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TRIPIKON-S AS APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE SANITATION ALONG RIVERBANK AREA AT TROPICAL DEVELOPING COUNTRY

Aditya Wishnu Wijaya1 and Novi Paramita Dewi2 Undergraduate School of Civil Engineering, Gadjah Mada University 2 Undergraduate School of Communication Department, Gadjah Mada University
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ABSTRACT In the concept of sustainable development, there are several pillars that must be considered which are economy, social, and environment. The pillars have also been the main consideration for the concept of sustainable sanitation. In the several past years, the development of sanitation project is more emphasis on infrastructure development which use top down approach. On the other hand, the technology used is not adapted to the community needs and capabilities. Finally, only futile infrastructure and monumental buildings are becoming the results of such development. In the community along the river at developing countries, which is often densely populated residential is commonly associated as a shabby, disorganized, and lack of access to public spaces. Facing those problems, we need special approach in achieving sustainable sanitation. One approach that can be done is by choosing the proper technology. Appropriate technology used in sanitation development is facilitating conditions of the community (lack of open space, low levels of income and education, community social behavior). Tripikon-S arising is one of answers in addressing sanitation problem in slum area. Its size and working system make Tripikon-S can be effectively applied to areas that lack open space and low levels economy. Tripikon-S can be used as one tool in support of sustainable sanitation in the area along the riverbank at tropical developing countries Keywords: sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, riverbank area, Tripikon-S, tropical country
SANITATION CONDITIONS IN INDONESIA One of MDGs 2015 is to Ensure Environmental Sustainability, especially people access to safe water and basic sanitation. The Government of Indonesia has stated its commitment to achieving this target. In order to do so, an estimated 78 million more people will require improved water supply and 73 million improved sanitation services by 2015, not to mention necessary improvements in service quality for those already shown as having access.[1] Water supply and sanitation in Indonesia is characterized by poor levels of access and service quality. Over 100 million people in Indonesia lack access to safe water and more than 70 percent of the countrys 220 million population relies on water obtained from potentially contaminated sources.[2] With only 2% access to sewerage in urban areas is one of the lowest in the world among middle-income countries. Most of the bad sanitation problem comes from the slum area in urban developing countries, that in fact inhabited by the poor. Recently, the sanitation system implemented in urban area is the technology adopted from the develop countries such as centralized sanitation system. That technology is not proper to implement at developing countries due to the cost that will burden both government and community. Such technology will add extra problem in the future and make that is no longer sustain. In the other hand, the running of bad habit within the community, like bathing, washing as well as open defecation along the river increase the potential of suffering some diseases such as diarrhea, typhoid, and malaria. This will make them spend extra money for health care.

APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY IS TOTALLY NEEDED Appropriate technology defined as technology that is designed with special consideration to the environmental, ethical, cultural, social, political, and economical aspects of the community it is intended for. Therefore, the use of appropriate technology is more ensure the sustainability. Appropriate technologies are easier to maintain, and have less of an impact on the environment compared to techniques from mainstream technology, which they contend is wasteful and environmentally polluting.[3] The conventional septic tank, which is quite efficient as environmental

healt infrastructure, is difficult to build for flooded area or swamp area along the riverbank. Commonly, people who live near the river, will directly throw their feces away to from the toilet to the river. Some cases were worse. They even do not have adequate toilet to compromise with sanitation hygiene. Flushing feces from the toilet straight into the river or into the ground will pollute the environment and can spread the disease. Therefore, the waste from the toilet should be processed by bacteria in the septic tank for such times. Because in the area of shallow ground water lever, marshes and tidal affected area, or on narrow terrain area septic tanks are too difficult (expensive) to be built, therefore, it will be required the suitable wastewater treatment installation. Seeing this fact that happened in all the slums by the river in Indonesia, it is required an improvement to a reliable sanitation system so that environmental pollution can be minimized. For that reason, appropriate technology need to be created to solve the sanitation problem in slum riverbanks area THE NAME OF THIS APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY IS TRIPIKON-S Tripikon-S is one of proper technology to solve the sanitation problem at swamp or flooded riverbank area. Tripikon-S is stand for (TRI (three) - Pipe - Concentric - Septic) which refers to three pipes arranged concentrically (same axes) as a septic tank. Tripikon-S was invented by Prof. Ir. Hardjoso Prodjopangarso and developed at the Laboratory of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Gadjah Mada University. Prof. Hardjoso invented Tripikon-S when the governor of South Borneo Province asked him to overcome sanitation problem in slum riverbanks Banjarmasin City area. Tripikon-S can be used for septic tank household latrines in the area of shallow ground water level, marshes and tidal affected area, or on narrow terrain area. The Tripikon-S are innovative technology to solve waste water treatment in slum riverbanks area, even though Tripikon-S can be installed in any characteristic of areas. Scientifically, Tripikon-S has ability to reduce the potential hazard arising from pollutant or untreated wastewater. From the results of experiments conducted, it has been proved that substances in the wastewater product were reduced significantly so that waste water from processing of Tripikon-S installation is safe for disposal. Reduction of water and soil pollution influences the stability of ecological system. In addition, Tripikon-S is simple to be built and easily adopted. It does not need high technology to install Tripikon-S.

