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Porifera Symmetry Sponges exhibit asymmetry, in which there is no plane or point of symmetry

Cnidaria Cnidaria exhibit Radial Symmetry, a form of symmetry in which body parts are arranged around a central axis, as found in animals such as jellyfish and sea urchins. Cnidaria are diploblasti c, they have two germ layers : an outer layer of epidermis and an inner layer of gastroderm is. Between the two, there is a

Platyhelminthes Platyhelminthes exhibit bilateral symmetry that can be divided by a longitudinal planes into halves that are mirror images of each other from the midpoint.

Nematoda Nematoda exhibits bilateral symmetry that can be divided by a longitudinal plane into halves that are mirror images of each other from the midpoint.

Mollusca Mollusca exhibit bilateral symmetry that can be divided by a longitudinal planes into halves that are mirror images of each other from the midpoint.

Annelida Annelida exhibit bilateral symmetry that can be divided by longitudina l planes into halves that are mirror images of each other from the midpoint.

Arthropoda Arthropoda exhibit bilateral symmetry that can be divided by longitudinal planes into halves tht are mirror images of each other from the midpoint.

Echinoderm ata Echinoderms exhibit radial symmetry, a form of symmetry in which body parts are arranged around a central axis, as found in animals such as jellyfish and sea urchins.

Chordata Chordata exhibits bilateral symmetry that can be divided by longitudinal planes into halves that are mirror images of each from the midpoint.

Germ Layers

Porifera are diploblastic, they have two germ layers ectoderm and endoderm.

Platyhelminthes are triploblastic, they have three germ layers including the endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm.

Nematoda are triploblastic. They have three germ layers the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm.

Mollusca are triploblastic. They have three germ layers: endo derm ectoderm and mesoderm.

Annelids are triploblasti c. They have three germ layers: endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm.

Arthropoda are triploblastic, having three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. In a triploblastic, the mesoderm forms muscles and other organs.

Echinoderms have three germs layers, which are ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm.

Chordates are triploblastic which mean they have three germ layers. The three layers are ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm.

Body Plan

Porifera are formally known as sponges. They lack true tissues and organs. They two layers of cells that are separated by the mesohyl. Proifera also have amoebocytes which help give the sponge flexibility that allows it to adjust shapes in response to changes in the environment.

jelly-like layer known as the mesoglea. Cnidaria have a gastrovasc ular cavity, which functions as a single opening as anus and mouth. Two different forms are (1) sessile polyp (2) motile medusa.

Platyhelminthes have sac-like bodies. Their bodies are microscopic and many feet long and is generally very thin.

Nematodas body plan is known as a tube-withintube.

Mollusca has three distinct body zones: a head-foot, visceral mass, and a mantle

Annelids have a body wall with both longitudina l and circular muscle layers.

Nervous Organization

Sponges do not have an actual brain organ and therefore they have a slow reaction rate. Sponges also lack an actual nervous system.

Cnideria have a noncentrali zed never network which functions as cordination and locomotion for the cnideria. It

Platyhelminthes have a two simple brains called ganglia (simple bundles of nerves) It has two eye spots that help it sense light. Platyhelminthes has a simple nervous system with two nerve cords that run

Nematoda has two nerve cords that transmit impulses in the roundworm. It is organized in reduced parasitic forms because the environment in which they live in is constant.

Mollusca have ganglia that also run down either side of the orgnaism. Cephalopods are the most developed from the phylum Mollusca.

Annelids have a simple brain or cerebral ganglia in lui of a brian. It is connected to by a ring of nerves to a ventral nerve cord

Arthropoda body plan consists of body segmentation, joint appendages, and a chitinous exoskeleton . The group of segmentation and the joint appendages have become specialized for a variety of functions permitting efficient division of labor among regions. Arthropods have a highly complex nervous system with a ganglia and a ventral nerve cord. They also have compound eyes, proprioceptors, touch receptors, chemoreceptors, and auditory

Echinoderms body plan is that they have a coelom given that they have a true body cavity.

