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INTRODUCTION

Stepper motor finds lot of applications in process control, machine, tools and robotics. Specially in robotics and process control, it is necessary to control the stepper motor from a remote place. Here we work on the project Remote controlled stepper motor for controlling a stepper motor from a remote place by using the IR modules. For this wireless stepper motor control system, we have design and develop the required hardware. The Infrared radiation is use to control the direction of the stepper motor at the transmitter side. The IR waves are transmitted from the IR transmitter and received by the IR receiver.

SYSTEM OVERVIEW

The block diagram of the IR remote control system for stepper motor is shown below in figure. The pulse generator provides clock pulse to the up/down counter. The four parallel BCD outputs of the counter are converted in to one-of-ten active high outputs by the BCD-to decimal decoder. The decoded outputs are fed to the stepper motor driver to drive the stepper motor. The 38 kHz infrared signal transmitted by the IR transmitter. The transmitted IR signal is received by the IR receiver to control of the stepper motor. The pulse generator can control the speed of the motor the direction.

PULSE GENRETOR

UP/DOWN COUNTER

BCD TO DECIMAL DECODER

STEPPER MOTOR DRIVER

+5V

GND

POWER SUPPLY

IR TRANSMTTER

IR RECEIVER/ CONTROL CKT

STEPPER MOTOR

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF REMOTE CONTROLLED STEPPER MOTOR

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

DESCRIPTION OF ICs USED


CD4013 (Dual D-Type Flip-Flop)
3

The CD4013B dual D-type flip-flop is a monolithic complementary MOS (CMOS) integrated circuit constructed with N- and P-channel enhancement mode transistors. Each flip-flop has independent data, set, reset, and clock inputs and "Q" and "Q" outputs. These devices can be used for shift register applications, and by connecting "Q" output to the data input, for counter and toggle applications. The logic level present at the "D" input is transferred to the Q output during the positive-going transition of the clock pulse. Setting or resetting is independent of the clock and is accomplished by a high level on the set or reset line respectively. Features

Wide supply voltage range:

3.0V to 1 5V

High noise immunity: 0.45 VDD (typ.) Low power TTL: fan out of 2 driving 74L Compatibility: or 1 driving 74LS

Applications Automotive Data Terminals Instrumentation Medical Electronics Alarm System

Connection Diagram Pin Assignments for DIP, SOIC and SOP


VDD 02 02 CLOCK 2 RESET 2 0TA2 SET 2

Clock

Reset

Data

Set

VSS

Truth Table

CL(Note)

D 0 1 x X X X 0 0 0 1 0 1

R 0 0 0 0 1 1

s 0 1 Q 0 1 1

Q 1 0 Q 1 0 1

^ ^ ^ x x X

Absolute Maximum Ratings(Note2)


DC Supply Voltage (VDD) -0.5 VDC to +1 8 VDC Input Voltage (V|N) -0.5 VDC to VDD +0.5 VDC

Recommended Operating
DC Supply Voltage (VDD) Input Voltage (V,N) +3 VDC to +1 5 VDC

OVDctoVDDVDC

Storage Temperature Range (Ts) -65C to +1 50C

Operating Temperature Range (TA) -40C to +85C

DC Electrical Characteristics (Notes)


Parameter bo Quiescent Device Current LOW Level Output Voltage +25C +85C Units -40C Min Max Mi Typ Max Min Max VDD = 5V, VIM = 4.0 n 4.0 30 uA VDD = 10V, V| N = VDD or V ss 8.0 8.0 60 uA VDD orV ss V| N = VDD = 15V, 16.0 16.0 120 uA VDD orV ss |l 0|<1.0uA VDD = 5V 0.05 0.05 0.05 V VDD = 10V 0.05 0.05 0.05 V VDD = 15V 0.05 0.05 0.05 V Condition s |!0|<1.0uA VDD = 5V
VDD = VDD =

VOL

VOH

HIGH Level Output Voltage

4.95 9.95 14.9 5 1.5 3.0 4.0

10V 15V

4.9 5 9.9 5 14. 95 1.5 3.0 4.0

4.95 9.95 14.9 5 1.5 3.0 4.0

V V V V V V

VIL

LOW Level Input Voltage

lb l< 1 .0 u A VDD = 5V, V 0 = 0.5V orV, V = 1 VDD = 1 4.5V 0 .OV or 9.0V VDD = 15V,V 0= 1.5V or 13.5V

VIH

HIGH Level Input Voltage

|bl<1.0uA VDD = 5V, V 0 = 3.5 0.5V or 4.5V VDD = 10V,V = 1.0V 7.0 0 orDD = 15V,V 0= 11.0 V 9.0V 1.5V or 13.5V = 5V, V 0 = 0.52 0.4V 10V,V = 0.5V 1.3 VDD = 0
VDD VDD =

3.5 7.0 11. 0 0.4 0.88 4 1.1 2.25 3.0 8.8

3.5 7.0 11.0

V V V

IOL

'OH

6
LOW Level Output (Note Current 4) HIGH Level Output (Note Current 4)

0.36 0.9 2.4 0.36 -0.9

mA mA mA mA mA

15V, V = 1.5V 3.6 0

VDD = 5V,V10V,V = 9.5V -1.3 0=4.6V VDD = 0 0.5

0.4 0.88 1.1 2.25

IIN

Input Current

= 1 5V, V 0= -3.6 - -8.8 13.5V 3.0 VDD = 15V, V| = OV -0.3 -10-5 -0.3 N
VDD VDD =

-2.4

mA

-1.0
1.0

uA uA

15V,VIM = 15V

0.3

10-5

0.3

Logic Diagram

CD4028 (BCD-to-Decimal Decoder)


The CD4028BC is a BCD-to-decimal or binary-to-octal decoder consisting of 4 inputs, decoding logic gates, and 10 output buffers. A BCD code applied to the 4 inputs, A, B, C, and D, results in a high level at the selected 1-of-10 decimal decoded outputs. Similarly, a 3-bit binary code applied

to inputs A, B, and C is decoded in octal at outputs 0-7. A high level signal at the D input inhibits octal decoding and causes outputs 0-7 to go LOW. All inputs are protected against static discharge damage by diode clamps to VDD and VSS-

