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B.

TECH PROJECT REPORT


ON

Automatic Railway Crossing Controller

By :AKNASHA GAHLOT (0832140001) MANOJ SHARMA (0832140002) MOHIT AGGRAWAL (0837940004) SOURABH TYAGI (0837940009)

CERTIFICATE

To whom it may concern This is to certify that the work which is being presented in the project report title

Automatic Railway Crossing Controller in partial fulfillment for the


award of the degree of B.Tech and submitted to the department of Mechanical Engineering, TRANSLAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT,MEERUT is an authentic record of the work carried out by MANOJ SHARMA, AKNASHU GALHOT MOHIT AGGRAWAL & SOURABH TYAGI and during the academic session 2008-2012. The matter presented in this report has not been submitted by the candidates for the award of any other degree.

Mr.ABHISHEK GOEL AGARWAL


(Assistant Professor & Project Guide) Coordinator project Coordinator)

Mr.

K.M

(Head of Department & Project

M.E Deptt.

M.E. Deptt.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We are grateful to Mr.Abhishek goel, Asst. Lecturer, Mech. Department, TITM Mawana road Meerut encouragement and guidance during the preparation of this work.

We express our sincere gratitude to Dr.K.M Aggrawal, H.O.D., M.E Department, Translam Institute of Technology & Management, Meerut for his invaluable suggestions and constructive criticism regarding this report.

Last but not the least, we are thankful to all those who helped us in any way to prepare this report.

Mr. HARIOM TRIPATHI Mr. ANIL JOSI Mr. ANUPAM Kumar


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CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION

PLATFORM USED

AIM OF THE PROJECT

BLOCK DIAGRAM

WORKING OF THE PROJECT

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

COMPONENT LIST

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
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PCB LAYOUT

STEPS FOR MAKING PCB

SENSING UNIT DESCRIPTION

COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION

CONCLUSION

REFERENCE

INTRODUCTION

In his generation everything is going to be automated human involvement is going to decreases. Technology is growing day by day using the embedded system designing here we have designed Automatic railway crossing which is a embedded system based design, embedded system is a combination of hardware and software it functioning is based on the microcontroller .In this project the railway barrier automatically close when the train is few Kilometer away from the barrier and automatically gets open when the train crosses that barrier and goes few Kilometer ahead of it.

PLATFORM USED

Hardware requirements:
1) LM7805 2) Resistors 3) Capacitors 4) Transistors 5) Connectors 6) IR Sensor 7) BUZZER 8) Liquid crystal display 9) PCB developing equipments

Regulator

AIM OF THE PROJECT

The Aim of this project is to design an automatic railway crossing system by using controller and Pressure sensor ,Pressure sensor is used for finding the distance of the train ,at a fixed distance these sensor is placed whenever a train passes it ,Ir transmitter generate a low signal pulse that is received by the controller ,passes to the circuit which give us the information about the train .when train if few k.m away from the barrier the barrier will closes and after train crosses it ,the barrier open and allow the traffic to cross it . This system is reliable and much effective then the previous railway crossing system in which a human has to be involve all the time, this system work also when their will be no person to operate the barriers opening and closing .

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BLOCK DIAGRAM

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POWER SUPPLY

PRESSURE SENSOR
PIC CONTROLLER

DISPLAY ON LCD

Motor to control barrier

Buzzer

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WORKING OF THE PROJECT

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Here we are using a microcontroller ,PRESSURE sensor ,relay ,motor and LCD for proper functioning of the system .we are presenting a model of the system in which we are using a toy train which representing the actual train .we have placed three sensor at fixed distance along the track whenever the train crosses it and sensor press ,the pulse that it is giving to the microcontroller initially, changes from high to low this low pulse is applied to the pin of the microcontroller on sensing this pin microcontroller run the buzzer and display the distance of the train ,the distance display will be the distance loaded by programmer during programming of the microcontroller when it crossed the IR sensor at which is 3 Km away from the barrier ,the microcontroller sense it and it turn on a relay which turn on a motor and the barriers closes, H bridge is used here for changing the direction of rotation of motor because it has to rotate in opposite direction for closing the barrier when train crosses it .

