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2/19/2010

Topics
Tool wear Mechanism Tool life equation

Tool wear

Reasons for tool wear


Cutting involves high stresses, high relative velocity between tool and chip/workpiece, and high temperatures of up to 1000C.

Failure Mechanism
Adhesion wear Abrasion Wear Diffusion wear

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Adhesion wear
Adhesion wear: small fractured pieces of the workpiece may get welded to the tool surface due to high temperatures; eventually, they break off, tearing small parts of the tool with them.

Abrasion
Abrasion: Hard particles and microscopic variations on the bottom surface of the chips constantly rub against the tool surface, causing abrasion.

Diffusion wear
Diffusion wear: at high temperatures, some atoms in the metal crystals of the tools micro-structure will diffuse across to the chip; the rate of diffusion is small, but increases exponentially with the rise in temperature. This reduces the fracture strength of the crystals, and makes the tool more likely to fracture.
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Diffusion wear

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Tool Wear
Crater wear Flank wear Corner wear

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Crater Wear
consists of a concave section on the tool face formed by the action of the chip sliding on the surface.

Crater Wear
Crater wear affects the mechanics of the process increasing the actual rake angle of the cutting tool and consequently, making cutting easier.

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Crater Wear
At the same time, the crater wear weakens the tool wedge and increases the possibility for tool breakage. In general, crater wear is of a relatively small concern.

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Crater Wear

Crater Wear Measurement


Crater wear is measured by the maximum depth of the crater, or depression formed in tool face.

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Flank Wear
occurs on the tool flank as a result of friction between the machined surface of the workpiece and the tool flank.

Flank Wear
Flank wear appears in the form of so-called wear land and is measured by the width of this wear land, VB.

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Flank Wear
Flank wear affects to the great extend the mechanics of cutting. Cutting forces increase significantly with flank wear. If the amount of flank wear exceeds some critical value (VB > 0.5~0.6 mm), the excessive cutting force may cause tool failure.

Flank Wear

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Flank Wear
Flank wear is measured by the average width of the flank wear zone

Corner wear
occurs on the tool corner. Can be considered as a part of the wear land and respectively flank wear since there is no distinguished boundary between the corner wear and flank wear land. We consider corner wear as a separate wear type because of its importance for the precision of machining. Corner wear actually shortens the cutting tool thus increasing gradually the dimension of machined surface and introducing a significant dimensional error in machining, which can reach values of about 0.03~0.05 mm.
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Corner wear

Tool Life

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Tool Life
Tool wear is a time dependent process. The most important wear type from the process point of view is the flank wear, therefore the parameter which has to be controlled is the width of flank wear land, VB. This parameter must not exceed an initially set safe limit, which is about 0.4 mm for carbide cutting tools. The safe limit is referred to as allowable wear land (wear criterion), VBk. The cutting time required for the cutting tool to develop a flank wear land of width VBk is called tool life, T, a fundamental parameter in machining.
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wear curve
The general relationship of VB versus cutting time is shown in the figure Although the wear curve shown is for flank wear, a similar relationship occur for other wear types. The figure shows also how to define the tool life T for a given wear criterion VBk.

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Effect of cutting velocity

Tool Life Equation

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F.W. Taylors Contribution

Tool Life Equation (Taylors Equation)


VTn = C Where:
V= Cutting speed T = Tool Life n, C= Taylor constant (empirical)

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Extended Taylors Equation


The tool life also depends to a great extent on the depth of cut d and feed rate. Hence incorporating these factors in tool life equation: V T d f =C
n m x

Tool life Criteria


Chipping or finer cracks developing at the cutting edge Total destruction of the cutting tool Wear land size Crater depth, width or other parameters Combination of above two. Volume of material worn off the tool Limiting value of change in component size Limiting value of surface finished produced on the component Cutting forces and power required
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