Features Wide supply voltage range: 3.0V to 15V

High noise immunity: 0.45 VDD (typ.) Low power TTL compatibility: fan out of 2 driving 74L or 1 driving 74LS Low power Glitch free outputs "Positive logic" on inputs and outputs

Applications Code conversion Address decoding Indicator-tube decoder

Connection Diagram

Logic Diagram

Absolute Maximum Ratings Supply Voltage (VDD) -0.5 to +18V Input Voltage (VIN) -0.5 to VDD +0.5V Storage Temperature Range (TS) -65C to +150C Power Dissipation (PD)

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Dual-In-Line 700 mW Small Outline 500 mW Lead Temperature (TL)-(Soldering, 10 seconds) 260C

Recommended Operating Supply Voltage (VDD) 3 to 15V Input Voltage (VIN) 0 to VDDV Operating Temperature Range (TA) 40 to 85 C C Conditions Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings are those values beyond which the safety of the device cannot be guaranteed, they are not meant to imply that the devices should be operated at these limits. The table of Recommended Operating Conditions and Electrical Characteristics provides conditions for actual device operation. Note 2: VSS V unless otherwise specified 0 .

DC Electrical Characteristics

Symb Parameter ol bo Quiescent Device Current

Conditions
VDD =

5V,V| N = VDD orV ss V| N = DD = 10V, VDDorV ss

-40C +25C +85C Min Max Min Ty Max Min Max 20 0.0 20 150 p 40 0.0 40 300 1 1

Unit s uA uA

1 1

VOL

LOW Level Output

VOH

HIGH Level Output Voltage

VIL

LOW Level Input Voltage

VIH

HIGH Level Input

IOL

LOW Level Output (Note 3) Current

'OH

HIGH Level Output (Note 3) Current

IIN

Input Current

VDD = 15V, V| N = VDDorV ss L = OV,V| |I0|<1HA,V| VDD= 5V VDD = 10V VDD = 15V |lo|<1nA,V| L = OV,V| V= V 5V H DD= DD VDD = 10V VDD = 15V |l0|<1uA VDD= 5V, V 0 = VDD = 10V, V0 = 0.5Vor 4.5V VDD = 15V, V 0 = 1Vor9V 1.5V or 13.5V |l 0 |<1uA VDD= 5V, V 0 = VDD = 10V, V0 = 0.5Vor 4.5V VDD = 15V, V 0 = 1Vor9V 1.5V VDD,VI = VIH = or 13.5V OV VDD= 5V, V0 = o.4V VDD = 10V, V0 = o.5V VDD = 15V, V0 = 1.5V VIH = VDD ,VI = OV VDD= 5V, V0= 4.6V VDD = 10V, V0= 9.5V VDD = 15V, V 0 = 13.5V VDD = 15V, V|N= OV VDD = 15V, V,N = 15V
L L

80 0.05 0.05 0.05 4.95 9.95 14.9 5 1.5 3.0 4.0 3.5 7.0 11.0 0.52 1.3 3.6 -0.2 -0.5 -1.4 3.5 7.0 11.0 0.44 1.1 3.0

0.0 80 2 0 0.05 0 0.05 0 0.05 4.95 5 9.95 10 14.95 15 2.2 1.5 4.5 3.0 5 6.7 4.0 5 3.5 7.0 11.0 0.8 2.2 8 6.0 0.36 0.9 2.4 4.95 9.95 14.9 5

600 uA 0.05 V 0.05 V 0.05 V V V V 1.5 3.0 4.0 V V V V V V mA mA mA

-0.16 mA -0.4 0.3 -0.3 mA 0.1 -1.2 0.8 -1.0 mA 3.5 -0.3 -0.3 -1.0 uA 0.3 0.3 1.0 uA

CD4029 (Pre-settable Binary/Decade Up/Down Counter)


The CD4029BC is a pre-settable up/down counter which counts in either binary or decade mode depending on the voltage level applied at binary/decade input. When binary/ decade is at logical "1", the counter counts in binary, otherwise it counts in decade. Similarly, the counter counts up when the up/down input is at logical "1" and vice versa. A logical "1" preset enable signal allows information at the "jam" inputs to preset the counter to any state asynchronously with the clock.

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The counter is advanced one count at the positive-going edge of the clock if the carry in and preset enable inputs are at logical "0". Advancement is inhibited when either or both of these two inputs is at logical "1". The carry out signal is normally at logical "1" state and goes to logical "0" state when the counter reaches its maximum count in the up mode or the minimum count in the down mode provided the carry input is at logical 0 state. All inputs are protected against static discharge by diode clamps to both VDD and VSS.

Features Wide supply voltage range: 3V to 15V High noise immunity: 0.45 VDD (typ.) Low power TTL compatibility: fan out of 2 driving 74L or 1 driving 74LS Parallel jam inputs Binary or BCD decade up/down counting

Connection Diagram

1 3

Logic Diagram

1 4

Absolute Maximum Ratings DC Supply Voltage (VDD) - 0.5V to +18 VDC Input Voltage (VIN) - 0.5V to VDD + 0.5 VDC Storage Temperature Range (TS) - 65C to +150C Power Dissipation (PD)

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Dual-In-Line 700 mW Small Outline 500 mW Lead Temperature (TL) (Soldering, 10 seconds) Recommended Operating DC Supply Voltage (VDD) 3V to 15 VDC Input Voltage (VIN) 0V to VDD VDC Operating Temperature Range (TA) 40C to 85C Conditions Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings are those values beyond which the safety of the device cannot be guaranteed. Except for Operating Temperature Range they are not meant to imply that the devices should be operated at these limits. The table of Electrical Characteristics provides conditions for actual device operation. Note 2: VSS = 0V unless otherwise specified
.

