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Formation Damage
Mechanisms
FARUK CIVAN, Ph.D.
Alumni Chair Professor
Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological
Engineering
The University of Oklahoma
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Presentation Outline
How is formation damage defined?
What does formation damage do?
How does formation damage occur?
What are the common formation
damage mechanisms?
How can we control formation
damage?
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Formation Damage
An expensive headache
(Amaefule et al. 1988)
Requires interdisciplinary
knowledge and expertise
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Damage Mechanisms
(Butler et al., 2000)
Formation damage:
Impairment of reservoir permeability
by adverse processes
Completion damage:
Hinderence of well productivity by
deposition and flow modification at
and around well bore
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Mechanical Skin (Formation
Damage (Yildiz, 2003)
Porosity and permeability variation by
Fines migration and deposition
Mud filtrate and fines invasion
Rock compression
Scales
Acidizing
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Near Wellbore Damage
Damaged Region Non-damaged Region
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Effect of Anisotropy and Stress on
Damage Zone
K
H
> K
V
K
H
< K
V
Invasion Zone
Well
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Formation Damage
Indicators
Permeability impairment
Skin damage
Decrease of well
performance.
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Pressure Profile and Skin
P
w
r
o
r
w
t > 0 , s > 0
P
wo
t = 0, s = 0
P
r
t > 0 , s < 0
P
w
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Formation Damage
Measure- Skin Factor
actual w
s
apparent w
r e r ) ( ) (

=
r
e
r
d
r
w
Damaged
Region
Non-
Damaged
Region
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Consequence of
Formation Damage
Reduction of reservoir
productivity
Non-economic operations
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Formation Damage
Not necessarily reversible
(Porter, 1989)
What gets into porous media does
not necessarily come out (Porter,
1989)
Avoid formation damage than to
restore it
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Potential Sources of Formation
Damage During History of Well
1. Drilling (emulsion block,
wettability change, mud
damage, mechanical damage)
2. Cementing (pH change, scale
formation)
3. Perforating
4. Completion
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Potential Sources of Formation
Damage During the History of
the Well
5. Workover
6. Gravel packing
7. Production
8. Stimulation
9. Fluid injection
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Common Formation
Damage Mechanisms
(Bennion, 1999, Bennion and Thomas, 1991, Bishop, 1997)
1. Fluid-fluid incompatibility
(emulsion generation, etc.)
2. Rock-fluid incompatibility (clay
swelling, etc.)
3. Fines invasion and migration
(particles, etc.)
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Common Formation
Damage Mechanisms
(Bennion, 1999, Bennion and Thomas, 1991, Bishop, 1997)
4. Phase trapping and blocking (water
entrapment in gas reservoirs)
5. Adsorption and wettability alteration
6. Biological activity (bacteria, slime
production).
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What do Rocks contain?
(Bucke & Markin,1971, Ezzat,1990, Mancini,1991)
1. Mineral oxides (SiO
2
, Al
2
O
3
, etc.)
2. Swelling and non-swelling clays
(detrital and authigenic)
3. Other substances (mud, cement,
and debris)
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Clay Minerals
Crystalline minerals described
as hydrous aluminum silicates
1. Kaolinite group (breaks apart
into fine particles)
2. Smectite or montmorillonite
group (water sensitive and
expandable)
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Clay Minerals
3.Illite group (plugs pore throats)
4.Mixed-layer clay minerals
(breaks apart in clumps and
form bridges across pores)
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Extraneous Materials
Foreign materials introduced
during:
Drilling and completion of
wells
Workover operations
Enhanced recovery processes
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Externally Introduced
Particles
Fluid loss control materials
Bentonite
Clays
Mud weighting materials
Calcium carbonate
Barite
Hematite
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Externally Introduced
Particles
Pore bridging materials
Fibers
Resins
Silica
Calcium carbonate
Injection water materials
Bacteria
Sand, clay, silt, asphaltene, wax, polymers
Materials produced by corrosion of tubing
Particulate matter produced by drilling
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Porous Media Realization
Leaky-tube Model
(Civan, 2003)
Network Model
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Bundle-of-Leaky-Capillary-
Tubes Model of Porous Media
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Porosity-Permeability Alteration
1.0E-18
1.0E-17
1.0E-16
1.0E-15
1.0E-14
1.0E-13
1.0E-12
1.0E-11
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20
Porosity,
,
fraction
P
e
r
m
e
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

