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Ambroksol HCL

nama dagang

- Ambril - Broxal - Interpec

- Brommer 30 - Epexol - Lapimuc - Mucopect / - Mucolica Mucopect Retard - Nufanibro - Silopect Transmuco

- Bronchopront - Extropect - Molapect - Mucos

- Broncozol - Gunapect - Mucera - Mucoxol

- Sohopect / Sohopect Forte Transbroncho

dosis

Oral : 60-120 mg per hari dalam 2-3 dosis terbagi. Dapat juga diberikan secara inhalasi, injeksi atau rektal.
indikasi

Terapi pada penyakit saluran pernafasan akut dan kronik yang disertai dengan sekresi bronkus yang abnormal, terutama pada bronkitis kronik eksaserbasi, asthmatic bronchitis dan bronchial asthma.
kontraindikasi

Absolut kontra indikasi masih belum diketahui


efek samping

Gangguan ringan pada saluran pencernaan, reaksi alergi


interaksi

Dengan Obat Lain : Dengan Makanan : -

mekanisme kerja

Ambroksol merupakan metabolit aktif N-desmethyl dari mukolitik

Bromheksin. Mekanismenya belum diketahui secara pasti, kemungkinan meningkatkan kuantitas dan menurunkan viskositas sekresi tracheobronchial. Selain itu, kemungkinan juga berperan sebagai ekspektoran, dengan meningkatkan mucociliary transport melalui stimulasi motilitas silia. Ambroksol menstimulasi sintesis dan sekresi surfaktan paru (sebagai aktivator surfaktan).
bentuk sediaan

Tablet 30 mg, Sirup 15 mg/5 ml, Eliksir 15 mg/5 ml, 30 mg/5 ml


parameter monitoring

Perbaikan gejala
stabilitas penyimpanan

Disimpan terlindung dari cahaya


informasi pasien

Hindari makanan lain yang dapat menyebabkan sekresi mukus berlebihan

http://medicatherapy.com/index.php/content/read/179/info-obat/ambroksol-hcl

Ambroxol
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ambroxol

Systematic (IUPAC) name

trans-4-(2-Amino-3,5-dibrombenzylamino)-cyclohexanol

Clinical data

AHFS/Drugs.com

International Drug Names

Pregnancy cat.

Legal status

Identifiers

CAS number

18683-91-5

ATC code

R05CB06

PubChem

CID 2132

ChemSpider

10276826

UNII

200168S0CL

KEGG

D07442

ChEMBL

CHEMBL153479

Chemical data

Formula

C13H18Br2N2O

Mol. mass

378.10

SMILES

eMolecules & PubChem

InChI[show]

(what is this?) (verify)

Ambroxol hydrochloride tablets in Japan

Ambroxol is a secretolytic agent used in the treatment of respiratory diseases associated with viscid or excessive mucus. It is the active ingredient of Mucosolvan, Mucobrox, Lasolvan, Mucoangin, and Lysopain. The substance is a mucoactive drug with several properties including secretolytic andsecretomotoric actions that restore the physiological clearance mechanisms of the respiratory tract, which play an important role in the bodys natural defence mechanisms. It stimulates synthesis and release of surfactant by type II pneumocytes. Surfactants acts as an anti-glue factor by reducing the adhesion of mucus to the bronchial wall, in improving its transport and in providing protection against infection and irritating agents.[1] Ambroxol is indicated as "secretolytic therapy in bronchopulmonary diseases associated with abnormal mucus secretion and impaired mucus transport. It promotes mucus clearance, facilitates expectoration and eases productive cough, allowing patients to breathe freely and deeply".[2] There are many different formulations developed since the first marketing authorisation in 1978. Ambroxol is available as syrup, tablets, pastilles, dry powder sachets, inhalation solution, drops and ampules as well as effervescent tablets. Ambroxol also provides pain relief in acute sore throat. Pain in sore throat is the hallmark of acute pharyngitis.[3] Sore throat is usually caused by a viral infection. The infection is self limited and the patient recovers normally after a few days. What is most bothering for the patient is the continuous pain in the throat maximized when the patient is swallowing. The main goal of treatment is thus to reduce pain. The main property of Ambroxol for treating sore throat is the local anaesthetic effect, described first in the late 1970s,[4][5] but explained and confirmed in more recent work. Ambroxol is a very potent inhibitor of the neuronal Na+ channels.[6] This property led to the development of a lozenge containing 20 mg of ambroxol. Many state-of-the-art clinical studies[7] have demonstrated the efficacy of Ambroxol in relieving pain in acute sore throat, with a fast onset of action and a long duration of effect of at least 3 hours. Additional anti-inflammatory properties of Ambroxol are of clinical relevance since treatment lead to a marked reduction of redness of the patients sore throat.