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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Attach the hard copy of the ckt diagram


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CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

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POWER SUPPLY SECTION:

Consists of:
1.

RLMT Connector--- It is a connector used to connect the step down transformer to the bridge rectifier. Bridge Rectifier --- It is a full wave rectifier used to convert ac into dc , 9-15v ac made by transformer is converted into dc with the help of rectifier. Capacitor: -----It is an electrolytic capacitor of rating 1000M/35V used to remove the ripples. Capacitor is the component used to pass the ac and block the dc. Regulator: ----LM7805 is used to give a fixed 5v regulated supply. Capacitor: -----It is again an electrolytic capacitor 10M/65v used for filtering to give pure dc.

2.

3.

4.

5.

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6.

Capacitor: ----- It is an ceramic capacitor used to remove the spikes generated when frequency is high(spikes). So the output of supply section is 5v regulated dc.

MICROCONTROLLER

SECTION:

Requires three connections to be successfully done for its operation to begin.


1.

+5v supply: This +5v supply is required for the controller to get start which is provided from the power supply section. This supply is provided at pin no.31and 40 of the 89c51 controller. Crystal Oscillator: A crystal oscillator of 12 MHz is connected at pin no.19,x1 and pin no.18,x2 to generate the frequency for the controller. The crystal oscillator works on piezoelectric effect.The clock generated is used to determine the processing speed of the controller. Two capacitors are also connected one end with the oscillator while the other end is connected with the ground. As it is recommended in the book to connect two ceramic capacitor of 20 pf40pf to stabilize the clock generated.

2.

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3.

Reset section: It consists of an rc network consisting of 10M/35V capacitor and one resistance of 1k. This section is used to reset the controller connected at pin no.9 of AT89c51.

DISPLAY SECTION:
LCD (LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY)

MICROCONTROLLER BASED LCD DISPLAY ,this project is an embedded project . Embedded is the combination of software and hardware before designing any embedded project it is the first step to design the proper hardware for the desired application. Here we are interfacing the LCD, LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY with the Microcontroller, we are using ATMEL series 51 controller 89c51 controller. It is a 40 pin IC, the first step while designing hardware is to design the required power supply as the controller operates on +5 v supply so first we have to design the regulated supply with the help of transformer, regulator and filtering capacitor. Next step is the necessary connections of the controller like reset and the crystal oscillator for resetting and speed respectively. Then comes the LCD interfacing ,we are using 16x2 LCD for display, pin no. 7 to 14 are the data lines of the LCD which has to be interfaced with the microcontroller input/output pins. Port p0 has been used for the interfacing of data lines. 20

Since the display becomes very easy when we use microcontroller hence we have made this project and we have tried to show different display using the switch.

RELAY SECTION: RELAY is an isolator and an electrical switch. The relay used is 12V5A.To control the operation of relay an NPN transistor BC547 has been used. Whenever high signal comes at the base of NPN transistor it is switched on and whenever low arrives it is switched off. Base of the transistor is connected with the I/O pin of the microcontroller. Base resistance of 1k5 is connected at the base of the transistor. Whenever low is sensed at the pin of microcontroller transistor gets off and the output of the collector becomes high and the relay which is connected at the output of the collector becomes off. The reverse action of it takes place when high is sensed at the pin of microcontroller.

This section also consists of pull up & pull down resistance. A 2k2 resistance is used as pull up. In any case when more than 5v comes then pull up resistance sinks the excess voltage & maintains 5v. If pull up is not used then the 12v of relay can damage the processor when the transistor BC547 is on. A pull down resistor of value 2k2 is also used.

BUZZER SECTION: This section includes a buzzer as well as a resistance to limit the current. The buzzer operates in the range of 20-25mA. The voltage given to the buzzer is 5v and also the buzzer can operate between 3V-24V. The resistance used is calculated by using the ohms law. Buzzer is an indicating device which is used for checking the software condition and also used for indicating any specific condition.
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PCB LAYOUT
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Attach the hard copy of the component layout

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Attach the hard copy of the pcb layout

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STEPS FOR MAKING PCB

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Prepare the layout of the circuit (positive).