DC Electrical Characteristics
Parameter Conditions -40C Min
bo Quiescent Device Current

+25C +85C Max 20 40 Min

Units Typ Max 20 40 Min Max 150 300 uA uA

VDD = 5V
VDD

= 10V

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VOL

LOW Level Output Voltage

= 15V lbl<1 ^
VDD VDD = VDD =

80 0.05 0.05 0 0

80 0.05 0.05

600 0.05 0.05

uA V V

5V 10V

VOH

HIGH Level Output Voltage

|lo|<1uA
VDD = VDD = VDD =

5V 10V

4.95 9.95 14.95 1.5 3.0 4.0 3.5 7.0 11.0 0.52 1.3 3.6 -0.52 -1.3 -3.6 -0.3 0.3

4.95 9.95 14.95

5 10 15 1.5 3.0 4.0

4.95 9.95 14.95 1.5 3.0 4.0 3.5 7.0 11.0

V V V V V V V V V mA mA mA mA mA mA -1.0 1.0 uA uA

VIL

LOW Level Input Voltage

VIH

HIGH Level Input Voltage

IOL

LOW Level Output Current (Note 3)

15V VDD = 5V, V0 = 0.5V or 4.5V VDD = 10V, V0=1Vor9V VDD = 1 5V, V0= 1.5V or 13.5V VDD = 5V, V0 = 0.5V or 4.5V VDD = 10V, V0=1Vor9V VDD = 1 5V, V0= 1.5V or 13.5V VDD = 5V, V0 = o.4V
VDD VDD

3.5 7.0 11.0 0.44 1.1 3.0 -0.44 -1.1 -3.0 0.88 2.25 8.8 -0.88 -2.25 -8.8 -10~5 10-5 -0.3 0.3

0.36 0.9 2.4 -0.36 -0.9 -2.4

= 10V,V0 = 0.5V = 15V, V0 = 1.5V = 5V, V0 = 4.6V = 10V,V0 = 9.5V

!QH

HIGH Level Output Current (Note 3)

VDD VDD VDD

IIN

Input Current

= 1 5V, V0= 13.5V V D D= 15V , V = O V N | VDD = 15V,V|N = 15V

CD 40106 (Hex Schmitt Trigger)


The CD40106BC Hex Schmitt Trigger is a monolithic complementaryMOS (CMOS) integrated circuit constructed with N and P-channel enhancement transistors. The positive and negative-going threshold voltages, VT+ and VT-,show low variation with respect to temperature (type 0.0005V/C at VDD = 10V), and hysteresis, VT+ - VT- 0.2VDD is guaranteed.

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All inputs are protected from damage due to static discharge by diode clamps to VDD and VSS. Features Wide supply voltage range: 3V to 15V High noise immunity: 0.7 VDD (typ.) Low power TTL compatibility: Fan out of 2 driving 74L or 1 driving 74LS Hysteresis: 0.4 VDD (typ.), 0.2 VDD guaranteed Equivalent to MM74C14 Equivalent to MC14584B

Connection Diagram
Pin Assignments for DIP and SOIC

1 8

Schematic Diagram

Absolute Maximum Ratings DC Supply Voltage (VDD) - 0.5 to +18 VDC Input Voltage (VIN) - 0.5 to VDD +0.5 VDC

1 9

Storage Temperature Range (TS) - 65C to +150C Power Dissipation (PD) Dual-In-Line 700 mW Small Outline 500 mW Lead Temperature (TL) (Soldering, 10 seconds) 260 Recommended Operating DC Supply Voltage (VDD) 3 to 15 VDC Input Voltage (VIN) 0 to VDD VDC Operating Temperature Range (TA) -40C to +85C Conditions Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings are those values beyond which the safety of the device cannot be guaranteed. They are not meant to imply that the devices should be operated at these limits. The table of Recommended Operating Conditions and Electrical Characteristics provides conditions for actual device operation. Note 2: VSS = 0V unless otherwise specified.

DC Electrical Characteristics
Symbo Parameter l
bo Quiescent Device Current LOW Level Output Voltage

Conditions

-40C

+25C

+85C

Units

Min Max Min Typ Max Min Max


VDD = 5V VDD = 10V VDD = 15V |l0|<1uA VDD = 5V VDD = 10V VDD = 15V |l0|<1uA VDD = 5V VDD = 10V VDD = 15V VDD = 5V, V0 = 4.5V VDD = 10V, V0 = 9V VDD = 15V, V0 = 13.5V VDD = 5V, V0 = o.5V VDD = 10V, V0 = 1V 4.0 8.0 16.0 0.05 0.05 0.05 4.95 9.95 14.9 5 0.7 1.4 2.1 3.0 6.0 4.95 9.95 14.9 5 0.7 1.4 2.1 3.0 6.0 5 10 15 1.4 3.2 5.0 3.6 6.8 4.0 8.0 16.0 0.05 0.05 0.05 4.95 0.95 14.9 5 0.7 1.4 2.1 3.0 6.0 30 60 120 0.05 0.05 0.05 uA uA uA V V V V V V V V V V V

VOL

VOH

HIGH Level Output Voltage

VT-

VT+

2 0

Negative-Going Voltage Threshold Positive-Going Voltage Threshold

2.0 4.0 6.0 4.3 8.6

2.0 4.0 6.0 4.3 8.6

2.0 4.0 6.0 4.3 8.6

VH

Hysteresis (VT+-VT_) Voltage LOW Level Output Current (Note 3) HIGH Level Output Current (Note 3) Input Current

IOL

!QH

IIN

= 15V, V0 = 1.5V 9.0 12.9 VDD = 5V 1.0 3.6 VDD = 10V 2.0 7.2 VDD = 15V 3.0 10.8 VDD = 5V, V0 = o.4V 0.52 VDD = 10V, V0 = 0.5V 1.3 VDD = 15V, V0 = 1.5V 3.6 VDD = 5V, V0 = 4.6V VDD = 10V, V0 = 9.5V -1.3 0.52 VDD = 15V, V0 = 13.5V -3.6 VDD = 15V, V|N = OV VDD = 15V, VIM = 15V 0.30
VDD