Chordates have skeletons within their bodies. This allows for growth without molting of their outer layer. Their basic plan is a tube within a tube: the digestive tractis the inner tube, and thebody wall is the outer tube, both tube have coelom.

Echinoderms have a basic nervous system with many rings and radial nerves. Radial nerves will run under each ambulacra and the motor neurons and

Chordates have a brain and nervous system. Most chordates have 2 eyes and some sort of hearing capacity. The sense organs they possess include eyes, hears, tongue and skin.

is also associated with sensory structures distributed around the body so they can respond to stimuli from many directions. The response given is fromt ouch or chemicals. Coelom Porifera are Acoelomates their bodies lack a coelom but have a digestive cavity. Acoelomat es- their bodies lack a coelom but have a digestive cavity.

down wither ends of its body.

that runs down the side of the body from the lateral nerves and ganglia.


interneurons contain cell bodies. A central nerve ring will surround the guts and it is composed of fiber tracks that are connected to radial nerves. Ganglia is present along the radial nerves.

Platyhelminthes are acoelomatestheir bodies lack a coelom but they have a digestive cavity.


Sponges do not



Nematodes are pseudocoelemat s- a body cavity that is not entirely surrounded by the mesoderm. It acts as hydrostatic skeleton which helps maintain the body shape, circulate nutrients throughout the body, and hold the bodys major organs. Nematodes do

Mollusca are coelomatesthey have a body cavity which means they have true coelom.

Annelids are coelomates - they have a body cavity which means they have true coelom.

Arthropoda are coelomates-they have a body cavity also knwn as a true coelom.

Echinoderm are coelomatesthey have a body vaity that is also known as true coelom.

Chordates are coelomates-they have a body cavity and in addition they have a vascular system.

Mollusca do




Chordates exhibit

exhibit segmentation.

do not exhibit segmentati on

do not exhibit segmentation.

not exhibit segmentation.

not exhibit segmentatio n.


Porifera lacks cephalization. The lack of a nervous tissue inhibits them from having cephalization whichoccurs when nervous tissue evolves and moves toward one end of an organism. This produces a head region with sensory organs.

Cnidaria lacks cephalizati on.

Platyhelminthes have Cephalization which occurs when nervous tissue evolves and moves toward one end of an organism. This produces a head region with sensory organs.

Nematoda have a primitive cephalization. Nematodes have a head with a ring of nervous tissues that are attached to 2 nerves running throughout the body. They also have dorsal, ventral, and lateral nerves.

Mollusca have cephalizatio n- which occurs when nervous tissue evolves and moves toward one end of an organism. This produces a head region with sensory organs.

Feeding Mode

Porifera have suspension feeders as a feeding mechanism that traps particles

Cnidarians are carnivorou s. The medusas

Platyhelminthes has only one opening. There is no mouth or anus.

Nematodes are parasitic and they feed on bacteria and detritus.

Mollusks have toothed tongues. The radula, which is

exhibit segmentati on. They have segmented body wall and internal organs however, their digestive tract that is unsegment ed Annelids have cephalizati on- which occurs when nervous tissue evolves and moves toward one end of an organism. This produces a head region with sensory organs. Annelids feeding mode varies by class. For

exhibit metameric segmentationthe body is divided into a series of repeated segments such as a lobster.

o not exhibit segmentation.

segmentationthey have distinct separations, they have a head, thorax and abdomen. The segmentation allows separation between the chest and abdominal cavities, it is located at the diaphragm. Chordates have cephalization. This means that the nervous tissue is clustered towards one end of the organism. In other words, chordates have a brain or clustered nervous tissue.

Arthropoda have cephalization. They typically have highly sophisticated heads which includes numerous appendages, sensory organs, brains and mouth.

Echinoderm have some degree of cephalization. Echinoderms have a diffuse network of nerves and neurons that is made of a neural ring around the mouth and of radial nerves.