K
,

m
D
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Formation Damage Causing
Rock-Fluid Interactions
(Bennion and Thomas, 1994)
1. Mobilization, migration, and
deposition of fine particles
(internal or external)
2. Alteration of porous media and
particle surface (absorption,
adsorption, wettability change,
and swelling)
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Formation Damage Causing
Rock-Fluid Interactions
(Bennion and Thomas, 1994)
3. Other processes (mud fluid
imbibition, grinding and mashing
of solids, surface glazing)
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Deposition Within Porous
Formation
DEPOSITION
ENTRAINMENT
FLOW
TYPICAL HYDRAULIC TUBE
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Shock Phenomena Causing Particle
Detachment and Mobilization
Three Important Criteria:
Critical salt concentration
Critical interstitial fluid velocity
Critical temperature
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Salinity Shock
Salinity Shock
Civan (2000, 2001)
Civan (2000, 2001)
CSC : Critical salt concentration ( CSC : Critical salt concentration (Khilar Khilar and and Fogler Fogler, 1983) , 1983)
B
a
s
a
l

S
p
a
c
i
n
g
Salt
Concentration
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Particle swelling
Particle swelling
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Critical Mobilization Velocity
Critical Mobilization Velocity
Gruesbeck
Gruesbeck
and Collins (1982)
and Collins (1982)
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Particles experience more fluid shear
in tortuous paths (Civan, 2006)
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Temperature Shock
Temperature Shock
Gupta and Civan (1994)
Gupta and Civan (1994)
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Small Particles
Deep-bed Filtration
Suspended
particles
Immobile
particles
Fluid velocity
decreases with
radial distance
Tortuous
flow path
Well
Reservoir
region of
well
influence
Hydraulic
fracture
Critical
velocity
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Particle Deposition
Mechanisms
Surface
deposition
Pore throat
plugging
Pore filling
and internal
cake formation
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Valve effect of pore throats
Valve effect of pore throats
Chang and Civan
(1997) and Ochi and
Vernoux (1998)
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Pore Throat Plugging
Deposition
D
p
D
t
0
p
t
D
D
=
( )
p p
p
uD c
= Re
Non-bridging
Bridging
( )
Re
1
p
B
cr
A e C

= +
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Dislodgement/deposition
at Pore Throats
Flow Reversal
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Particle aggregation kinetics
Particle aggregation kinetics
Diffusion-limited
Reaction-limited
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Medium to Large Particles
External Cake Formation
Large
particles
(Screening)
Medium
particles
(Bridging)
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Filter Cake
Distribution
Vertical Well
Radial filter cake
Homogeneous thick
r, radial direction
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Filter Cake
Distribution
Horizontal Well
Rotation effect
Gravity effect
Non-uniform thick
Gravity direction
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Perforated Wells
x
y
Perforation
I
n
v
a
d
e
d

Z
o
n
e
Uninvaded Zone
Filter
Cake
Wellbore
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Hydraulically-Fractured
Wells
x
y
Perforation
I
n
v
a
d
e
d

Z
o
n
e
Uninvaded Zone
Wellbore
Filter cake
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Conditions Favorable for
Sand Production
(Hayatdavoudi, 1999)
1. Lack of cementation and loss
of mechanical integrity
2. Small grain size
3. Weak consolidation and
compaction
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Conditions Favorable for
Sand Production
(Hayatdavoudi, 1999)
4. Rising water table
Higher water cut
Petrophysical alteration
5. Grain buoyancy effect
6. High flow rate and low
pore fluid pressure
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Sand Liquefaction Criterion
(Hayatdavoudi, 1999)
Friction shear-stress > Critical-shear-stress

