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Lecture Objectives Pre-History and Ancient Civilizations

History and Philosophy of Physical Education and Sport


Discuss the causes for the evolution of the major civilizations of the ancient world and the development of their education as well as physical education systems. Discuss Mesopotamia (ancient Sumer), ancient Egypt, China, India, and the Hebrews and their contribution to, and lasting effects on current day philosophies and practices.

World Atlas

Africa

http://www.graphicmaps.com/webimage/ world/polit/politf.htm

Europe

Middle East

Asia 2001

Pre-History of Phys. Ed. Pre Observations made of under developed cultures, such as, African Bushman, American Indians, and Australian Aborigine suggest that physical activities and games were an important part of education (achieved through imitation of adult activities)

http://www.graphicmaps.com/webimage/countrys/as.htm

Tonga Dancers africaelephants.com/

Mesopotamia Land Between the Rivers


Some 5,000 years ago, the Sumerians developed one of the earliest known true civilized urban centers. Mesopotamias early civilizations have revolutionized communications with a practical system of writing. The Sumerians were followed by the Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and others
For an interactive presentation go to: http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/

Early Civilizations:

Mesopotamia Land Between the Rivers

Map source: http://www.vnc.qld.edu.au/enviro/sumer/2002-a.htm

Mesopotamia Land Between the Rivers

Early Civilizations: Egypt

Map source: http://www.vnc.qld.edu.au/enviro/sumer/2002-a.htm

For an interactive presentation go to: http://www.thebanmappingproject.com/

Egypt and the Middle East

Early Civilizations: Egypt


Remarkable astronomists (12 month calendar) Amazing Architects, engineers and navigators Invented the numerical system, and a phonetic/pictorial alphabet

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/middle_east_ref04.jpg

Early Civilizations: Egypt


Developed a formalized style of painting and sculpture Were very spiritual and believed in life after death

Early Civilizations: Egypt


Participated in war dancing, gymnastic games, swimming and especially wrestling Children had toys, such as, dolls, tops, hoops, jumping jacks, skin or leather balls, marbles, and dice. Ball games included mostly tossing and Cleopatra VII (51 30 BC) Source: Touregypt.net juggling

The gold coffin of King Tutankhamen. Art Archive(Egyptian Museum, Cairo)

Early Civilizations: Egypt


The British Museums Interactive learning experience: http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/menu.html

Early Civilizations: China

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/china_pol01.jpg

Early Civilizations: China


Chinas known history predates Christianity by 2,500 years. One the earliest centers of civilization based on a strong family structure and ancestral worship. Chinese education during the Chou dynasty (1028-249 B.C.) incorporated physical, mental, moral and aesthetic teaching.
Duan Fang altar set Source: www.wisc.edu/arth/

Early Civilizations: China


Around the 8th century B.C., Chinas central government was replaced by warring factions. Education was neglected and old traditions abandoned. Confucius (551-479 B.C.) embarked on a mission to restore the original principles of Chinese morals.
Image source: www.csun.edu/~hbchm009/confucius.html

Early Civilizations: China


As was the case in other early cultures, Chinese sports reflected military needs: archery, boxing (precursor to Japanese ju-jitsu), charioteering, horsemanship, wrestling, , and recreational, i.e., cockfighting, fishing, flying kites, football, hunting, polo, swimming www.geocities.com/ Board games (using military wchch/crt00/index.html tactics, i.e., the games of chess, which has earlier origins in Egypt)

Early Civilizations: China


The British Museums Interactive learning experience: http://www.ancientchina.co.uk/menu.html

Early Civilizations: India

Early Civilizations: India


One of the main three early river civilizations, India emerged along the Indus River (2,500-1,500 B.C.) Hinduism was based on Dharma (pietyreligious virtue) and the caste social system. Buddhism started as a reform movement against the excesses of the caste system.

http://home.earthlink.net/ ~srama/

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/india_pol01.jpg

Early Civilizations: India


Physical education was most prominent in the Kshatriyas or military caste in this otherwise passive and peaceful culture. Physical training and dance revolved around religious practices and ceremonies. A strong emphasis on personal hygiene was tied into physical exercise and spiritual purification. Charaka and Susruta (ancient medicine) recommended exercise.

Early Civilizations: India


The British Museums Interactive learning experience: http://www.ancientindia.co.uk/

The Maya
The Maya, who flourished between about A.D. 250 and 900, perfected the most complex writing system in the hemisphere, mastered mathematics and astrological calendars of astonishing accuracy, and built massive pyramids all over Central America, from Yucatan to modern Honduras.
Source: http://www.indians.org/welker/maya.htm
http://www.utexas.edu/cofa/a_ah/dir/precol/maya_map_timeline.html http://www.civilization.ca/civil/maya/mminteng.html

Cultural Diffusion of Games and Sports


The cultural diffusion that is the trend of the modern era is responsible for increasing uniformity in games people play. The universality of games is also influenced by the increasing influence of the corporate world.

Test Your Comprehension


What was the main role of physical education in ancient cultures? In what context were games, physical training, and dance practiced in ancient societies? What games and sports of ancient origin are still popular today? In what ways do ancient sports differ from modern sports?

Questions, Comments Discussion


See additional questions at: http://instructional1.calstatela.edu/dfrankl/CU RR/kin375/kin375_StudyQuestions.html