Cut the photo film (slightly bigger) of the size of the layout. Place the layout in the photo printer machine with the photo film above it. Make sure that the bromide (dark) side of the film is in contact with the layout.

Switch on the machine by pressing the push button for 5 sec. Dip the film in the solution prepared (developer) by mixing the chemicals A & B in equal quantities in water. Now clean the film by placing it in the tray containing water for 1 min. After this, dip the film in the fixer solution for 1 min. now the negative of the Circuit is ready. Now wash it under the flowing water. Dry the negative in the photocure machine. Take the PCB board of the size of the layout and clean it with steel wool to make the surface smooth. Now dip the PCB in the liquid photoresist, with the help of dip coat machine.
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Now clip the PCB next to the negative in the photo cure machine, drying for approximate 10-12 minute. Now place the negative on the top of the PCB in the UV machine, set the timer for about 2.5 minute and switch on the UV light at the top. Take the LPR developer in a container and rigorously move the PCB in it. After this, wash it with water very gently. Then apply LPR dye on it with the help of a dropper so that it is completely covered by it. Now clamp the PCB in the etching machine that contains ferric chloride solution for about 10 minutes. After etching, wash the PCB with water, wipe it a dry cloth softly. Finally rub the PCB with a steel wool, and the PCB is ready.

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MICROCONTROLLER AT89C51

Features Compatible with MCS-51 Products 8K Bytes of In-System Re programmable Flash Memory Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz Three-level Program Memory Lock 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Three 16-bit Timer/Counters Eight Interrupt Sources Programmable Serial Channel Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes

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COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION

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Liquid crystal display(LCD)


A liquid crystal display (commonly abbreviated LCD) is a thin, flat display device made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or reflector. It is prized by engineers because it uses very small amounts of electric power, and is therefore suitable for use in battery-powered electronic devices. Each pixel of an LCD consists of a layer of perpendicular molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes, and two polarizing filters, the axes of polarity of which are perpendicular to each other. With no liquid crystal between the polarizing filters, light passing through one filter would be blocked by the electrodes. The surfaces of the electrodes that are in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectional rubbed using a cloth (the direction of the liquid crystal alignment is defined by the direction of rubbing). Before applying an electric field, the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules is determined by the alignment at the surfaces. In a twisted nomadic device (the most common liquid crystal device), the surface alignment directions at the two electrodes are perpendicular, and so the molecules arrange themselves in a helical structure, or twist. Because the liquid crystal material is birefringent, light passing
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through one polarizing filter is rotated by the liquid crystal helix as it passes through the liquid crystal layer, allowing it to pass through the second polarized filter. Half of the light is absorbed by the first polarizing filter, but otherwise the entire assembly is transparent. When a voltage is applied across the electrodes, a torque acts to align the liquid crystal molecules parallel to the electric field, distorting the helical structure (this is resisted by elastic forces since the molecules are constrained at the surfaces). This reduces the rotation of the polarization of the incident light, and the device appears gray. If the applied voltage is large enough, the liquid crystal molecules are completely untwisted and the polarization of the incident light is not rotated at all as it passes through the liquid crystal layer. This light will then be polarized perpendicular to the second filter, and thus be completely blocked and the pixel will appear black. By controlling the voltage applied across the liquid crystal layer in each pixel, light can be allowed to pass through in varying amounts, correspondingly illuminating the pixel. With a twisted nematic liquid crystal device it is usual to operate the device between crossed polarizers, such that it appears bright with no applied voltage. With this setup, the dark voltage-on state is uniform. The device can be operated between parallel polarizers, in which case the bright and dark states are reversed.

Both the liquid crystal material and the alignment layer material contain ionic compounds. If an electric field of one particular polarity
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is applied for a long period of time, this ionic material is attracted to the surfaces and degrades the device performance. This is avoided by applying either an alternating current, or by reversing the polarity of the electric field as the device is addressed (the response of the liquid crystal layer is identical, regardless of the polarity of the applied field). When a large number of pixels is required in a display, it is not feasible to drive each directly since then each pixel would require independent electrodes. Instead, the display is multiplexed. In a multiplexed display, electrodes on one side of the display are grouped and wired together (typically in columns), and each group gets its own voltage source. On the other side, the electrodes are also grouped (typically in rows), with each group getting a voltage sink. The groups are designed so each pixel has a unique, unshared combination of source and sink. The electronics or the software driving the electronics then turns on sinks in sequence, and drives sources for the pixels of each sink.

