200 5 50 200 5 50 200 5 50 200 5 50 200 5 50 200 5 50 200 5 50 200 5 50 200 5 50 200 5 50 200 5 50 200 5 50 200 5 50 200 5 50 200 5 50 200 5 50 200 5 50 200 5 50 200 5 50 200 Out Average Values Over 20 Years Gravel Agency Road User Society Thickness Costs Costs Costs (mm) (000$/km) (000$/km) (000$/km) 142 2660 22585 25245 142 2677 22434 25111 142 2696 22276 24972 142 2716 22108 24824 142 2739 21930 24669 142 2763 21742 24505 142 2791 21543 24334 142 2822 21333 24154 142 2856 21107 23962 142 2895 20863 23758 142 2939 20601 23540 142 2990 20316 23306 142 3049 20006 23055 142 3119 19663 22782 142 3202 19287 22489 142 3303 18852 22155 142 3428 18367 21795 142 3587 17835 21423 142 3797 17250 21047 142 4085 16605 20690 20690

Sensitivity Cases 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Out

Grading Interval (days) 365 350 335 320 305 290 275 260 245 230 215 200 185 170 155 140 125 110 95 80

Roughness (IRI) 12.7 12.6 12.5 12.4 12.3 12.1 12.0 11.8 11.6 11.4 11.2 11.0 10.8 10.5 10.2 9.8 9.4 9.0 8.4 7.9

30,000 25,000

14.0 12.0 10.0 8.0

Costs ($/km-year)

20,000 15,000

6.0

10,000
5,000 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

4.0 2.0 0.0

Maintenance Levels
Agency Costs Users Costs Society Costs Roughness

RURAL ROADS & TRANSPORT GROUP THE WORLD BANK, DETOUR10.XLS, 9/93/99, RAC

Roughness (IRI)

Grading Curves
CLAY SILT
FINE

SAND
COARSE FINE MEDIUM COARSE

GRAVEL

STONE

100 80

% less than d

60 40 20 0

0.00

0.01

0.10

1.00

10.00

100.00

1000.00

Particle Diameter, d (mm)


Gravel Layer Earth Layer

Support Tables for Reference Materials Database


Maximum Particle Size (mm) 25.0 23.8 21.9 21.0 4.8 17.0 13.0 12.0 10.0 8.0 4.0 23.8 21.9 4.8 Percent Passing 2.0 mm Sieve 49.3 57.5 51.1 64.3 90.5 46.0 60.0 88.0 88.0 83.5 86.3 57.5 51.1 90.5 Percent Percent Passing Passing 0.425 mm 0.075 mm Sieve Sieve 38.0 23.5 44.6 24.2 41.6 25.5 49.0 25.0 84.9 70.2 34.0 23.0 40.0 18.0 68.5 27.0 77.0 54.0 77.0 59.0 81.5 74.0 44.6 24.2 41.6 25.5 84.9 70.2

Source HDM-4 HDM-4 HDM-4 HDM-4 HDM-4 HDM-4 HDM-4 HDM-4 HDM-4 HDM-4 HDM-4 HDM-III HDM-III HDM-III

Description Volcanic gravels angular Quartzitic gravels Lateritic gravels Coral gravels angular Earth Gravel-sand mixture with excess of fines Well-graded gravel-sands with small clay content Sand with excess fines Clayey silts (inorganic) Clays (inorganic) of medium plasticity Clays (inorganic) of high plasticity Quartzitic gravels Lateritic gravels Earth

Layer Surface Surface Surface Surface Surface Subgrade Subgrade Subgrade Subgrade Subgrade Subgrade Surface Surface Subgrade

Plasticity Index 17.0 9.1 10.1 13.0 15.8 17.0 15.0 8.3 17.5 18.8 34.3 9.1 10.1 15.8

Geometry Database
Rise and Horizontal Fall Curvature (m/km)(degrees/km) 1 3 10 15 3 50 15 75 Page 9 of 10

Source HDM-4 HDM-4 HDM-4 HDM-4

Description Straight and level Mostly straight and gently undulating Bendy and generally level Bendy and gently undulating

HDM-4 HDM-4 HDM-4 HDM Manager HDM Manager HDM Manager HDM Manager HDM Manager

Bendy and severely undulating Winding and gently undulating Winding and severely undulating Flat terrain Level terrain Rolling terrain Hilly terrain Mountainous terrain

25 20 40 0 10 20 50 80

150 300 500 0 50 150 300 500

Environment Database
Monthly Rainfall (m/month) 0.015 0.050 0.100 0.175 0.210 Annual Rainfall (mm/year) 180 600 1200 2100 2520

Source HDM-4 HDM-4 HDM-4 HDM-4 HDM-4

Description Arid Semi-Arid Semi-Humid Humid Per-Humid

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