Figure 1. Tripikon-S Figure HOW DOES TRIPIKON-S WORKS? Tripikon-S works like a common septic tank. The difference is laid on the direction of waste water flow in the processing tube. In a conventional septic tank, water flows horizontally, whereas in Tripikon-S, the water flows vertically. Waste water enter Tripikon-S through a small pipe (inlet)

connected with the toilet which continues to medium pipe. Detention time used in Tripikon-S is 3 days. Inside the medium pipe, there are two sewage treatment processes. The first process is a chemical process: human feces which mixed with water will undergo a process of reduction. 60-70% of feces will settle to the bottom as sludge. Parts that are non-deposited feces will float on top with fat to form a layer called the scum. The scum has function to maintain anaerobic conditions in the bottom of the pipe and allowing anaerobic bacteria grow up and flourish that will function in the decomposition process. The second process is a biological process: the process is sludge decomposition by anaerobic bacteria. Feces will break down into small parts and come out as effluent which unpolluted and environmental friendly. Besides experiencing the process of decomposition, the reduction process of pathogen bacteria such as E coli also happen in medium pipe. The bacteria, E. Coli is a bacteria that need oxygen to stay alive (aerobic/facultative anaerobic bacteria). Oxygen in Tripikon-S will be more easily obtained on the upper surface layer of water. On that basis, the bacteria E. coli tend to be at the top of water layer to get oxygen. In addition to E. coli bacteria, there are other aerobic bacteria that live in the pipe Tripikon-S. These bacteria also have a tendency to stay on the top layer of surface water. Because of the availability of oxygen in water is limited, there was the cannibalism process to get enough oxygen. Eventually the bacteria E. coli can be reduced through the process. Wastewater that has undergone decomposition process will exit through the outlet pipe on Tripikon-S. On the other hand, there is a sludge depletion pipe thereby extending the service of Tripikon-S. CASE STUDY OF TRIPIKON-S IMPLEMENTATION Tripikon-S as appropriate technology already implemented in some places. One of the examples of implementation Tripikon-S are in 3-4 Ulu District, Palembang, South Sumatera Province and Prawirodirjan District, Yogyakarta Special Province. Implementation Tripikon-S in 3-4 Ulu District Regional Background 3-4 Ulu District, Palembang is an area of riverbank at Palembang City that has characteristics of high water level. The condition at 3-4 Ulu District is swamp and flooded riverbank area. It is located near Musi River. Most of this area is inhabited by people who live under prosperity. The flooded area cause the implementation and construction of conventional septic tank was facing the difficulties and spend higher cost. Due the problem found in the field, Waterplant Community collaborated with Public Work Departement, initiated the implementation of communal Tripikon-S. Design Tripikon-S in this project designed with the capacity of communal services 10 families (40 persons; assuming 4 people per family). Some data are known as follows:

Technical Data Production waste water (v) Sludge production (p) Number of people served (n) Depletion interval (t) Detention time (T)

: 25 liters / person / day : 35 liters / person / year : 40 people : 0.5 years : 3 days

Data Analysis To count the volume of waste water (1) and sludge (2), the formula that used as follow Vw = v x n x t Vs = n x p x t (1) (2)

So the equation will be

The volume of waste water (Vw)

Sludge volume (Vs)

Total volume (Vtot)

=vxnxT = 25 x 40 x 3 = 3000 liter =nxpxt = 40 x 35 x 0.5 = 700 liter. = Vw + Vs = 3700 liter

Assuming used 1 m in diameter for big pipe and 0,6 m in diameter for medium pipe, Net cross section (A) = 68,33 dm2 Length of pipe (H) = Vtot/A = 3700/68,33 = 5,4 m From the equation before, the Tripikon-S installation in 3-4 Ulu, Palembang used 5,4 m in pipe length and diameter 1 m, 0,6 m, and 0,0762 m continue for big pipe, medium pipe, and small pipe.