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Figure 20:LCD Pictorial View

2.5.1

LCD Standards

Frequently, an 8051 program must interact with the outside world using input and output devices that communicate directly with a human being. One of the most common devices attached to an 8051 is an LCD display. Some of the most common LCDs connected to the 8051 are 16x2 and 20x2 displays. This means 16 characters per line by 2 lines and 20 characters per line by 2 lines, respectively. Fortunately, a very popular standard exists which allows us to communicate with the vast majority of LCDs regardless of their manufacturer. The standard is referred to as HD44780U, which refers to the controller chip which receives data from an external source (in this case, the 8051) and communicates directly with the LCD.
2.5.2 44780 Standard

The 44780 standard requires 3 control lines as well as either 4 or 8 I/O lines for the data bus. The user may select whether the LCD is to operate with a 4-bit data bus or an 8-bit data bus. If a 4-bit data bus is used the LCD will require a total of 7 data lines (3 control lines plus the 4 lines for the data bus). If an 8-bit data bus is used the LCD will require a total of 11 data lines (3 control lines plus the 8 lines for the data bus). The three control lines are referred to as EN, RS, and RW. The EN line is called "Enable." This control line is used to tell the LCD that you are sending it data. To send data to the LCD, your program should make sure this line is low (0) and then set the other two control lines and/or put data on the data bus. When the other lines are completely ready, bring EN high (1) and wait for the minimum
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amount of time required by the LCD datasheet (this varies from LCD to LCD), and end by bringing it low (0) again. The RS line is the "Register Select" line. When RS is low (0), the data is to be treated as a command or special instruction (such as clear screen, position cursor, etc.). When RS is high (1), the data being sent is text data which sould be displayed on the screen. For example, to display the letter "T" on the screen you would set RS high. The RW line is the "Read/Write" control line. When RW is low (0), the information on the data bus is being written to the LCD. When RW is high (1), the program is effectively querying (or reading) the LCD. Only one instruction ("Get LCD status") is a read command. All others are write commands--so RW will almost always be low. Finally, the data bus consists of 4 or 8 lines (depending on the mode of operation selected by the user). In the case of an 8-bit data bus, the lines are referred to as DB0, DB1, DB2, DB3, DB4, DB5, DB6, and DB7.

Transformers A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling without requiring relative motion between its parts. It usually comprises two or more coupled windings, and, in most cases, a core to concentrate magnetic flux. A transformer operates from the application of an alternating voltage to one winding, which creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core. This varying flux induces a voltage in the other windings. Varying the relative number of turns between primary and secondary windings determines the ratio of the input and output voltages, thus transforming the voltage by stepping it up or down between circuits. Basic principle

The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer consisting of two windings of zero resistance around a core of negligible reluctance. A voltage applied to the primary winding causes a current, which develops a magneto motive force (MMF) in the core. The current required to create the MMF is

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termed the magnetizing current; in the ideal transformer it is considered to be negligible. The MMF drives flux around the magnetic circuit of the core.

Figure 26: The ideal transformer as a circuit element

An electromotive force (EMF) is induced across each winding, an effect known as mutual inductance. The windings in the ideal transformer have no resistance and so the EMFs are equal in magnitude to the measured terminal voltages. In accordance with Faraday's law of induction, they are proportional to the rate of change of flux:

and

Equation 7: EMF induced in primary and secondary windings

where: and and are the induced EMFs across primary and secondary windings, are the numbers of turns in the primary and secondary windings,

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and windings.

are the time derivatives of the flux linking the primary and secondary

In the ideal transformer, all flux produced by the primary winding also links the secondary, and so , from which the well-known transformer equation follows:

Equation 8: Transformer Equation

The ratio of primary to secondary voltage is therefore the same as the ratio of the number of turns; alternatively, that the volts-per-turn is the same in both windings. The conditions that determine Transformer working in STEP UP or STEP DOWN mode are:

Ns > Np
Equation 9: Conditon for STEP UP

Ns < Np
Equation 10: Conditon for STEP DOWN

Rectifier
A bridge rectifier is an arrangement of four diodes connected in a bridge circuit as shown below, that provides the same polarity of output voltage for any polarity of the input voltage. When used in its most common application, for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output, it is known as a bridge rectifier. The bridge rectifier provides full wave rectification from a two wire AC input (saving the cost of a center tapped transformer) but has two diode drops rather than one reducing efficiency over a center tap based design for the same output voltage.

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Figure 9: Schematic of a bridge rectifier

The essential feature of this arrangement is that for both polarities of the voltage at the bridge input, the polarity of the output is constant.

Basic Operation
When the input connected at the left corner of the diamond is positive with respect to the one connected at the right hand corner, current flows to the right along the upper colored path to the output, and returns to the input supply via the lower one.

When the right hand corner is positive relative to the left hand corner, current flows along the upper colored path and returns to the supply via the lower colored path.

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Figure 10: AC, half-wave and full wave rectified signals

In each case, the upper right output remains positive with respect to the lower right one. Since this is true whether the input is AC or DC, this circuit not only produces DC power when supplied with AC power: it also can provide what is sometimes called "reverse polarity protection". That is, it permits normal functioning when batteries are installed backwards or DC input-power supply wiring "has its wires crossed" (and protects the circuitry it powers against damage that might occur without this circuit in place). 38

Prior to availability of integrated electronics, such a bridge rectifier was always constructed from discrete components. Since about 1950, a single four-terminal component containing the four diodes connected in the bridge configuration became a standard commercial component and is now available with various voltage and current ratings. 2.2.2 Output Smoothing For many applications, especially with single phase AC where the full-wave bridge serves to convert an AC input into a DC output, the addition of a capacitor may be important because the bridge alone supplies an output voltage of fixed polarity but pulsating magnitude.

Figure 11: Bridge Rectifier with smoothen output

The function of this capacitor, known as a 'smoothing capacitor' (see also filter capacitor) is to lessen the variation in (or 'smooth') the raw output voltage waveform from the bridge. One explanation of 'smoothing' is that the capacitor provides a low impedance path to the AC component of the output, reducing the AC voltage across, and AC current through, the resistive load. In less technical terms, any drop in the output voltage and current of the bridge tends to be cancelled by loss of charge in the capacitor. This charge flows out as additional current through the load. Thus the change of load current and voltage is reduced relative to what would occur without the capacitor. Increases of voltage correspondingly store excess charge in the capacitor, thus moderating the change in output voltage / current.

The capacitor and the load resistance have a typical time constant = RC where C and R are the capacitance and load resistance respectively. As long as the load resistor is large enough so that this time constant is much longer than the time of
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one ripple cycle, the above configuration will produce a well smoothed DC voltage across the load resistance. In some designs, a series resistor at the load side of the capacitor is added. The smoothing can then be improved by adding additional stages of capacitorresistor pairs, often done only for sub-supplies to critical highgain circuits that tend to be sensitive to supply voltage noise.
Voltage Regulators A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or passive or active electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages. With the exception of shunt regulators, all voltage regulators operate by comparing the actual output voltage to some internal fixed reference voltage. Any difference is amplified and used to control the regulation element. This forms a negative feedback servo control loop. If the output voltage is too low, the regulation element is commanded to produce a higher voltage. For some regulators if the output voltage is too high, the regulation element is commanded to produce a lower voltage; however, many just stop sourcing current and depend on the current draw of whatever it is driving to pull the voltage back down. In this way, the output voltage is held roughly constant. The control loop must be carefully designed to produce the desired tradeoff between stability and speed of response.

