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CHAPTER 30

Brazing, Soldering, Adhesive-Bonding, and Mechanical-Fastening Processes

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 30-1

Brazing
Figure 30.1 (a) Brazing and (b) braze welding operations.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Typical Filler Metals for Brazing Various Metals and Alloys


TABLE 30.1 Base metal Aluminum and its alloys Magnesium alloys Copper and its alloys Ferrous and nonferrous (except aluminum and magnesium) Iron-, nickel-, and cobalt-base alloys Stainless steels, nickel- and cobalt-base alloys Filler metal Aluminum-silicon Magnesium-aluminum Copper-phosphorus Silver and copper alloys, copper- phosphorus Gold Nickel-silver Brazing temperature, (C) 570620 580625 700925 6201150 9001100 9251200

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Furnace Brazing

Figure 30.2 An example of furnace brazing: (a) before, (b) after. Note that the filler metal is a shaped wire.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Induction Brazing
Figure 30.3 Schematic illustration of a continuous induction-brazing setup, for increased productivity. Source: ASM International.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Joint Designs Used in Brazing

Figure 30.4 Joint designs commonly used in brazing operations. The clearance between the two parts being brazed is an important factor in joint strength. If the clearance is too small, the molten braze metal will not fully penetrate the interface. If it is too large, there will be insufficient capillary action for the molten metal to fill the interface.
Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 30-6

Brazing Design
Figure 30.5 Examples of good and poor design for brazing.

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2001 Prentice-Hall

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(a) Figure 30.6 (a) Screening or stenciling paste onto a printed circuit board: 1. Schematic illustration of the stenciling process; 2. A section of a typical stencil pattern. (continued)

Stenciling

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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(b)

Wave Soldering

(c) Figure 30.6 (continued) (b) Schematic illustration of the wave soldering process. (c) SEM image of wave-soldered joint on surface-mount device.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Types of Solders and their Applications

TABLE 30.2 Tin-lead Tin-zinc Lead-silver Cadmium-silver Zinc-aluminum Tin-silver Tin-bismuth

General purpose Aluminum Strength at higher than room temperature Strength at high temperatures Aluminum; corrosion resistance Electronics Electronics

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Joint Designs Used in Soldering

Figure 30.7 Joint designs commonly used for soldering. Note that examples (e), (g), (i), and (j) are mechanically joined prior to being soldered, for improved strength. Source: American Welding Society.
Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 30-11

Typical Properties and Characteristics of Chemically Reactive Structural Adhesives


TABLE 30.3

Epoxy
Impact resistance Tension-shear 3 strength, MPa (10 psi) Peel strength, N/m (lbf/in.) Substrates bonded Poor 15.4 (2.2) < 525 (3) Most materials

Polyurethane
Excellent 15.4 (2.2) 14,000 (80) Most smooth, nonporous 160 to 80 (-250 to 175)

Modified acrylic
Good 25.9 (3.7) 5250 (30) Most smooth, nonporous 70 to 120 (-100 to 250)

Cyanoacrylate
Poor 18.9 (2.7) < 525 (3) Most nonporous metals or plastics 55 to 80 (-70 to 175) No Good Poor 0.25 (0.01) Moderate Low Low

Anaerobic
Fair 17.5 (2.5) 1750 (10) Metals, glass, thermosets 55 to 150 (-70 to 300) No Excellent Good 0.60 (0.025) Mild Low Low

Service temperature 55 to 120 range, C (F) (-70 to 250) Heat cure or mixing required Yes Yes No Solvent resistance Excellent Good Good Moisture resistance Excellent Fair Good Gap limitation, mm (in.) None None 0.75 (0.03) Odor Mild Mild Strong Toxicity Moderate Moderate Moderate Flammability Low Low High Source: Advanced Materials & Processes, July 1990, ASM International.
Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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General Properties of Adhesives