Implementation in Yogyakarta Regional Background Riverbed settlements in the city of Yogyakarta is a densely populated residential and minim access for open spaces. Sanitation along the river in Yogyakarta City are also bad. Tripikon-S installation is take place along the Code River, one of river in Yogyakarta, precisely in the village Prawirodirjan RW 18th (RW, a unit of community consisting of several neighborhoods), Mergangsan Sub-District, Yogyakarta City. Implementation done on some neighborhood (N) consisting of N 58, N 59,N 60, and N 61. Tripikon-S is chosen to provide the solution to the lack of open space in these residential areas. Design Design Tripikon-S used in this project is a design for individual toilets and communal toilets on a small scale. S Tripikon development is also accompanied by the construction of sewage water treatment that serves to process the grey water. Method of Approach The method used is community involved in determining the location of the installation, create, and maintain the installation. People are asked to determine target and project objectives. Through the PKK (Empowering for Family Welfare), the facilitator convey the idea that there are solutions to sanitation problems and asked for active participation of society in the making Tripikon-S. After the installation is formed, people were given training on maintenance procedures and the use of Tripikon-S. The training is conducted per neighborhood region in the village.[5]

Table 1. Number of Household and Person Served (SEA-UEMA Project in Yogyakarta, 2006)
Number of Unit Served SN 1 2 3 Installed System Seven Tripikon-S in three Communal Toilets One Tripikon-S Model in Individual House Instalment of Sewage Treatment System TOTAL Served Community Neighborhood 58, 59, 60 and 61 Neighborhood 58, 59, 60 and 61 Neighboorhood 58 and 60 Household 63 2 89 154 Man 302 2 229 533 Woman 281 3 215 499

THE EFFECTIVENESS AND PRIVILEGES OF TRIPIKON-S Based on how the Tripikon-S works and its effectiveness, it could say that Tripikon-S is appropriate technology especially at the area that has characteristic as well as slum riverbank area. In the early phase of Tripikon-S invention, it used as rapid response to address the spread of diarrhea endemic at slum riverbank area in Banjarmasin District, South Borneo Province. The similar condition, that going on Banjarmasin, could easily found in other places in slum riverbanks area in developing countries. Effectiveness Tripikon-S as appropriate technology to evaluate some aspects such as: 1. The quality of wastewater The quality of waste water can be seen from a comparison of the content contained in the influent and effluent. For the comparison example of influent and effluent quality, is used data from the test results in Pontianak and Banjarmasin

Amount of KMnO4 (mg/L)

Month

Figure 2. The interaction graph between amount of KMnO4 and month (Source : Land Resources Research Center of Gadjah Mada University) From these results showed that after the operation of Tripikon-S for 4 months the quality of the resulting outlets is going better. In this trial KMnO4 used as parameter to measure the organic content. The KMnO4 parameter is more stable rather than BOD parameter in term of organic content.[6] 2. Area Used Areas that is used in installing Tripikon-S is smaller than septictank. These conditions allow Tripikon-S to be installed on a narrow land. The vertical waste water flow of Tripikon-S,

which is influenced the form of Tripikon-S is also effective for application in areas with high water level or tidal areas Tripikon-S also has other privileges. Those privileges can be named as 3E of Tripikon-S. 3 E elements are : 1. Easy Built: Tripikon-S is easy to build because the materials used easily gained and can be replaced with local materials as well as take simple construction 2. Easy Financed: the making of Tripikon-S installation does not require large funds compared with the cost of making septic tank and can be funded independently by community or in participatory funding scheme(with subsidies) 3. Easy Replicated: technology used is applicable and adoptable, and do not require high technology in the installation and its maintenance. Those benefit are strengthened the position of Tripikon-S as an appropriate technology, so Tripikon-S could be a solution to sanitation problems in urban slum riverbanks areas in developing countries.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT Special thanks to Waterplant Community and Land Resources Research Center, Gadjah Mada University for the sources and the kind service and also to Prof. Ir. Hardjoso Prodjopangarso and Ir. Darmanto Dip. H.E.,M.Sc, who gave a lot of information about Tripikon-S concept and installation. Thanks also to Center of Analysis for Management Policy, Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta University for the data of Tripikon-S installation in Yogyakarta. References [1] World Bank: Project Appraisal Document On A Proposed Credit To The Republic Of Indonesia For A Third Water Supply And Sanitation For Low Income Communities (Pamsimas) Project, 2006, June 1, Annex 1, Available online: http://www.en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Water_supply_and_sanitation_in_Indonesia&am p;action=edit (accessed on 26th August, 2010). [2] Asian Development Bank: Country Water Action: Indonesia Simple Solution for Drinking Water Makes Big Difference, March 2006, Available online: http://www.en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Appropriate_technology&action=edit (accessed on August 26, 2010). [3] Darrow Ken, Saxenian Mike, Appropriate Technology Sourcebook: Introduction, Village Earth, Colorado, Available online: http://www.villageearth.org/pages/Appropriate_Technology/ATSourcebook/Introduction.php (accessed on 26th August, 2010). [4] Prodjopangarso Haardjoso, 2009, The Traditional Technology Area, Local Wisdom Inspiring Global Solution World Conference, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta [5] SEA-UEMA Project, 2008, Technical Manual of Sanitation System for Small Community, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, August [6] Waterplant Community UGM, 2008, Project Report of Tripikon-S Installation in Uluwatu, Palembang City, October