Many arthropods have three pairs of appendages modified as

Echinoderms have a mouth and a stomach however the

Chordates are heterotrophs, therefore they feed via ingestion. Food is

through its internal canals. As the water flow into the spongocoel its flows out of the osculum, or the big gap in the middle. Amoebocytes take up food from the choanocytes and digest the food.

and polyps have tentacles around mouth that sting / paralyze prey using Nematocys ts. It captures the food source and pushes it into the gastrovasc ular cavity where digestion begins.

Nematodes can be plant and animal parasites that cause diseases in crops and cause intestinal disease such as hookworms, pinworms, and intestinal roundworms.

composed of chitin, scrapes off algae and other food materials and conveys them backward to the digestive tract.

example earthworm s are recyclers; marine worms are filter feeders or scavengers.

mouthparts, including a mandible.

location varies among the classes. Starfish have mouths that are located on the bottom while the anus is on the top; they have the ability to turn their stomachs outside the body and insert it into the preys body. Feeding may occur through the help of tube feet which is connected to the water vascular system. Echinoderm ata Echinoderms have an inner skeleton. There exoskeleton is made from calcium carbonate.

taken in by the mouth and digested in the digestive system. They have mouths and tongues, while some even have teeth.

Porifera Skeleton In a Porifera, amoebocytes form a tough skeletal fiber inside the mesohyl. The fibers are made of calcium carbonate and/or silica. Other sponges can be

Cnidaria Cnidaria have different forms of skeleton. Polyps have an exoskeleto n that

Platyhelminthes Platyhelminthes have no skeleton. Rather it has tiny bristles called cilia that help it move as well as two layers of muscles under its skin.

Nematoda Nematodes have a cuticle that acts as the exoskeleton; it supports movement. Muscles are located between the cuticle and

Mollusca Mollusca have a hydrostatic skeleton where the gastrovascul ar cavity has contractile muscles.

Annelida Annelids have a body wall with septae that seperates segments and acts as a skeleton.

Arthropoda The body of an arthropod is covered by the cuticle (external coat). Its an exoskeleton constructed by protein and polysaccharide

Chordata Chordates have an inner skeleton with a backbone. They generally have four appendages in the form of legs, arms, wings or fins.

made of flexible fibers made of the protein spongin. They have hallow tubes with pores.

surround its tissue or it can have an endoskelet on that is covered by the tissues. The skeleton is made from calcium carbonate. They have a hydrostatic skeleton which is the gastrovasc ualr cavity. Cnidarians have an incomplete digestive system; the gastrovasc ular cavity serves as a mouth and anus and has enzymes secreted into it by the single opening. The cells Platyhelminthes have a combination of digestive and excretory systems where it takes in nutrients and rids of wastes through the same opening. They have an incomplete digestive system.

the pseudocoel. These muscles help create a hydrostatic skeleton in which nerve cells branch out to each muscle.



Porifera have a form of digestion that involves the interior lining of spongeocoel, it is known as the collar cell. The flagellated cells use phagocytosis to engulf food particles and even bacteria. The water flow heps filter out waste and other particles such as carbon dioxide

Nematodes have two distinct opening that act as the mouth and anus and allows a digestive tract. Gut allows digestion of food which is distributed in the body cavity.

Molluska have a complete digestive tract and it is ciliated, with a mouth, anus and complex stomach

Annelids have a complete digestive system with mouth and anus. Digestion is extracellula r.

Arthropoda have a complete digestive system. There are various methods used by each class of arthropods in digestion. Arachnids use the venom in their fangs to semi-digest their food. The venom immobolizes the prey and

Echinoderms have mouths and stomach area. Depending on the type, Ecinoderms may have a mouth on the bottom and anus on top such as a starfish. They use the Water vascular system (sieve plates and

Chordates have a digestive system which consists of a stomach and intestines, that aid in intracellular digestion of foods.

lining absorb nutrients.

gradually turns their tissues into liquid which the spider can digest. Crustaceans swing their front claws forward which draws water between them which fillters their food particles. Then they take their limbs and force the food into their mouths.Incects have mouthparts to bite and chew plant food. Some have a tube called a proboscis to drink nectar.