9.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 0.44 1.1 3.0 -1.1 0.44 -3.0

10.0 2.2 3.6 5.0 0.88 2.25 8.8 0.88 -8.8 2.25 -10-5 io-5

12.9 3.6 7.2 10.8

9.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 0.36 0.9 2.4 -0.9 0.36 -2.4

12.9 3.6 7.2 10.8

0.30

-1.0 1.0

V V V V mA mA mA mA mA mA uA uA

AC Electrical Characteristics
TA = 25C, CL = 50 pF, RL = 200k, tr and tf = 20 ns, unless otherwise specified
Symbol Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Units

tpHL or tPLH

Propagation Delay Time from VDD = 5V Input to Output VDD = 10V VDD = 15V

220 80 70 100 50 40 5 14

400 200 160 200 100 80 7.5

ns ns ns ns ns ns PF PF

tTHL or t

TLH

Transition Time

VDD = 5V VDD = 10V VDD = 15V

CIN CPD

Average Input Capacitance Power Dissipation Capacity

Any Input Any Gate (Note 5)

ULN2803 (HIGH-VOLTAGE, HIGH-CURRENT DARLINGTON ARRAYS)


Featuring continuous load current ratings to 500 mA for each of the drivers, the Series ULN28xxA/LW and ULQ28xxA/LW high voltage, high-current Darlington arrays are ideally

2 1

suited for interfacing between low-level logic circuitry and multiple peripheral power loads. Typical power loads totaling over 260 W (350 mA x 8, 95 V) can be controlled at an appropriate duty cycle depending on ambient temperature and number of drivers turned on simultaneously. Typical loads include relays, solenoids, stepping motors, magnetic print hammers, multiplexed LED and incandescent displays, and heaters. All devices feature open collector outputs with integral clamp diodes. The ULx2803A, ULx2803LW, ULx2823A, and ULN2823LW have series input resistors selected for operation directly with 5 V TTL or CMOS. These devices will handle numerous interface needs particularly those beyond the capabilities of standard logic buffers. The ULx2804A, ULx2804LW, ULx2824A, and ULN2824LW have series input resistors for operation directly from 6 V to 15 V CMOS or PMOS logic outputs. The ULx2803A/LW and ULx2804A/LW are the standard Darlington arrays. The outputs are capable of sinking 500 mA and will withstand at least 50 V in the off state. Outputs may be paralleled for higher load current capability. The ULx2823A/LW and ULx2824A/ LW will withstand 95 V in the off state. These Darlington arrays are furnished in 18-pin dual in-line plastic packages (suffix A) or 18lead small-outline plastic packages (suffix LW). All devices are pinned with outputs opposite inputs to facilitate ease of circuit board layout. Prefix ULN devices are rated for operation over the temperature range of -20C to +85C; prefix ULQ devices are rated for operation to -40C. FEATURES

TTL, DTL, PMOS, or CMOS Compatible Inputs Output Current to 500 mA Output Voltage to 95 V Transient-Protected Outputs Dual In-Line Package or Wide-Body Small-Outline Package

Connection Diagram

2 2

Absolute Maximum Ratings Output Voltage, VCE (x2803x and x2804x) 50 V (x2823x and x2824x)...................95 V Input Voltage, V!N...........................................30 V Continuous Output Current, Ic 500 mA Continuous Input Current, IIN... 25 mA Power Dissipation, PD (one Darlington pair)................. 1.0 W (total package).................... See Graph Operating Temperature Range, TA Prefix 'ULN'.............. -20C to + 85C Prefix 'ULQ'.............. -40C to +85C Storage Temperature Range, Ts......................................................-55C to +150C

COMPONENTS USED
2 3

IC1IC2 IC3 & IC8 IC4 IC5 IC6 IC7 IC9 T1 D1-D10 BR1 LED -

TSOP1738 IR Receiver module CD4013 dual D-type flip-flop NE555 timer CD4029 up/down counter CD4028 BCD-to-decimal decoder ULN2803 Darlington pair driver CD40106 NOT gate 7805C 5V regulator PNP Transistor 1N4148switching Diode 500mA bridge rectifier Red, Green & IR LED

Resistors (all -watt, 5% carbon): R1,R6,R7,R10 R2 R3-R5 R8 R9 R11 VR1 VR2 330 ohm 1 K 10K 3.3K 5.6K 12 100K Preset 4.7K Preset

Capacitor: C1 C2-C4 1F,16V electrolytic 0.01F ceramic disk

2 4

C5 C6 Miscellaneous: X1 S1-S2 Battery Stepper Motor

1000F,16V electrolytic 0.1F ceramic disk

230V AC primary to 3V-0-3V, 350mA secondary transformer Push-to-on switch 6 Volt

RESISTOR

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The resistor's function is to reduce the flow of electric current. This symbol is used to indicate a resistor in a circuit diagram. Resistance value is designated in units called the "Ohm." A 1000 Ohm resistor is typically shown as 1K-Ohm ( kilo Ohm ), and 1000 K-Ohms is written as 1M-Ohm (megaohm). There are two classes of resistors; fixed resistors and the variable resistors.

Fixed Resistors
A fixed resistor is one in which the value of its resistance cannot change.

Variable Resistors
A variable resister is one in which the value of its resistance can be easily change . The physical sizes of the different resistors are as follows.

