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Pierre Bourdieu, Hegemony, Internalized Oppression, & Symbolic Violence

Ricardo D. Stanton-Salazar, Ph.D. Sociologist of Education, Los Angeles CA May 28, 2012 The Red Pill (The film, The Matrix): Critical consciousness, (Paulo Freire) i.e., the ability to see how the dominant groups in society exercises economic and political & ideological POWER behind the curtain (Gramscis Hegemony) Hegemony: In 20th-century political science, the concept of hegemony is central to cultural hegemony, a philosophic and sociologic theory proposed by Antonio Gramsci, an Italian Marxist and intellectual, by means of which one social class can manipulate the system of values and mores of a society in order to create and establish a ruling-class worldview (Weltanschauung) that justifies the status quo of bourgeois domination upon the other social classes of the society.

You take the red pill you stay in Wonderland and I show you how deep the rabbit-hole goes." -Morpheus1

The red pill and the blue pill, symbols popularized and derived from the 1999 film The Matrix. In the movie, the main character Neo is offered the choice between a red pill and a blue pill. The blue pill would allow him to remain in the Matrix, a fictional computer-generated world (i.e., the world masked by hegemony). The red pill would lead to his escape out of the Matrix, gain sociological insight, (critical consciousness in Freirian terms) or the ability to see the "world as it really was."

TWO MAIN FORMS OF IDEOLOGICAL POWER EXERCISED BY THE DOMINANT GROUP TO STUPIFY PEOPLE (1) Ideological POWER (2 Forms): Robotic Hegemony The dominant groups are very interested in gaining the loyalty of those groups and classes in the middle strata who crave wealth, mobility and status, BUT who are who are NOT included--and likely never to be include--in the 20% of the people who owned 85% of the wealth in the US. The task: to these middle groups to osculum asinum. * POWER: The ability of the dominant group to get these middle strata people to identify with them, to believe that this top 20% are looking after their economic and political interests. The power of this 20% is to turn these aspiring conservative groups into robotic fools who will do whatever the top 20% asks them to do, without question.
*Google Translate:|en|osculum%20asinum

(2) Symbolic Violence (Pierre Bourdieu, French Social Theorist, Sociologist) The ability to the dominant groups, the top 20% of the people who owned 85% of the wealth, and who control the media, .their ability to depict their cultural conventions, their linguistic vernacular, their human relational styles, their ways of organizing business, and their body type as the UNIVERSAL or NATURAL STANDARD, and to depict the cultural conventions of low-status groups as inferior or particularistic, and to obscure how institutional practices are oriented toward their continued subordination and exclusion (Bourdieu, 1977b; Fine, 1991). The ability to "normalize" these structures and ideologies is conceived by Bourdieu (Bourdieu and Passeron, 1977a) as one of the most pervasive forms of power, and has articulated its impact on subordinate group members in terms of symbolic violence. According to Bourdieu, such invisible violence "produces 'dehumanization, frustration, disruption, anguish, revolt, humiliation, resentment, disgust, despair, alienation, apathy, fatalist resignation, dependency, and aggressiveness' " (Bourdieu, 1958, cited in Lamont and Lareau, 1988; also see Anzaldua, 1987, p. 80). YouTube: Introduction to Pierre Bourdieu

Pierre Bourdieu (1 August 1930 23 January 2002) was a French sociologist, anthropologist, and philosopher.

Starting from the role of economic capital for social positioning, Bourdieu pioneered investigative frameworks and terminologies such as cultural, social, and symbolic capital, and the concepts of habitus, field or location, and symbolic violence to reveal the dynamics of power relations in social life. His work emphasized the role of practice and embodiment or forms in social dynamics and worldview construction, often in dialogue and opposition to universalized Western philosophical traditions. He built upon the theories of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Edmund Husserl, Georges Canguilhem, Karl Marx, Gaston Bachelard, Max Weber, mile Durkheim, Erwin Panofsky, and Marcel Mauss. A notable influence on Bourdieu was Blaise Pascal, after whom Bourdieu titled his Pascalian Meditations. Bourdieu rejected the idea of the intellectual "prophet," or the "total intellectual," as embodied by Sartre. His best known book is Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste, in which he argues that judgments of taste are related to social position, or more precisely, are themselves acts of social positioning. His argument is put forward by an original combination of social theory and data from quantitative surveys, photographs and interviews, in an attempt to reconcile difficulties such as how to understand the subject within objective structures. In the process, he tried to reconcile the influences of both external social structures and subjective experience on the individual.

EN ESPANOL Nacido en 1930 en Denguin (Pirineos Atlnticos), Francia. Estudi en el Liceo de Pau (19411947), en la cole Normale Superieure (1951-1954) y filosofa en La Sorbona (1951-1954), donde ley su tesis Structures temporelles de la vie affective. A los 25 aos ejerce como profesor en el Instituto de Moulins (Allier) y, ms tarde, en Argelia, Pars y Lille. Profesor en la cole Normale Superiure (1964-1984). Entre 1964 y 1980 es director de la Lcole Pratique de Hauts tudes y catedrtico de Sociologa en el College de France desde 1981. Director del Centro de Sociologa Europea, en sustitucin de Raymond Aron, con quien trabaj previamente, y de la Escuela Superior de Ciencias Sociales (1985-2002). Director de la revista Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales (1975-2002). Doctor 'honoris causa' de las universidades Libre de Berln (1989), Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe de Francfort (1996) y Atenas (1996). A los 28 aos aparece su libro Sociologie de lAlgrie (1958). Dos de sus primeros textos, que publica junto a Jean-Claude Passeron en 1964, hacen referencia a la sociologa de la educacin, uno de los mbitos recurrentes de sus anlisis: Les tudiants et leurs tudes y Les hritiers. Les tudiants et la culture, publicadas el mismo ao en el que aparece Les fonctions sociales de la photographie. Uo despus, en 1965, publica Un art moyen. Essais sur les usages sociaux de la photographie y Rapport pdagogique et communication.