Porifera have circulation by the means of water flow; they gain nutrients and materialsuch as oxygen for each sponge cell. The canals present in the porifera allows water flow and diffusion to occur.


Sponges do not typically move however, in their larvae state they swim and settle on a stable surface. This is known as sessile; they form sperm and flagellated embryo.

Cnidaria has gastroderm al cells that are flagellated and distributes nutrients through the cnidaria. Cnidaria has a gastroascua lr cavity in a cnideria. Diffusion also occurs. Cnidaria have locomotion that is a combinatio n of both drifting which is passive and contraction s. However, the polyps are sessile.

Platyhelminthes has a gastrovascular cavity with one opening that allows a form of circulation

Nematodes have circulation through diffusion through the small vessels. The fluid in a nematode bathe the psuedocoel and therefore it does not have a distinct circulatory system.

Mollusca have an open circulatory system with a heart and an aorta.

Annelida have a closed circulatory system with aortic arches and dorsal & ventral blood vessels.

Arthropoda have an open circulatory system in which, hemolymph is propelled by the heart through short arteries and then into spaces called sinuses surrounding the organ and tissue.

Echinoderms have an open circulatory system and it is close to primitve . Water is pumped throughout the body.

Chordates have a circulatory system however it varies due to the distinction of cold blooded verses warm blooded animal. Chordates have a heart and blood vessels that allow oxygenated blood to distribute nutrients throughout the body. Lungs and gills allow exchange of gas Chordates are capable of locomotion by muscle contraction. They can be various form such as the use of tails or limbs.

Platyhelminthes have two different forms of locomotion: movement through muscle contraction and movement through cilia

Nematodes are capable of locomotion by the internal pressure in their body which allows them to flex and enable to thrash. They can be found floating in water and wriggling in the soil. They lack circular muscle structure however they have longitudinal muscles.

Mollusca have locomotion through the use of the muscular foot.

Annelids are capable of locomotion by using their longitudina l and circular muscles to contract their segments.

Arthropoda have locomotion through the use of their jointed appendages for locomotion. They can also have antennae, swimmers appendages, claws, legs.

Echinoderms have locomotion through their tube feet that extends from the water vascular system that function for locomotion and feeding.

2 organisms belonging to group

Organisms that belong in Porifera are Calcareous sponge and siliceous sponge

3 Major Characteristics

Porifera have cells and tissues are covered by water however, it lacks a real true body cavity and therefore, it lacks a nervous system and organs. They are filter feeds and they can reproduce both asexually and sexually (gonochoristic and/or hermaphroditic)

Organisms that belong in the Cnideria are jellyfish, sea anemone, and hydra, corals Cnideria have four clades that include scyphozoa ns, hyrdozoans , anthozoans , and cubozoans (they have a body that is boxed shape)

Organisms that belong in platyheminthes are tapeworms, and flukes.

Organisms that belong to the Nematoda are C. elegans, pinworms, hookworms, and Trichinella spiralis.

Organisms that are in Mollusca are clams, snails, and squids

Organisms that are Annelids are Earthworm s, leeches, and marine worms

Organisms that are Arthropoda are spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites, crustaceans, millipedes, centipedes, insects, and some others. Arthropods have appendages that have become modified and therefore have specialized fucntions such as walking, feeding, reproduction, defense, and sensory reception. Arthropods body have a tough endoskeleton called a cuticle that allows them to move and have flexibility. Arthropods grow when they shed their cuticle however, it leaves them vulnerable to the

Organisms that are Echinoderms are Sea stars, and Sea Urchins are Echinoderms.

Orgnaisms that belong to Chordata are mammals and amphibians.

Platyhelminthes lack a body cavity, therefore they have a simplistic nervous system that only consist of an arrangement of nerve cells and sensory organs. Platyhelminthes flattened dorsa ventrally.