Rough size Rating Thickness Length power (mm) (mm) (W) 1/8
From the top of the 1/8W 1/4W 1/2W photograph

2 2 3

3 6 9

1/4 1/2

RESISTOR COLOUR CODE

2 2 7 6

Color Black

Value 0

Multiplie Tolerance r (%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 -1 -2 1 2 0.05 0.5 0.25 0.1 5 10 20

Brown 1 Red
Example 1 (Brown=1),(Black=0),(Orange=3) 10 x 103 = 10k ohm Tolerance(Gold) = 5%

Orange 3 Yellow 4 Green Blue Violet Gray White 5 6 7 8 9 -

Example 2 (Yellow=4),(Violet=7),(Black=0),(Red=2) 470 x 102 = 47k ohm Tolerance(Brown) = 1%

Gold Silver None

CAPACITORS
The capacitors function is to store electricity or electrical energy. The capacitor also functions as a filter, passing alternating current(AC) and blocking direct current(DC). This symbol is used to indicate a capacitor in a circuit diagram. The capacitor is constructed with two electrode plates facing each other but separated by an insulator. When DC voltage is applied to the capacitor, an electric charge is stored on each electrode. While the capacitor is charging up, current flows. The current will stop flowing when the capacitor has fully charged. The value of capacitor (the capacitance) is designated in units called the Farad(F). The capacitance of a capacitor is generally very small, so units such as the microfarad (10-6F), nanafarad (10-9F) and picofarad (10-12F) are used.

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Ceramic Capacitors
Ceramic capacitors are constructed with materials such as titanium acid barium used as the dielectric. Internally, these capacitors are not constructed as a coil, so they can be used in high frequency applications. Typically, they are used in circuits which bypass high frequency signals to ground. These capacitors have the shape of a disk. Their capacitance is comparatively small. The capacitor on the left is a 100pF capacitor with a diameter of about 3 mm. The capacitor on the right side is printed with 103, so 10 x 103pF becomes 0.01 F. The diameter of the disk is about 6 mm. Ceramic capacitors have no polarity. Ceramic capacitors should not be used for analog circuits, because they can distort the signal.

Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors

Ceramic capacitors

Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors


The multilayer ceramic capacitor has a many-layered dielectric. These capacitors are small in size, and have good temperature and frequency characteristics Square wave signals used in digital circuits can have a comparatively high frequency component included. This capacitor is used to bypass the high frequency to ground. In the photograph, the capacitance of the component on the left is displayed as 104. So, the capacitance is 10 x 104 pF = 0.1 F. The thickness is 2 mm, the height is 3 mm, the width is 4 mm. The capacitor to the right has a capacitance of 103 (10 x 103 pF = 0.01 F). The height is 4 mm, the diameter of the round part is 2 mm. These capacitors are not polarized. That is, they have no polarity.

Variable Capacitors
Variable capacitors are used for adjustment etc. of frequency mainly. On the left in the photograph is a "trimmer," which uses ceramic as the dielectric. Next to it on the right is one that uses

2 9

polyester film for the dielectric. The pictured components are meant to be mounted on a printed circuit board. When adjusting the value of a variable capacitor, it is advisable to be careful. One of the component's leads is connected to the adjustment screw of the capacitor. This means that the value of the capacitor can be affected by the capacitance of the screwdriver in your hand. It is better to use a special screwdriver to adjust these components. Pictured in the upper left photograph are variable capacitors with the following specifications: Capacitance: 20pF (3pF - 27pF measured). [Thickness 6 mm, height 4.8 mm] including the adjustment rod.)

Variable capacitors

3 0

DIODES
A diode is a semiconductor device which allows current to flow through it in only one direction. Although a transistor is also a semiconductor device, it does not operate the way a diode does. A diode is specifically made to allow current to flow through it in only one direction. Some ways in which the diode can be used are listed here. A diode can be us ed as a rectifier that converts AC (Alternating Current) to DC (Direct Current) for a power supply device. Diodes can be used to separate the signal from radio frequencies. Diodes can be used as an on/off switch that controls current. This symbol is used to indicate a diode in a circuit diagram. The meaning of the symbol is (Anode) (Cathode). Current flows from the anode side to the cathode side. There are different types suited to different applications. For example, the following devices are best used for the applications noted.

Voltage regulation diode (Zener Diode)


The circuit symbol is . It is used to regulate voltage, by taking advantage of the fact that Zener diodes tend to stabilize at a certain voltage when that voltage is applied in the opposite direction.

Light emitting diode


The circuit symbol is . This type of diode emits light when current flows through it in the forward direction. (Forward biased.)

3 1

Variable capacitance diode


The circuit symbol is . The current does not flow when applying the voltage of the opposite direction to the diode. In this condition, the diode has a capacitance like the capacitor. It is a very small capacitance. The capacitance of the diode changes when changing voltage. With the change of this capacitance, the frequency of the oscillator can be changed.

NPN General Purpose Amplifier (BC548)


This device is designed for use as general-purpose amplifiers and switches requiring collector currents to 300 mA

3 2 3 3

STEPPER MOTOR
A stepper motor is a type of motor that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy via the principles of electro magnetism and it is also known as steppers, such motors were used as early as the 1920s. Their use has skyrocketed with the popularity of embedded systems, including printers, disk drives, toys, windshield wipers, vibrating pagers, robotic arms, and video cameras.

Stepper Motor Whenever something is required to move from one position to another (whether the application is industrial, military, medical, automotive, or entertainment), you can bet that a step motor is the driving force. Step motors come in many shapes and sizes, but most fall into one of two categories: the variable reluctance stepper or the permanent magnet stepper. This article focuses on the simpler and more popular permanent magnet stepper.

A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless, synchronous electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps. The motor's position can be controlled precisely without any feedback mechanism (see Open-loop controller), as long as the motor is carefully sized to the application. Stepper motors are similar to switched reluctance motors (which are very large stepping motors with a reduced pole count, and generally are closed-loop commutated.)

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Fundamentals of Operation
Stepper motors operate differently from DC brush motors, which rotate when voltage is applied to their terminals. Stepper motors, on the other hand, effectively have multiple "toothed" electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. The electromagnets are energized by an external control circuit, such as a microcontroller. To make the motor shaft turn, first one electromagnet is given power, which makes the gear's teeth magnetically attracted to the electromagnet's teeth. When the gear's teeth are thus aligned to the first electromagnet, they are slightly offset from the next electromagnet. So when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off, the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one, and from there the process is repeated. Each of those slight rotations is called a "step," with an integer number of steps making a full rotation. In that way, the motor can be turned by a precise angle.