2.4.1
Description

LM317 (3-Terminal Adjustable Regulator)

The LM317 is an adjustable three-terminal positive-voltage regulator capable of supplying more than 1.5 A over an output-voltage range of 1.2 V to 37 V. It is exceptionally easy to use and requires only two external resistors to set the output voltage. Furthermore, both line and load regulation are better than standard fixed regulators. The LM317 is packaged in the KC (TO-220AB) and KTE packages, which are easy to handle and use. In addition to having higher performance than fixed regulators, this device includes on-chip current limiting, thermal overload protection, and safe-operating-area protection. All overload protection remains fully functional, even if the ADJUST terminal is disconnected.

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Figure 16: TOP IC view of LM 317

The LM317 is versatile in its applications, including uses in programmable output regulation and local on-card regulation. Or, by connecting a fixed resistor between the ADJUST and OUTPUT terminals, the LM317 can function as a precision current regulator. An optional output capacitor can be added to improve transient response. The ADJUST terminal can be bypassed to achieve very high ripple-rejection ratios, which are difficult to achieve with standard three-terminal regulators. The LM317 is characterized for operation over the virtual junction temperature range of 0C to 125C.

RELAYS

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Circuit symbol for a relay

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field, which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover) switches. Relays allow one circuit to switch Relays a second circuit that can be completely separate from the first. Photographs Rapid Electronics For example a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit. There is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits, the link is magnetic and mechanical. The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current, typically 30mA for a 12V relay, but it can be as much as 100mA for relays designed to operate from lower voltages. Most ICs (chips) cannot provide this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small IC current to the larger value required for
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the relay coil. The maximum output current for the popular 555 timer IC is 200mA so these devices can supply relay coils directly without amplification. Relays are usually SPDT or DPDT but they can have many more sets of switch contacts, for example relays with 4 sets of changeover contacts are readily available. For further information about switch contacts and the terms used to describe them please see the page on switches. Most relays are designed for PCB mounting but you can solder wires directly to the pins providing you take care to avoid melting the plastic case of the relay. The supplier's catalogue should show you the relay's connections. The coil will be obvious and it may be connected either way round. Relay coils produce brief high voltage 'spikes' when they are switched off and this can destroy transistors and ICs in the circuit. To prevent damage you must connect a protection diode across the relay coil. The animated picture shows a working relay with its coil and switch contacts. You can see a lever on the left being attracted by magnetism when the coil is switched on. This lever moves the switch contacts. There is one set of contacts (SPDT) in the foreground and another behind them, making the relay DPDT. The relay's switch connections are usually labeled COM, NC and NO: COM = Common, always connect to this, it is the moving part of the switch. NC = Normally Closed, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is off. NO = Normally Open, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is on. Connect to COM and NO if you want the switched circuit to be on when the relay coil is on. Connect to COM and NC if you want the switched circuit to be on when the relay coil is off.

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Crystal Oscillator
It is often required to produce a signal whose frequency or pulse rate is very stable and exactly known. This is important in any application where anything to do with time or exact measurement is crucial. It is relatively simple to make an oscillator that produces some sort of a signal, but another matter to produce one of relatively precise frequency and stability. AM radio stations must have a carrier frequency accurate within 10Hz of its assigned frequency, which may be from 530 to 1710 kHz. SSB radio systems used in the HF range (2-30 MHz) must be within 50 Hz of channel frequency for acceptable voice quality, and within 10 Hz for best results. Some digital modes used in weak signal communication may require frequency stability of less than 1 Hz within a period of several minutes. The carrier frequency must be known to fractions of a hertz in some cases. An ordinary quartz watch must have an oscillator accurate to better than a few parts per million. One part per million will result in an error of slightly less than one half second a day, which would be about 3 minutes a year. This might not sound like much, but an error of 10 parts per million would result in an error of about a half an hour per year. A clock such as this would need resetting about once a month, and more often if you are the punctual type. A programmed VCR with a clock this far off could miss the recording of part of a TV show. Narrow band SSB communications at VHF and UHF frequencies still need 50 Hz frequency accuracy. At 440 MHz, this is slightly more than 0.1 part per million. Ordinary L-C oscillators using conventional inductors and capacitors can achieve typically 0.01 to 0.1 percent frequency stability, about 100 to 1000 Hz at 1 MHz. This is OK for AM and FM broadcast receiver applications and in other low-end analog receivers not requiring high tuning accuracy. By careful design and component selection, and with rugged mechanical construction, .01 to 0.001%, or even better (.0005%) stability can be achieved. The better figures will undoubtedly employ
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temperature compensation components and regulated power supplies, together with environmental control (good ventilation and ambient temperature regulation) and battleship mechanical construction. This has been done in some communications receivers used by the military and commercial HF communication receivers built in the 1950-1965 era, before the widespread use of digital frequency synthesis. But these receivers were extremely expensive, large, and heavy. Many modern consumer grade AM, FM, and shortwave receivers employing crystal controlled digital frequency synthesis will do as well or better from a frequency stability standpoint. An oscillator is basically an amplifier and a frequency selective feedback network (Fig 1). When, at a particular frequency, the loop gain is unity or more, and the total phase shift at this frequency is zero, or some multiple of 360 degrees, the condition for oscillation is satisfied, and the circuit will produce a periodic waveform of this frequency. This is usually a sine wave, or square wave, but triangles, impulses, or other waveforms can be produced. In fact, several different waveforms often are simultaneously produced by the same circuit, at different points. It is also possible to have several frequencies produced as well, although this is generally undesirable.

