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Unit V Solutions

Introduction 4.1, 4.2, 10.1, 10.2

Solution Chemistry

Chemicals are often dissolved in solvents to facilitate reactions.

It is im portant to think about the behaviour of molecules and ions in solution, as well as their concentration.

4.1 Water

Water is called the universal solvent because it is capable of dissolving a wide range of chemicals. How does it do it?

Some Properties of Water


Hydration occurs when salts dissolve in water. imulation/s oluble-salts

Components of a Solution
Solution = solvent + solute e.g. salt water = water + salt o Solvent
n n

The dissolving medium. P resent in a larger amount than the solute. Dissolves in the solvent. P resent in a lesser amount

n n

Solutions that are not liquid


Solutions can be anything dissolved in anything else. e.g. - oxygen gas dissolved in nitrogen gas (air) - tin dissolved in copper (bronze) - alcohol dissolved in water (rum)

Solubility Rule

In order for something to dissolve, the solute must be capable of being attracted to the solvent. Solubility Rule: Like dissolves like

Polar & ionic substances dissolve in polar solvents (both have opposite charges). Non-polar substances dissolve in non-polar solvents.

Intermolecular Forces

dipole-dipole attraction: polar molecules orient themselves so that d+ and d- ends of the dipoles are close to each other.

hydrogen bonds are especially strong dipole-dipole attractions in which hydrogen is bound to a highly electronegative atom H-F, H-O, or H-N.

Liquid Water Hydrogen bonding

London dispersion forces are weak, instantaneous attractions present between all nonpolar molecules and atoms (strength depends on the number of electrons).

4.2 Properties of Solutions


Capillary Action spontaneous rising of a liquid in a narrow tube. (polar molecules) The water adheres to the glass with greater force than the cohesive force within the water (and with enough force to overcome gravity to an extent).

Viscosity resistance to flow (molecules with large intermolecular forces).

Surface tension - the resistance of a liquid to an increase in its surface area (polar molecules).


Metallic liquid mercury forms a convex meniscus in a glass tube (mercury is more attracted to itself then glass). Polar water forms a concave meniscus. Always read a scale from the bottom of the meniscus.




When electrolytes are present, water can conduct electricity (electricity requires moving charges particles like ions). When ionic compounds dissociate in water, they yield ions. e.g. NaCl(aq) Na+ + ClWhen acids ionize in water, they yield ions. e.g . HCl(aq) H+ + Cl-

Solution Conductivity Test

Electrolytes - Classified
Strong - conduct current efficiently NaCl high solubility salt, HNO3 strong acid Weak - conduct only a small current CaCO 3 low solubility salt, HC2H 3O 2 weak acid Non - no current flows C12H 22O 11 molecular, doesn t ionize


Strong is also a term that we use for acids and bases that ionize or dissociate completely in solution e.g. HCl (aq) H +(aq) + Cl +(aq) , >99% Weak is used for acids and bases that do not completely ionize or dissociate in water, and so some of the compound remains in solution: e.g. CH 3COOH (aq) CH 3COO -(aq) + H +(aq) , <2%

o p171 o p500

# 9, 19 # 13, 15, 35, 43