TABLE 30.4

Type
Acrylic

Comments
Thermoplastic; quick setting; tough bond at room temperature; two component; good solvent chemical and impact resistance; short work life; odorous; ventilation required Thermoset; easy to use; slow curing; bonds at room temperature; curing occurs in absence of air, will not cure where air contacts adherents; one component; not good on permeable surfaces Thermoset; one or two component; tough bond; strongest of engineering adhesives; high tensile and low peel strengths; resists moisture and high temperature; difficult to use Thermoplastic; quick setting; tough bond at room temperature; easy to use; colorless. Thermoplastic; quick setting; rigid or flexible bonds; easy to apply; brittle at low temperatures; based on ethylene vinyl acetate, polyolefins, polyamides and polyesters Thermoplastic; variable strength bonds. Primer anchors adhesive to roll tape backing material, a release agent on the back of web permits unwinding. Made of polyacrylate esters and various natural and synthetic rubber

Applications
Fiberglass and steel sandwich bonds, tennis racquets, metal parts, plastics. Close fitting machine parts such as shafts and pulleys, nuts and bolts, bushings and pins. Metal, ceramic and rigid plastic parts.

Anaearobic

Epoxy

Cyanoacrylate Hot melt

Crazy glue. Bonds most materials. Packaging, book binding, metal can joints.

Pressure sensitive

Tapes, labels, stickers.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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General Properties of Adhesives (cont.)


TABLE 30.4 (continued)

Type
Phenolic

Comments
Thermoset; oven cured, strong bond; High tensile and low impact strength; brittle, easy to use; cures by solvent evaporation. Thermoset; slow curing, flexible; bonds at room temperature; high impact and peel strength; rubber like Thermoset; strong with wood bonds; urea is inexpensive, available as powder or liquid and requires a catalyst; melamine is more expensive, cures with heat, bond is waterproof; resorcinol forms waterproof bond at room temperature. Types can be combined Thermoset; bonds at room temperature or oven cure; good gap filling qualities Inexpensive, nontoxic, nonflammable.

Applications
Acoustical padding, brake lining and clutch pads, abrasive grain bonding, honeycomb structures. Gaskets, sealants. Wood joints, plywood, bonding.

Silicone Formaldehyde: -urea -melamine -phenol -resorcinol Urethane Water-base -animal -vegetable -rubbers

Fiberglass body parts, rubber, fabric. Wood, paper, fabric, leather, dry seal envelopes.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Adhesive Peeling Test

Figure 30.8 Characteristic behavior of (a) brittle and (b) tough adhesives in a peeling test. This test is similar to the peeling of adhesive tape from a solid surface.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Joint Designs in Adhesive Bonding


Figure 30.9 Various joint designs in adhesive bonding. Note that good designs require large contact areas between the members to be joined.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Configurations of Adhesively Bonded Joints


Figure 30.10 Various configurations for adhesively bonded joints: (a) single lap, (b) double lap, (c) scarf, (d) strap.

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2001 Prentice-Hall

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Rivets
Figure 30.11 Examples of rivets: (a) solid, (b) tubular, (c) split (or bifurcated), (d) compression.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Design Guidelines for Riveting

Figure 30.12 Design guidelines for riveting. (a) Exposed shank is too long; the result is buckling instead of upsetting. (b) Rivets should be placed sufficiently far from edges to avoid stress concentrations. (c) Joined sections should allow ample clearance for the riveting tools. (d) Section curvature should not interfere with the riveting process. Source: J. G. Bralla.

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2001 Prentice-Hall

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Metal Stitching and a Double-Lock Seam

Figure 30.13 Various examples of metal stitching.

Figure 30.14 Stages in forming a double-lock seam.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Crimping
Figure 30.15 Two examples of mechanical joining by crimping.

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2001 Prentice-Hall

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Spring and Snap-In Fasteners


Figure 30.16 Examples of spring and snap-in fasteners used to facilitate assembly.

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2001 Prentice-Hall

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