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A Comparative Study of Brain Tumor Detection Using MRI: A Survey

Uday M Kulkarni
Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune, India

Prof. Mrs. Swati N Shilaskar


Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune, India

Email: uday_kulkarni19@hotmail.com

Email: swati.shilaskar@vit.edu

ABSTRACT
Use of MRI for brain tumor detection is being widely reported in the literature. Several studies reveal its importance in biomedical imaging. The images produced by MRI are high in tissue contrast and have fewer artifacts. The detection of tumor requires several processes on MRI images which includes image pre processing, feature extraction, image enhancement, and finally followed by the classification. Classification is essential for making a conclusion that a person is diseased or not. This paper focuses on study of different computer based approaches mentioned in the literature, for brain tumor detection. A study has also been made to classify different MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) images on the basis of the extracted features. This report also helps in highlighting the significant contributions of the engineering theory to that of the medical field.

1. INTRODUCTION
The dawn of medical imaging modalities such as X-ray ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has greatly improved the diagnosis of human diseases as they provide an effective means for noninvasively mapping the anatomy of a subject. Until recently, the most common procedure to analyze imaging data was visual inspection on printed support. Among these for Brain Imaging the MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) is a most promising tool due to its soft tissue contrast and non-invasiveness. MRI uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field rather than X-rays to provide remarkably clear and detailed picture of internal organs and tissues clusters. Medical image analysis is an important biomedical application which is highly computational in nature and requires the aid of the automated system. These image analysis techniques are often used to detect the abnormalities in the human bodies through scan images. Automated brain disorder diagnosis with MR images is one of the specific medical image analysis methodologies. The image analysis techniques include image preprocessing, image segmentation, histogram equalization, feature extraction, etc. Image Preprocessing is required as the MR images consist of unwanted artifacts these are due to the operator handling MRI Machine, patient motion during imaging, thermal noise and exist of any metal things in imaging environment [1]. By preprocessing these unwanted artifacts are removed from the images and prepare the images for further processing like feature extraction, classification, etc. filtering is the basic tool in image preprocessing used to remove these unwanted artifacts there are different types of filter like Gaussian, Weiner, Unsharp, etc. are used in most of the literature. Histogram Equalization is another preprocessing tool used for equalizing the intensities in the image. This preprocessing technique is required as in the detection of edges of tumor the tumor appears very dark on the image which is very confusing [3]. Segmentation of images holds an important position in the area of image processing. It becomes more important while typically dealing with the medical images where pre-surgery and post surgery decisions are required for the purpose of initiating and speeding up recovery purpose. Segmentation extracts the abnormal portion from the image which is useful for analyzing the size and shape of abnormal image. The features provide the characteristic of input to the classifiers by considering the description of the relevant properties on the image into feature space. There are different types of features like statistical features, non statistical features, textural features, etc. [1]. In this paper we studied different types of feature extraction techniques for different types of features. The next step in this diagnostic system is Classification and followed by Segmentation. The feature vector is supplied to the classifier for classifying the Brain MRI Images into two categories namely normal brain and abnormal brain. There are several classifiers available for classifying the brain MRI images. In this literature we studied some classifiers which are artificial neural network based, fuzzy logic based.

Many research papers with different approaches for brain image analysis are reported in this literature. The Taxonomy of the Medical image Analysis is shown in the Fig. 1. This paper is organized as follows. In section 2, a study on Image Preprocessing Techniques is discussed. Then the Study on Feature extraction techniques is discussed in section 3, in section 4, a study on Classifiers is discussed. And finally in Section 5, the conclusion of all these research paper is presented and Future Work.

Fig1. Taxonomy of Medical Image Analysis

2. A STUDY ON IMAGE PRE-PROCESSING


The preliminary step in medical image analysis is image preprocessing which ensures the high accuracy of the subsequent steps. In raw MR images inhomogeneous magnetic fields, patient motion during imaging, thermal noise and exist of any metal things in imaging environment are some reasons that create noise and artefacts, though in most of times, are not very important because of human studies on images, but these are one of the main causes for computational errors in automatic or semi automatic image analyzing methods and so it is needed to be removed by preprocessing procedures before any analysis. These artefacts reduce the overall accuracy of the whole system. An analysis on filtering techniques such as Un-sharp filter, Median filters for noise reduction is performed by [1]. Along with this the histogram equalization is used for equal distribution of intensities. This is done with thresholding and using from mean filter. In this paper 2-D discrete Fourier transform is computed for images as it is intensive for normal tissues whereas widespread and amorphous in abnormal images. Different types of Segmentation methods are studied by [2]. They study 8 types of methods and came on conclusion that adaptive thresholding approach and canny edge detection are most suitable for in giving the details of the brain tissues leading to identify a tumor

region in the brain. The image is smoothened by Gaussian filter in this paper. [3] Also uses the same preprocessing technique histogram equalization, thresholding and sharpening filter but for textural analysis. The edges in the smoothened images are taken than from the original images to reduce the effect of noise by [4]. The original image is smoothened by couple of filters namely wiener filter (5x5) and Gaussian filter (3x3). In [6] at the preprocessing step the original image is subdivided into small structure elements and then different types of features are extracted. [7] Proposed three step for preprocessing the original image namely histogram equalization, binarization, and Morphological operation. Pre-Processing is the basic and commonest step for any type of image analysis application. In most of the medical condition for image analysis histogram equalization and filtration techniques are used routinely.