x
y
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Massive Sand
Production
(Geilikman and Dusseault, 1994, 1997)
r
w
r
e
R(t)
Yielded
Zone
Intact
Zone
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Practical Results
0
0
q
s
t
Sand
Production
Rate
0
0
t
Fluid
Production
Improvement
o
f
q
q
q
o
= flow rate without
sand production
q
f
= flow rate with
sand production
1.0
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Sand Control Methods
(JPT, 1995)
1. Sand control is necessary for
weak formations and high
water influx.
2. Hydraulic fracturing reduces
the flow rate and pressure
gradient to prevent sanding.
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Sand Control Methods
(JPT, 1995)
3. Zone perforation and frac-
packing (gel or water packing)
4. Resin injection for chemical
consolidation
5. Gravel packs, screens, and
slotted liners to filter sand.
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Sand Control Methods
(JPT, 1995)
6. Dropping the water level by special
completion techniques
(Hayatdavoudi, 1999):
a) Horizontal wells
b) Water production from below
the oil/water contact
c) Reducing water-coning.
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Wettability
Definition:
1. Preferential affinity of solid to
fluid phases
2. Tendency of fluids to spread
over solid surface
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Contact Angle
< 90
o
, strong wettability
> 90
o
, weak wettability
90
o
, intermediate wettability

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Wettability Effect
(Durand and Rosenberg, 1988)
Water-wet
(Clay/Oil)
Oil-wet
(Clay/Oil)
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Wettability Alteration
Oil-wet
Site
Water-wet
Site
Pore Space
Oil
adsorbed
Water
adsorbed
WI
Oil Adsorption
(mg/g)
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Wettability
Wettability alteration can be
detected by capillary pressure
measurement
P
c
0
250
o
F
100
o
F
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Particle Migration in Multi
Particle Migration in Multi
-
-
phase Flow
phase Flow
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Formation Damage Causing
Fluid-Fluid Interactions
(Amaefule, 1988, and Masikewich and Bennion, 1999)
Emulsion blocking
Inorganic deposition
Organic deposition
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Liquid Phase Entrapment
Filtrates
Water based
Oil based
Condensates
Water
Hydrocarbon
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Phase Entrapment
(Bennion, 2003)
Wetting
phase
Wetting
phase
Wetting
phase
Non-wetting
phase
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Relative Permeability
Alteration and Liquid Block
(Keelan and Koepf, 1977)
Before damage
After damage
Kr vs. Sw Kr vs. Sw
Shrinking of mobile
fluid saturation range
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Natural and Induced
Scale Damage
(Shaughnessy and Kline, 1983)
0
Dissolved Ca
2+
Dissolved
HCO
-
3
mol/lt
N
a
t
u
r
a
l
Induced
Add incompatible fluid
) ( 2
) (
2
) (
3 3
2
0 2
l
g s
H CO CaCO HCO Ca + + +

+
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Calcite solubility in water
(Segnit et al., 1962)
) ( 2 2 ) ( 3 3
2
2
g s
CO O H CaCO HCO Ca + + +

+
Calcite
Solubility
g/kg solution
p
CO2
150
o
C
200
o
C
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Saturation Index
(Schneider, 1997)
(
(

=
sp
ap
K
K
SI
10
log
Supersaturated
Saturated
Undersaturated
C, Concentration of
aqueous solution, mol/L
SI > 0
SI = 0
SI < 0
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Organic Deposition
1. Paraffins (dissolved in oil)
2. Asphaltenes (undissolved, but
suspended as a colloid in oil)
3. Resins (peptizing agent,
dissolved in oil, help suspend
asphaltene in oil)
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4. Wax: A combined deposit of
paraffins, asphaltenes, resins,
mixed with clays, sand, and
debris (dissolved in oil)
Organic Deposition
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Asphaltene and Wax
Phase Behavior
(Leontaritis, 1996)
Temperature
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Liquid + Vapor
Liquid
S
a
t
u
r
a
t
i
o
n

B
u
b
b
l
e
-
P
o
i
n
t

L
i
n
e
Lower deposition
boundary
Upper deposition
boundary
Liquid+Solid+Vapor
Region (Pressure and
Composition dependant)
Liquid+Solid Region
(Mostly pressure
dependant)
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Electrokinetic Effect
(Mansoori, 1997)
Pipe or Capillary Tube
Streaming Potential
Difference
Negative
Charge
Positive
Charge
Asphaltene deposits
Asphaltene is positively charged
Oil phase is negatively charged
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Evaluation of Common
Formation Damage Problems
(Keelan and Koepf, 1977)
Pore blocking by drilling,
completion, workover, and
injection fluids
Clay hydration, swelling,
dispersion, and pore blocking
resulting from clay-water
reactions
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Evaluation of Common
Formation Damage
Problems
(Keelan and Koepf, 1977)
Liquid block resulting from
extraneous water
introduction during drilling,
completion, and workover
Caving and sand production
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Analysis of Core
Damage Data
L
Permeability
P
L u
K

