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A field controlled dc motor is used to control the position of an antenna azimuth which is shown in Figure 1.

The schematic diagram for this system is shown in figure 2.

Figure 1: An Antenna Azimuth Position Control System

Figure 2: Schematic Diagram of Antenna Azimuth

Schematic Parameter Parameter V N K K1 A Ra Ja Da Kb Kt N1 N2 N3 JL DL Configuration 1 10 10 100 100 8 0.02 0.01 0.5 0.5 25 250 250 1 1 Configuration 2 10 1 150 150 5 0.05 0.01 1 1 50 250 250 5 3 Configuration 3 10 1 100 100 5 0.05 0.01 1 1 50 250 250 5 3

From the schematic diagram above, we can draw the block diagram.

There are many variables used in the following sections to represent significant inputs, outputs, signals etc. Parameter V N K K1 A Ra Ja Da Kb Kt N1 N2 N3 JL DL Value
10 10 100 100 8 0.02 0.01 0.5 0.5 25 250 250 1 1 Schematic Parameters

SOLUTION:

The input and feedback potentiometer each have an associated transfer function, in the form of a gain. The potentiometer changes the input angle, ( ) to a voltage, ( ). This ratio is described by the value Kpot. By neglecting the dynamics of potentiometers the relationship between the output voltage and the input angular displacement is given by: ( ) ( )

The relationship between motor and load: ( ) ( ) ( )

The dampening and inertial components of the antenna are adjusted by the gear ratios, as

The equivalent inertia,

is ( ) ( )( )

Similarly the equivalent viscous damping,

is: ( )( )

( )(

From the relationship between the motor and load, we can relate the variables Km, and am:

) (

( )

Substitute the value of

in equation motor and load relationship:

( ) ( )

( ( (

) )( ) )

( ) ( )

The gear ratio relating load displacement to armature voltage is: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

)(

( ) ( ) Block diagram parameter: Parameters Value 0.318 100 2.083 100 1.71 0.1

Reduction the block Diagram:

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( ) (
( ) ( )

( ) ) ( )

=(

) (

Substitute the value of the parameter:

=(

( ) (

)( )( ) (

)( )( )(

)(

) )( )( )

assuming K=1

)(

( )

( )

Transfer function:
( ) ( )

To design a PID controller system, (s) +


i

Gc (S) S(sss

G(s)

Find the transfer function for PID controller: ( ) Substitute the value of ( )

in transfer function:
( ) ( )

( ) Rouths Stability Criterion: 1 101.71 171 6.637k

( ) ( )

) ( )

( ) ( )

Characteristic equation: ( )

( )

Tu =

= 0.48

For PID Controller: KP 0.6 Ku 0.6(2620.52) 1572.312 Ti 0.5 Tu 0.5(0.48) 0.24 Td 0.125 Tu 0.125(0.48) 0.06 Tp 0.85Tu 0.85(0.48) 0.408

Gc (s) = KP (1 +

+ Td s)

= 1572.312 (1 + = 1572.312 +

+ 0.06s) + 94.34s

= Block diagram for new system:


i (s)

(s)

Gc (s)

G(s)

( ( ) (

) )

) (

Block diagram by using Matlab software without PID:

Graph obtain from the software with using k= 10

Peak Time = 0.4 sec

Requirement for the system is Peak Time must be less than 0.5 sec.

Percentage overshoots:

= 80% It is unstable because the PO is more than 10%.

Block diagram by using Matlab software with PID :

Graph obtain from the software with using PID:

Transfer function:
( ) ( )

DISCUSSION In many applications the PID controller can do the job - but as usual, with compromises. After a short intro to the PID terms and an example control system, you'll get a chance tune a PID controller. Tuning a system means adjusting three multipliers Kp, Ki and Kd adding in various amounts of these functions to get the system to behave the way you want. The table below summarizes the PID terms and their effect on a control system.