CAPACITOR
A capacitor or condenser is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). When a potential difference (voltage) exists across the conductors, an electric field is present in the dielectric. This field stores energy and produces a mechanical force between the conductors. The effect is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas of conductor, hence capacitor conductors are often called plates. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance, which is measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current. The conductors and leads introduce an equivalent series resistance and the dielectric has an electric field strength limit resulting in a breakdown voltage. Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits to block the flow of direct current while allowing alternating current to pass, to filter out interference, to smooth the output of power supplies, and for many other purposes. They are used in resonant circuits in
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radio frequency equipment to select particular frequencies from a signal with many frequencies.

Theory of operation

Main article: Capacitance

Charge separation in a parallel-plate capacitor causes an internal electric field. A dielectric (orange) reduces the field and increases the capacitance.

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A simple demonstration of a parallel-plate capacitor A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region.The nonconductive substance is called the dielectric medium, although this may also mean a vacuum or a semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the conductors. A capacitor is assumed to be self-contained and isolated, with no net electric charge and no influence from an external electric field. The conductors thus contain equal and opposite charges on their facing surfaces, and the dielectric contains an electric field. The capacitor is a reasonably general model for electric fields within electric circuits. An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C, defined as the ratio of charge Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them

Sometimes charge buildup affects the mechanics of the capacitor, causing the capacitance to vary. In this case, capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes:

In SI units, a capacitance of one farad means that one coulomb of charge on each conductor causes a voltage of one volt across the device. Work must be done by an external influence to move charge between the conductors in a capacitor. When the external influence is removed, the charge separation persists and energy is stored in the electric field. If charge is later allowed to return to its equilibrium position, the energy is released. The work done in establishing the electric field, and hence the amount of energy stored, is given by:

RESISTOR
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Resistors are used to limit the value of current in a circuit. Resistors offer opposition to the flow of current. They are expressed in ohms for which the symbol is . Resistors are broadly classified as (1) Fixed Resistors (2) Variable Resistors

Fixed Resistors :
The most common of low wattage, fixed type resistors is the molded-carbon composition resistor. The resistive material is of carbon clay composition. The leads are made of tinned copper. Resistors of this type are readily available in value ranging from few ohms to about 20M, having a tolerance range of 5 to 20%.

They are quite inexpensive. The relative size of all fixed resistors changes with the wattage rating. Another variety of carbon composition resistors is the metalized type. It is made by deposition a homogeneous film of pure carbon over a glass, ceramic or other insulating core. This type of film-resistor is sometimes called the precision type, since it can be obtained with an accuracy of 1%. Lead Colour Coding Fixed Resistor A Wire Wound Resistor :
It uses a length of resistance wire, such as macram. This wire is wounded on to a round hollow porcelain core. The ends of the winding are attached to these metal pieces inserted in the core. Tinned copper wire leads are attached to these metal pieces. This assembly is coated with an enamel coating powdered glass. This coating is very smooth
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Tinned Copper Material Molded Carbon Clay Composition

and gives mechanical protection to winding. Commonly available wire wound resistors have resistance values ranging from 1 to 100K, and wattage rating up to about 200W.