3. A STUDY ON FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES


The next step in the automated brain tumor diagnostic system is feature extraction. Feature extraction is the technique of extracting specific features from the preprocessed image of different abnormal categories. A previous study reveals many feature extraction techniques employed for brain MRI Image. Referring AmirEhsan Lashkari statistical features like mean, variance or median which have much error in determination process, low accuracy and robustness in classification [1]. As such statistical and non statistical features are considered for further classification. Ehab F. Badran et.al suggest three feature extraction techniques in there literature namely LOG-Lindberg algorithm, Harris-Laplace algorithm and Harris algorithm [2]. According to Somkait Udomhunsakul and Pichet Wongsita, edge detection is one of the techniques for feature extraction in MRI Images, but it is very difficult task because, edge detector may be sensitive to noise. To overcome this problem they suggest wavelet transform based image fusion technique which is used to combine the detail coefficients on different scales [4]. Feature extraction technique using stationary wavelet transform is implemented in [5]. The report claimed that the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is translation variant, namely, the wavelet coefficient behaves unpredictably under translation of input signal. To solve this problem the authors uses the stationary wavelet transform (SWT) as it is Translation invariant, better in de-noising, and it can be applied to any size of image. The texture analysis for feature extraction is done by [6]. Textures are replications, symmetries, and combinations of various basic patterns, usually with some random variations. The assumption considered is that local texture of tumor cells is highly different from local texture of other biological tissues. They used gray level co-occurrence matrix approach which is wellknown statistical method for extracting second order texture information for images. Apart from extracting the features from the whole image, features area also extracted from local regions which are used for image segmentation applications. One such work is reported by [7]. Here feature extraction process is used for calculating area, homogeneity, contrast, ASM (Angular Second Moment), Entropy. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) coefficients as feature vector is used by N. Hema Rajini and R. Bhavani in their literature [11]. The existing input features are transformed into a new lower dimension feature space by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This new feature vector is given to the next step i.e. classifier.

4. A STUDY ON CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUES


The important process in the automated brain tumor detection system is brain image classification. The main objective of this step is to differentiate the different abnormal brain images based on the optimal feature set. Several conventional classifiers are available for categorization but most of the earlier work depends on artificial intelligence (AI) Techniques which yields highly accurate results then the conventional classifiers. The application of various ANN for image classification is analyzed by [15]. The lack of faster convergence rate of the conventional neural networks is also explained in the report. This lay an emphasis on the requirement of modified neural networks with superior convergence rate for image classification applications. The multilevel perceptron (MLP) has been used with two hidden layers only [1]. For evaluation of classification efficiency two matrixes have been computed: (1) The training performance (2) The testing performance. Basically the testing performance provides the neural network classification efficiency. [2] Used the conventional neural network for classification purpose by training neural network. A neuro-fuzzy classifier is used to detect candidate circumscribed tumor by [3]. In this literature they used backpropagation algorithm to train the neural network and the weights are adjusted using a basic delta rule. Jayashri Joshi and Mrs. A C Phadake proposed Fuzzy-C Means classifier for brain MRI classification [6]. The fuzzy-c means algorithm is based on fuzzy-c partition which was introduced by various researchers in this field, developed by Dunn and generalized by Bezdek. The aim of this is to find cluster centers that minimize dissimilarity functions. According to [7] fuzzy neural approach found to have more accurate decision making as compare to their counterparts. Support vector machine (SVM) with a polynomial kernel were chosen to classify the brain MRI Images by [8]. They varied the order off polynomial from 2 to 5 and found that the polynomial of order 2 gives the best classification rate. [9] Also proposed the fuzzy-c means algorithm for classification. N Hema Rajini and R Bhavani use K-Nearest Neighbor algorithm and feed forward back propagation artificial neural network for brain MRI image

classification. The success of classification feed forward back propagation artificial neural network (FP-ANN) is 90% and using K-NN is 99% [9]. Noramalina Abdullah et.al. proposed SVM for classification but they use different kernel functions and found that the accuracy is less in SVM [14]. In addition to K-nearest neighbor classifier and Artificial neural network the Parzen window technique for classification is studied by [13]. In which d-dimensional window is created around all the training samples and depending upon the number of patterns that belongs to those windows the probability estimates of the different classes is made.

5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK


The techniques here mentioned determine whether an input Brain MR Image represents a healthy brain or tumor brain as percentage. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are studied and described in this literature for further research. This report also helps in highlighting the significant contributions of the engineering theory to that of the medical field. There is plenty of scope for interesting research: Improvement in System Performance, implementing different artificial neural network approaches for better classification, an improve accuracy and precision, etc. Our efforts are now addressed to develop an automated brain tumor detection system using a hybrid approach by reducing computation time and better accuracy and preciseness. In my next paper the results of an implemented hybrid techniques used will be presented.

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