Nematoda have a tough exoskeleton known as a cuticle that helps protect it. For a nematode to grow they shed their cuticle leaving them vulnerable to the environment. Nematoda can reproduce internally through sexual reproduction. Nematodes that are parasitic have a special feature that allows them to redirect and control their host and their immune system.

Mollusca have two external flaps in its visceral mass called a mantle. The mantel has various functions such as carries excess water and wastes, circulates nutrients, and secretes a shell that can surround its body cavity. Respitiation in a mollusk is through its gill located inside its shell.

Annelids have a segmented body. They are protostome s and have a closed circulatory system

Echinoderms have are known to have spiny skin and skeletal bumps. A thin epidermis covers the endoskeleton. They use their tube feet for both feeding and locomotion. Echnioderms are deutrostomes. They also have a water vascular system that has a network of hydraulic canals branching into the tube

Chordata have unique disntict features such as in one point in their life they had a notochord (located above the gut and below the never cord), nerve chord (forms the vertebrate), post anal tail, and pharyngeal slits/gills. The dorsal nerve chord differentiates a the spinal cord from the brain.

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Porifera can differ in size from as tall as meters to small as millimeters. Although they lack tissue, porifera have a variety of cell types. Sponges are hermaphrodites; both the male and female can produce egg and sperm. The egg resides in the mesohyl and the sperm move throught the water currents. They can form in the choanocytes and/or ameobyctes. The larvae of Porifera are flagellated, that leave the parent and settle elsewhere. Porifera are currently being used for antibiotics and

. Cnideria tentacles have a special feature unique to themselves called cnidocytes, it injects poison with thread shooting out of the cell when water comes out of it. Cnideria have both asexual and sexual reproductio n (budding/ egg and sperm). Anthozoan

Platyhelminthes has a form of respiration where gas exchange can occur through diffusion. The mesoderm of a flatworm can become muscles and parenchyma (a form of solid tissue containing cells and fibers)

Nematoda, specifically roundworms, are found in various environments which include marine, soil, moist tissue plants, body fluids/tissues of animals (humans). The shape of the body can vary from a meter long to a millimeter long. The anterior end is blunt whereas the posterior end is tapered. Nematodes can be parasitical in plants where they inhibit

There are a variety of Mollusca: Bivalves(cla ms), Cephalopod (octopuses), Gastropods. Mollusca have an excretory system where the nephridia will remove metabolic waste products from the blood and release the waste into the mantle cavity.

Annelids, specifically ,Earthwor ms are hermaphro dites. Leeches can release a special fluid that acts as an anticoagula nt; they can be parasitic too.

environment. Arthropods have well developes sensory organs such as eyes, olfactory receptors (smell), and antennae; it is located an the anterior end of the organism. Arthropods consist of four major lineage: Chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods, and crustaceans. Each segment in an arthropod performs all the functions of the body. Each segment is in fact a copy of the one before it and the one behind, this is called tagmatization. This is where groups of segments become specialized to perform specific functions for the


As a larva it has bilateral symmetry however, as an adult it has radial symmetry. There are five clades: Asteroidia( Ssea stars and Sea daisies), Echinoideria (Sea Urchins and Sea dollars), Cinoidea (Sea Lillies and Feather Stars), Holothuroide a (Sea Cucumbers).

Chordata has some advantages such as having endoskeleton, a pharynx and a proficient form of respiration, nervous system that is advance beyond other species and paired limbs.

other purposes.

s have symbiotic relationshi ps with organism like algae. Cnidairians can also be biolumines cent like jellyfish.

growth by attacking the crops by absorbing its nutrients. It can be both beneficial and detrimental to humans in that it can help destroy other pests that destroy crops but it can infect muscle cells.

whole body, these groups of segments are called Tagmata or tagma

Web Cited Pages: 1. Campbell Biology Textbook, Ninth Edition 2. Bio Lab Manual 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.