=

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Constant-Pressure
Difference Test
Permeability
ratio,
K/K
o
PV-injected
P-small
P-large
0
0
1.0
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Core Plugs Wafers
(Acid soak Experiments)
1-inch diameter
0.25-inch thick
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A Simple Linear Core Flow
Testing Set-up
(Doane et al., 1999)
Core
Fluid
Reservoir
Displacement
Pump
Annulus
Pump
Pressure
Transducer
Effluent
Fluid collector
Core Holder
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Annular Flow Tester
(Saleh et al., 1997)
Pump
Fluid
Reservoir
Radial Outward
Flow
Effluent
Fluid collector
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Drilling of Wells
(Yao and Holditch, 1993)
Uninvaded
Zone
Mud
Invasion
Mud In
Mud Out
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Depth of Filtrate
Invasion
Time
Depth of
Invasion
Water mud
Low-colloid
oil mud
Oil mud
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Saturation Profiles for Mud
Filtrate Invasion
(Yao and Holditch, 1993)
Wellbore
S
w
= S
wc
Mud
Cake
Radial Distance r
w
r
e
S
w
= 1- S
or
t
1
t
2 t
3 Filtrate
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Dynamic Mud Tester
Pump
Mud
Reservoir
Core
Mud
Filtrate
Linear
Flow
Effluent
Fluid collector
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Hydraulic Fracturing
Fluids
(Keelan and Koepf, 1977)
Water-block
Solids invasion
Leak-off and spurt loss
Clay hydration
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Fracture Flow Tester
(Doane et al., 1999)
Fracture
Flow
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Mitigation Methods
(Masikewich and Bennion, 1999)
Emulsion blocking: Apply demulsifier
Precipitates: Apply wax, scale, and
alkaline control
Migrating clays: Apply cation
Swelling clays: Apply cation or
polymer
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Mitigation Methods
(Masikewich and Bennion, 1999)
Phase trapping and blocking: Apply alcohol,
oil, and interfacial surface tension (IFT)
reducer
Wettability alteration: Apply surfactant
Solid invasion: Apply cake inducing agent
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Treatment
Fluids
(Thomas et al., 1998)
Proper Additives
Major
Treatment
= Treating + to control
Fluid
Chemical
further damage





` ` `
)

)
)
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Treatment Fluids
(Thomas et al., 1998)
Additives can control:
Corrosion
Sludge formation
Emulsion formation
Organic and inorganic
precipitation
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Treatment Fluids
(Thomas et al., 1998)
Additives can control
Homogeneity
Clay stabilization
Interfacial tension
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Fracture
Stimulation
(Keelan and Koepf, 1977)
Hydraulic fracturing
Bypass damaged region
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Bypassing Damage by Hydraulic
Fracturing
x
y
z
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Completion Techniques
Open-hole completions
Cavity completions
Hydraulic fracturing
Frac-and-packs
Horizontal wells
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Reservoir Fluid Pattern- Open Hole
vs. Perforated Cased Hole
Invasion Zone
Well
Perforation
Fluid goes through
damaged zone
Fluid bypasses
damaged zone
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Perforated Well Flow Efficiency
(Chen and Atkinson, 2001, Yildiz, 2002)
Wellbore radius
Shut density
Shut angle
Perforation depth
Perforation diameter
Crushed zone thickness
Damaged zone thickness
Reservoir anisotropy
Crushed
zone
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Partial Completion and Deviation
(Al Qahtani and Al Shehri, 2003)
h
c
Perforated
Zone
H
z
c
L
Elevation
to mid
point
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Horizontally Fractured Well
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Vertically Fractured Well
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Frac-and-Pack Completion
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Multi-lateral Wells Completion
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Damage Tolerance of Completion
Techniques from Most to Least
(Jahediesfanjani and Civan, 2005)
Long horizontal wells
Short horizontal wells
Horizontally fractured wells
Cavity completions
Vertical wells
Frac-and-Pack completions
Fractured wells
Vertical wells
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Final Remarks
Formation damage mechanisms vary
depending on the well operation
types and reservoir and fluid
conditions.
Oil and gas recovery can be enhanced
by minimizing and controlling of
formation damage.
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Thank you for your attention
Questions?
Discussions?
Comments?