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# CONVERTING TRANSFER-FUNCTIONS TO STATE MODELS USING CANONICAL FORMS J E PAKKALA The state variables that produce a state model

are not, in general, unique. However, there exist several common methods of producing state models from transfer functions. Most control theory texts contain developments of a standard form called the control canonical form, see, e.g., . Another is the phase variable canonical form. Control Canonical Form When the order of a transfer functions denominator is higher than the order of its numerator, the transfer function is called strictly proper. Consider the general, strictly proper third-order transfer function Y ( s) b s 2 + b s + b0 = 3 2 2 1 . U ( s ) s + a2 s + a1s + a0 Dividing each term by the highest order of s yields b2 b1 b0 + 2+ 3 Y ( s) s = s s U ( s ) 1 + a2 + a1 + a0 s s 2 s3 (2) (1)

which is a function containing numerous 1/s terms, or integrators. There are various signalflow graph configurations that will produce this function. One possibility is the control canonical form shown in Figure 1. b2 b1 U(s) 1/s X3(s) -a2 -a1 -a0
Figure 1. Control canonical form block diagram.

1/s X2(s)

1/s X1(s)

b0

Y(s)

The state model for the signal flow configuration in Figure 1 is & x1 0 x = 0 & 2 x3 a0 & y = [ b0 b1 1 0 a1 0 x1 0 1 x2 + 0 u a2 x3 1

x1 b2 ] x2 + [ 0] u x3

(3)

## The validity of (3) is tested by rearranging (2) to yield 1 1 1 1 1 1 Y ( s ) + a2 Y ( s ) + a1 2 Y ( s ) + a0 3 Y ( s ) = b2 U ( s ) + b 2 U ( s ) + b0 3 U ( s ) 1 s s s s s s (4)

and then substituting the expression for Y(s) from the state model output equation in (3) yields 1 1 1 b0 X 1 ( s ) + b1 X 2 ( s ) + b2 X 3 ( s ) = b2 U ( s ) + b1 2 U ( s ) + b0 3 U ( s ) s s s 1 a2 ( b0 X 1 ( s ) + b1 X 2 ( s ) + b2 X 3 ( s ) ) s 1 a1 2 ( b0 X 1 ( s ) + b1 X 2 ( s ) + b2 X 3 ( s ) ) s 1 a0 3 ( b0 X 1 ( s ) + b1 X 2 ( s ) + b2 X 3 ( s ) ) . s Equation (5) can be rewritten as b2 b1 b0 + + b0 X 1 ( s ) + b1 X 2 ( s ) + b2 X 3 ( s ) ) Y ( s ) ( s s 2 s3 , = = U ( s) U ( s ) 1 + a2 + a1 + a0 s s 2 s3 which is identical to equation (2) proving that the control canonical form is valid. As an example consider the transfer function b2 b1 b0 2 8 6 + 2+ 3 + + C ( s) 2 s 2 + 8s + 6 s s s = s s2 s3 . = = R( s ) s 3 + 8s 2 + 26 s + 6 1 + a2 + a1 + a0 1 + 8 + 26 + 6 s s 2 s3 s s2 s3 The coefficients corresponding with the control canonical form are: b0 = 6, b1 = 8, b2 = 2, a0 = 6, a1 = 26, and a2 = 8 .

(5)

The state model based on control canonical form is & 1 0 x1 0 x1 0 x = 0 & 0 1 x2 + 0 r 2 x3 6 26 8 x3 1 & x1 y = [ 6 8 2] x2 + r. x3 Examination of Figure 1 shows one potential benefit of manipulating systems to conform to control canonical form. If X1(s) happened to carry units of inches (position), then X2(s) might be inches/second (velocity), and X3(s) might be inches/second/second (acceleration).

Phase Variable Canonical Form Development of the phase variable canonical form as presented in  begins with the general fourth-order, strictly proper transfer function Y ( s) b s 3 + b s 2 + b s + b0 b s 1 + b s 2 + b s 3 + b s4 = 4 3 3 2 2 1 = 3 1 2 2 1 3 0 4 U ( s ) s + a3s + a2 s + a1 s + a0 1 + a3 s + a2 s + a1 s + a0 s which can be rearranged to read Y ( s ) = b3s 1U( s ) + b2 s 2U( s ) + b1 s3U( s ) + b0 s4U( s ) a3s 1Y ( s ) a2 s2Y ( s ) a1 s3Y ( s ) a0 s4 Y ( s ) (7) (6)

The denominator in (6) is fourth order and leads one to conclude that a block diagram consisting of four 1/s terms may be useful. Construction of the phase variable canonical form is initiated by setting the output to Y ( s ) = b0 s 4U( s ) which may be represented using four integrators as shown in Figure 2. U(s) 1/s 1/s 1/s 1/s b0 Y(s) (8)

## Figure 2. Block diagram of the output equation.

After substituting Y(s) from (8) into (7), the expression becomes Y ( s ) = b3s 1U( s ) + b2 s 2U( s ) + b1 s3U( s ) + b0 s4U( s ) a3b0 s 5U( s ) a2 b0 s 6U( s ) a1 b0 s7U( s ) a0 b0 s8U( s ) . (9)

It is left for the reader to show that the additional terms when applied to the block diagram results in Figure 3.8 (b) in . The reader may also wish to examine the similarities between control canonical form and phase variable form. It is important to note that a particular transfer function may be represented by block diagrams of many different canonical forms, yielding many different valid state models. References  
Lewis, P., and Yang, C., Basic Control Systems Engineering, Prentice Hall, 1997. Dorf, Richard and Bishop, Robert, Modern Control Systems, 10th Ed., Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2005.