Stepper motor characteristics


1. Stepper motors are constant power devices. 2. As motor speed increases, torque decreases. 3. The torque curve may be extended by using current limiting drivers and increasing the driving voltage. 4. Steppers exhibit more vibration than other motor types, as the discrete step tends to snap the rotor from one position to another. 5. This vibration can become very bad at some speeds and can cause the motor to lose torque. 6. The effect can be mitigated by accelerating quickly through the problem speeds range, physically damping the system, or using a micro-stepping driver. 7. Motors with a greater number of phases also exhibit smoother operation than those with fewer phases. There are three main types of stepper motors: 1. Permanent Magnet Stepper 2. Hybrid Synchronous Stepper 3. Variable Reluctance Stepper Permanent magnet motors use a permanent magnet (PM) in the rotor and operate on the attraction or repulsion between the rotor PM and the stator electromagnets. Variable reluctance (VR) motors have a plain iron rotor and operate based on the principle of that minimum reluctance occurs with minimum gap, hence the rotor points are attracted toward the stator magnet poles. Hybrid stepper motors are named because they use a combination of PM and VR techniques to achieve maximum power in a small package size.

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STEPPER MOTOR CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING


Stepper motor movement is made possible by wires that are wound around teeth on a stator, the stationary part of a motor, as shown in Figure 1. In general, a wire wound in a coil-like shape is called a solenoid. In a motor, the wire that is wound around the teeth is called a winding, coil, or phase. If current is flowing in the direction shown in Figure 1 and we view the motor from the top looking down at the top of the teeth, the current makes a counterclockwise motion around each of the two teeth. According to Ampere's Law and the right hand rule, this induces a magnetic field with the north pole of the field pointing up. Now suppose we build a device with two windings on the stationary part. Inside we put a permanent magnet that is free to rotate about its center. The rotating piece is called the rotor.

Figure 22: A stator with two teeth and one winding

Figure-22(a)

Figure-22(b)

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Figure-22(c)

Figure-22(d)

The simple motor shown in Figure 22a is called a two-phase, two-pole motor because the stator has two phases (windings), and the rotor has two magnetic poles. If we send current through winding 1 in the direction shown in Figure 22a, with no current through winding 2, the rotor will naturally align itself in the direction shown in Figure 22a, with its south pole pointing in the north direction of the stator's magnetic field. Now suppose we remove current from winding 1 and instead apply current to winding 2 in the direction shown in Figure 22b. The stator's magnetic field will point to the left, and the rotor will rotate such that its south pole is aligned with the stator's magnetic field. Next we remove current from winding 2 and apply current to winding 1 in the direction shown in Figure 22c. Note that the current in winding 1 is opposite the current shown in Figure 22a. This will result in a stator field pointing down, so the rotor will rotate to the position where its south pole is pointing down. Next we remove current from winding 1 and apply current to winding 2 in the direction shown in Figure 22d. This will result in the stator field pointing to the right, so the rotor will rotate to the position where its south pole is pointing to the right. Finally, we remove current from winding 2 and apply current to winding 1 in the direction shown in Figure 22a, returning the rotor to the original position. At this point we have completed one cycle of electrical excitation of the motor windings, while the rotor has rotated one complete revolution. In other words, the electrical frequency of the motor is equal to the mechanical frequency of the motor. If we take one second to sequence through the four steps shown in Figure 22, the electrical frequency is 1Hz. The rotor has rotated once, so the mechanical frequency is also 1Hz. In general,

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for a two-phase stepper, it can be shown that the relationship between electrical and mechanical frequency is given by the equation: Fe = fm P / 2 (1) Where Fe is the electrical frequency, fm is the mechanical frequency, and P is the number of equally-spaced magnetic poles on the rotor. We also can see from Figure 22 that one step of the motor results in a rotation of 90 . In general, for a two-phase stepper, it can be shown that one step results in a rotation given by the equation: 1 step = 180/ P (2) This equation says that a two-pole motor will rotate 180/ 2 = 90 per step, which is consistent with what we observe in Figure 22. The equation also shows that a greater number of poles results in better stepping resolution. It is common to find two-phase steppers with anywhere between 12 and 200 poles, which results in a stepping resolution of anywhere between 15 and 0.9.

Figure 23: A two-phase, six-pole motor In another example, Figure 3 shows four electrical steps of a two-phase, six-pole motor. As shown in the figure, the rotor consists of three permanent magnets and, therefore, six magnetic poles. In Figure 23, we apply voltage to stator winding 1 so the stator field has a north pole at the

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top of the stator. This causes one of the rotor's south poles (the red "S" in Figure 23) to rotate to the top of the figure. At the next step, in Figure 3b, we apply voltage to stator winding 2 so the stator field has a north pole at the left of the stator. This causes a rotation so that the nearest south pole of the rotor is at the left of the figure; in other words, the rotor moves 30 clockwise. In Figure 3c, we apply voltage to stator winding 1 so the stator field has a north pole at the bottom of the figure. This again causes a 30 clockwise rotation of the rotor to the position shown in Figure 223. In Figure 23, we apply voltage to stator winding 2 so the stator field has a north pole at the right of the stator. This results in another 30 clockwise rotation of the rotor to the position shown in Figure 3d. Finally, we again apply voltage to stator winding 1 so the stator field has a north pole at the top of the stator, as shown in Figure 3a. This again causes a 30 clockwise rotation of the rotor and completes one electrical cycle. It can be seen that four electrical steps result in a mechanical rotation of 120. In other words, the electrical frequency is three times the mechanical frequency, which is consistent with Equation 1. We also observe from Figure 23 and Equation 2 that the rotor rotates 30 in one step.