References
1. ^ Sanderson RJ et al. Morphological and physical basis for lung surfactant action. Respir Phys 1976; 27: 379-392.; Kido H et al. Secretory leukoprotease inhibitor and pulmonary surfactant serve as principal defenses against influenza A virus infection in the airway and chemical agents up-regulating their levels may have therapeutic potential. Biol Chem 2004; 385: 1029-1034) 2. ^ (Malerba and Ragnoli. Ambroxol in the 21st century: pharmacological and clinical update. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2008; 4(8): 1119-1129) 3. ^ (de Mey et al. Efficacy and safety of ambroxol lozenges in the treatment of acute uncomplicated sore throat. Arzneimittelforschung 2008; 58(11): 557 - 568) 4. ^ (Pueschmann S et al. Pharmacological study on the bromhexine-metabolite ambroxol. Pharmakologische Untersuchungen des Bromhexin-Metaboliten Ambroxol. Arzneimittelforschung 1978; 28: 889 898. 5. ^ Klier KF and Papendick U. The local anaesthetic effect of eye drops containing NA 872. Die lokalanaesthetische Wirkung von NA-872-haltigen Augentropfen. Med Monatsschr. 1977; 31: 575 578) 6. ^ (Weiser T. Comparison of the effects of four Na+ channel analgesics on TTX-resistant Na+ currents in rat sensory neurons and recombinant Nav1.2 channels. Neurosci Lett. 2006; 395: 179 184) 7. ^ (de Mey et al. Efficacy and safety of ambroxol lozenges in the treatment of acute uncomplicated sore throat. Arzneimittelforschung 2008; 58(11): 557 568)

Type II pneumocyte
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Type II pneumocyte

Code

TH H3.05.02.0.0029

Type II pneumocytes also called great alveolar cells or septal cells are granular and roughly cuboidal in shape. Type II pneumocytes are typically found at the alveolar-septal junction. Although they comprise 60% of the alveolar lining cells, because of their shape they cover a much smaller surface area than type I cells (<5%). [1]

[edit]Development
Type II cells start to develop at about 24 weeks of gestation, secreting small amounts of surfactant. However, adequate amounts of surfactant are not secreted until about 35 weeks of gestation - this is the main reason for

increased incidence rates of Infant respiratory distress syndrome, which drastically reduces at ages above 35 weeks gestation.

[edit]Function
Type II cells are responsible for the production and secretion of surfactant (the majority of which are dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine), a group of phospholipids that reduce the alveolar surface tension. Surfactant phospholipids are stored in Type II pneumocytes in lamellar bodies, which are specialized vesicles. Release of surfactant in lamellar bodies occurs from an infant's first breath onwards. Type II pneumocytes can replicate in the alveoli and will replicate to replace damaged Type I pneumocytes. MUC1, a human gene associated with type II pneumocytes, has been identified as a marker in lung cancer.[2]

[edit]References

1. 2.

^ "Histology, A Text and Atlas, Sixth Edition," 2011, by Ross, Michael H, and Pawlina, Wojciech ^ Jarrard JA, Linnoila RI, Lee H, Steinberg SM, Witschi H, Szabo E (December 1998). "MUC1 is a novel marker for the type II pneumocyte lineage during lung carcinogenesis". Cancer Res. 58 (23): 5582 9. PMID 9850098.

Antiinflammatory properties of ambroxol.


Beeh KM, Beier J, Esperester A, Paul LD.
Source insaf Respiratory Research Institute, 65187 Wiesbaden, Germany. k.beeh@insaf-wi.de

Abstract
Ambroxol is frequently used as mucolytic agent in respiratory diseases associated with increased mucus production like acute or chronic bronchitis. Further, ambroxol is used topically (lozenges) for the treatment of sore throat and pharyngitis associated with common cold. In addition to the effects of ambroxol on mucus regulation and local anaesthetic effects, a wide range of pharmacological antiinflammatory properties of ambroxol have been described in vitro and in vivo, including inhibition or scavenging of oxidative and nitro?sative stress, increase of local defense molecules involved in respiratory virus replication, reduction of proinflammatory cytokines and arachidonic acid meta?bolites, inflammatory cell chemotaxis, and lipid peroxidation of tissues. The present review summarizes the antiinflammatory effects of ambroxol and relates these properties to results from controlled clinical trials in targeted diseases such as chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sore throat. PMID:

19073395

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19073395