Figure 24: Exciting both motor windings simultaneously We can increase the motor torque by sending current through both windings simultaneously. Figure 4 shows this process. The stator's magnetic field is the vector sum of the two individual winding magnetic fields. The stator's magnetic field still rotates in 90 steps, just as it did in Figures 22 and 23, but now the magnetic field is stronger because we are exciting both motor windings simultaneously. Since the stator's magnetic field is the vector sum of two perpendicular fields, the magnetic field increases by a factor of 22 1.414. This results in a proportionally higher torque applied by the motor to its load

Excitation Sequences

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Now that we have seen what sequence of excitations will cause a stepper to rotate, we need to put some hardware together to implement the desired stepping sequence. A piece of hardware (or a combination of hardware and software) that causes a motor to run is called a motor drive. We can see from Figure 24 what sequence of excitations we need to apply to the windings of a two-phase motor in order to cause rotation. The motor leads are labeled 1A, 1B, 2A, and 2B in Figure 24. Leads 1A and 1B are the two leads of winding 1, and leads 2A and 2B are the two leads of winding 2. For the first step, we need to apply a positive voltage to leads 1B and 2B and ground leads 1A and 2A. For the second step, we need to apply a positive voltage to leads 1B and 2A and ground leads 1A and 2B. (This actually depends on the direction that the leads are wound around the teeth. We will assume that they are wound in the direction that makes the previous statement correct.) Continuing through the other steps, we can summarize the excitation sequence as shown in Table 1, where a "1" means positive voltage and "0" means ground.

Figure 25: An H-bridge circuit can be used to drive each winding Because current can flow in either direction in each winding lead, this is called a bipolar motor and a bipolar drive sequence. A bipolar motor drive is usually built with a circuit called an H- bridge. The schematic of an H-bridge connected to two leads of a stepper is shown in Figure 25. A constant DC voltage supply (whose magnitude depends on the motor specification) is connected to the H-bridge through a resistor. The circuit is connected through four switches (labeled S1, S2, S3, and S4) to the two leads of a winding. The arrangement of the schematic looks something like a capital letter H, hence the denotation H-bridge. From Table 1, we see that the first step requires logic 0 at lead 2A and a logic 1 at lead 2B. We can achieve this by closing switches S1 and S4 and opening S2 and S3. The second step requires logic 1 at lead 2A and a logic 0 at lead 2B. We can achieve this by closing S2 and S3 and

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opening S1 and S4. Similarly, the third step is achieved by keeping S2 and S3 closed and S1 and S4 open. The fourth step is achieved by closing S1 and S4 and opening S2 and S3. A similar line of reasoning can be followed for winding 1. We see that a pair of H-bridges can be used to generate the excitation sequence. This results in a table listing the switch positions for each step as shown in Table 2. Note that if R = 0 and switches S1 and S3 are inadvertently closed at the same time, the current through the switches will approach infinity. This will burn up the switches and maybe also the power supply, which is why there's a nonzero resistor in the circuit. Although it dissipates power and makes the motor drive less efficient, the resistor provides protection against a short circuit.

Permanent Magnet Stepper Motors (PM)


The most common type of stepper motor we'll run across is the permanent magnet (PM) stepper. As you might suspect from the name, PM steppers have a permanent magnet in them -- in the form of a rotor magnetized in alternate polarity "stripes" parallel to the rotor shaft.

Permanent magnet stepper motor layout The step size (angular resolution) of a given motor is entirely a function of the angular "width" of these magnetized stripes -- 30 degrees is common, although steps down to 7.5 degrees are not unheard of in even very inexpensive motors. Given this construction, we'll most often run into two different wiring configurations -unipolar and bipolar. I'll start with the bipolar configuration since its a bit simpler.

Bipolar Stepper Motor

Bipolar stepper motor layout Bipolar stepper motors generally have four leads, in two pairs, each pair powering one coil. These motors are common and cheap as an example, the stepper motor that drives a floppy drive read / write head is a bipolar stepper motor. To rotate the motor, we simply supply the two coils with phase-shifted pulse trains. If you have no data on a given bipolar motor, you can identify which leads correspond to the windings of the motor with an ohmmeter just check for continuity between the leads at the end of each winding.

Unipolar Stepper Motor


Unipolar stepper motors generally have six leads, in two triplets, each triplet powering one coil with a center tap. On occasion, you'll find a unipolar stepper with only five leads -- here the two "common" leads (center taps) have been tied together internally.

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UNIPOLAR STEPPER MOTOR Note that a unipolar motor's rotor is identical to a bipolar motor's rotor. Often unipolar motors are controlled by using the center taps as a common point (cathode or anode), and then just switching drive voltage from one end of the given coil to the other (to reverse coil polarity).This avoids the need for an H-bridge or similar motor driver. We can also drive unipolar stepper motors in a bipolar fashion (i.e. by just ignoring the center taps). If we have no data on a given unipolar motor, you will need to work a bit to find which leads correspond to each winding. Using an ohmmeter, look for pairs of leads with equal resistance between them -- the common of each triplet will have equal resistance to two other leads and high (essentially infinite) resistance to all the leads in the other triplet.

BASIC STEPPING MOTOR CONTROL CIRCUITS


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Variable Reluctance Motors


Typical controllers for variable reluctance stepping motors are variations on the outline shown in Figure 3.1:

Fig. 26.1
In Figure 26.1, boxes are used to represent switches; a control unit, not shown, is responsible for providing the control signals to open and close the switches at the appropriate times in order to spin the motors. In many cases, the control unit will be a computer or programmable interface controller, with software directly generating the outputs needed to control the switches, but in other cases, additional control circuitry is introduced, sometimes gratuitously! Motor windings, solenoids and similar devices are all inductive loads. As such, the current through the motor winding cannot be turned on or off instantaneously without involving infinite voltages! When the switch controlling a motor winding is closed, allowing current to flow, the result of this is a slow rise in current. When the switch controlling a motor winding is opened, the result of this is a voltage spike that can seriously damage the switch unless care is taken to deal with it appropriately. There are two basic ways of dealing with this voltage spike. One is to bridge the motor winding with a diode, and the other is to bridge the motor winding with a capacitor. Figure 26.2 illustrates both approaches:

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Fig. 26.2

The diode shown in Figure 26.2 must be able to conduct the full current through the motor winding, but it will only conduct briefly each time the switch is turned off, as the current through the winding decays. If relatively slow diodes such as the common 1N400X family are used together with a fast switch, it may be necessary to add a small capacitor in parallel with the diode. The capacitor shown in Figure 26.2 poses more complex design problems! When the switch is closed, the capacitor will discharge through the switch to ground, and the switch must be able to handle this brief spike of discharge current. A resistor in series with the capacitor or in series with the power supply will limit this current. When the switch is opened, the stored energy in the motor winding will charge the capacitor up to a voltage significantly above the supply voltage, and the switch must be able to tolerate this voltage. To solve for the size of the capacitor, we equate the two formulas for the stored energy in a resonant circuit: P=CV2/2 P=LI2/2 Where: P -- stored energy, in watt seconds or coulomb volts C -- capacity, in farads V -- voltage across capacitor L -- inductance of motor winding, in henrys I -- current through motor winding

Solving for the minimum size of capacitor required to prevent over voltage on the switch is fairly easy: C > L I 2 / (Vb - Vs) 2 Where: Vb -- the breakdown voltage of the switch Vs -- the supply voltage

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Variable reluctance motors have variable inductance that depends on the shaft angle. Therefore, worst-case design must be used to select the capacitor. Furthermore, motor inductances are frequently poorly documented, if at all. The capacitor and motor winding, in combination, form a resonant circuit. If the control system drives the motor at frequencies near the resonant frequency of this circuit, the motor current through the motor windings, and therefore, the torque exerted by the motor, will be quite different from the steady state torque at the nominal operating voltage. The resonant frequency is: f = 1 / (2 (L C)0.5)

Again, the electrical resonant frequency for a variable reluctance motor will depend on shaft angle! When a variable reluctance motors is operated with the exciting pulses near resonance, the oscillating current in the motor winding will lead to a magnetic field that goes to zero at twice the resonant frequency, and this can severely reduce the available torque!

PCB DESIGN AND LAYOUT

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Introduction
The semiconductor technology of integrated circuits is the driving force behind elex. Systems development. However, the printed circuit board is an essential part of an overall system, since equipment is built up by connecting active devices together into maneuverable cost effective locks. The PCB is an interconnection system, which is multi-level, highly-conductive and has a low medium dielectric constant. These attributes have made the PCB the standard, almost universal, method of reconstruction for practically all-electronic systems. The printed ckt. Provides mechanical support as well as functional electrical interconnection for the components and safe thermal management. Initially, the PCB was developed to produce an interconnection technology which facilitated mass production & mass assembly, and gave economics of weight, and space close control over ckt electrical parameters is easily achieved by the repeatability of the dielectric constant and dielectric thickness & consistency of line width. The current carrying capacity is that of copper. Thus, PCB can be defined as the board including printed components as well as the printed wiring pattern. Printed circuits greatly simplify mass production & increased equipment reliability. There most important contribution is the tremendous education achieved in the size and weight of electronic devices. Printed circuits are used in practically all types of electronic equipment, radio, television, all telephone system units, electrical wiring behind automobile dashboards, guided missile, airborne electronic equipments, computers and industrial control equipments.

Advantages of PCB
Printed ckts arte of interest to industry because1. They are the common denominator for almost all approaches to mechanical fabrications of electronic equipments.
2. Their use as greatly reduced the labour required for the wiring of an electronic ckt.

3. They can be manufactured uniformly because graphic art processes provide reportable results. 4. They uniformly improve the product through simplification of utility control.
5. Precision capabilities of graphic art, processors, particularly in integrated circuits, above

results in significant size & weight reduction, which are especially important in electronics equipments for such application as medical instrumentation and space exploration.

Layout and Fabrication Techniques


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1. Circuit diagram
The circuit diagram of computerized electrical equipment control is based on fabricated by our project group is taken from EFY magazine. Although we had surveyed for the various circuits of analog capacitance meter and studied about their advantages and disadvantages but we find the circuit taken from EFY to be the best one and so we decide to fabricate the same,. We also made many researches on the Internet to find out the related topics to find out much knowledge about the topic.

2. Lay out
The detailed circuit diagram is very important for the layout designer but we also are familiar with design concepts and the philosophy behind the equipment. Only with this mind, we will be able to bring out results, which do not call for modification again & again. Keeping these considerations in mind, we design the PCB layout of circuit diagram. We have also tried for no jumpers and that the copper tracks should be as thin as possible and shorter routes of Cu tracks should be adopted. The spacing of the Cu tracks should be such that they do not get short and are suitable for handwork, as we are not adopting the screening technique.

3. Art work
After designing the layout in proper dimensions, we trace in another place. Then we painted the tracks with paint. Then we keep it to 3 hours so that the paint gets dry.

4. Etching
After drying, the PCB plate is dipped into the solution of FeCl3+HCl. The following reaction takes place: 2FeCl3 + 3Cu - 3CuCl2 + 2Fe 2Fe + 6HCl - 2FeCl3 + 3H2

The unwanted Cu which was not protected by the paint, gets dissolved in FeCl3 + HCl solution and we get the printed circuit on the plate . Then we remove the paint from the tracks with the help of thinner and finally we get the PCB.

5. Drilling

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After etching, we drill the points to be soldered with the help of drilling machine and using the drill bits of 0.8mm for IC points and 1mm point for other component points.

6. Soldering
Finally we solder the components on the PCB. Joining of interconnection in electronic circuits is done by soft solder having composition 40%Pb & 60%Sn. A soldering iron of 10 watt is used.

PCB LAY OUT

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APPLICATIONS

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PLEASE WRITE THE APPLICATION FROM YOUR OWN MIND..

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU. CSI issue 4,aug 2007. GOOGLE.COM ROBERT L. BOYLESTAD HOBBYELECTRONICS.COM CHUKS ROBOTICS NOTEBOOK, PRACTICE. WIKIPEDIA.COM MOBILEROBOTS.COM