Coding Of Resistor :
Some resistors are large enough in size to have their resistance printed on the body. However there are some resistors that are too small in size to have numbers printed on them. Therefore, a system of color coding is used to indicate their values. For fixed, mounded composition resistor four color bands are printed on one end of the outer casing. The color bands are always read left to right from the end that has the bands closest to it. The first and second band represents the first and second significant digits, of the resistance value. The third band is for the number of zeros that follow the second digit. In case the third band is gold or silver, it represents a multiplying factor of 0.1to 0.01. The fourth band represents the manufactures tolerance.

RESISTOR COLOUR CHART

0 black 1 brown 2 red 3 orange 4 yellow 5 green 6 blue 7 purple 8 silver 9 white

0 black 1 brown 2 red 3 orange 4 yellow

0 black 1 brown 2 red 3 orange 4 yellow 5 green 6 blue 7 purple 8 silver 9 white

0 black 1 brown 2 red 3 orange 4 yellow 5 green 6 blue 7 purple 8 silver 9 white 49

6 blue 7 purple 8 green 5 silver 9 white

For example, if a resistor has a color band sequence: yellow, violet, orange and gold
Then its range will be

Yellow=4, violet=7, orange=10,

gold=5% =47K 5% =2.35K

Most resistors have 4 bands: The first band gives the first digit. The second band gives the second digit. The third band indicates the number of zeros. The fourth band is used to show the tolerance (precision) of the resistor.

This resistor has red (2), violet (7), yellow (4 zeros) and gold bands. So its value is 270000 = 270 k .
The standard color code cannot show values of less than 10 . To show these small values two special colors are used for the third band: gold, which means 0.1 and silver which means 0.01. The first and second bands represent the digits as normal.

For example: red, violet, gold bands represent 27 0.1 = 2.7 blue, green, silver bands represent 56 0.01 = 0.56
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The fourth band of the colour code shows the tolerance of a resistor. Tolerance is the precision of the resistor and it is given as a percentage. For example a 390 resistor with a tolerance of 10% will have a value within 10% of 390 , between 390 - 39 = 351 and 390 + 39 = 429 (39 is 10% of 390).

A special colour code is used for the fourth band tolerance: silver 10%, gold 5%, red 2%, brown 1%. If no fourth band is shown the tolerance is 20%. VARIABLE RESISTOR: In electronic circuits, sometimes it becomes necessary to adjust the values of currents and voltages. For n example it is often desired to change the volume of sound, the brightness of a television picture etc. Such adjustments can be done by using variable resistors. Although the variable resistors are usually called rheostats in other applications, the smaller variable resistors commonly used in electronic circuits are called potentiometers.

TRANSISTORS
A transistor is an active device. It consists of two PN junctions formed by sandwiching either p-type or n-type semiconductor between a pair of opposite types. There are two types of transistor: 1. n-p-n transistor 2. p-n-p transistor

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An n-p-n transistor is composed of two n-type semiconductors separated by a thin section of p-type. However a p-n-p type semiconductor is formed by two p-sections separated by a thin section of n-type. Transistor has two pn junctions one junction is forward biased and other is reversed biased. The forward junction has a low resistance path whereas a reverse biased junction has a high resistance path. The weak signal is introduced in the low resistance circuit and output is taken from the high resistance circuit. Therefore a transistor transfers a signal from a low resistance to high resistance. Transistor has three sections of doped semiconductors. The section on one side is emitter and section on the opposite side is collector. The middle section is base. Emitter : The section on one side that supplies charge carriers is called emitter. The emitter is always forward biased w.r.t. base.

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Collector : The section on the other side that collects the charge is called collector. The collector is always reversed biased. Base : The middle section which forms two pn-junctions between the emitter and collector is called base.

A transistor raises the strength of a weak signal and thus acts as an amplifier. The weak signal is applied between emitterbase junction and output is taken across the load Rc connected in the collector circuit. The collector current flowing through a high load resistance Rc produces a large voltage across it. Thus a weak signal applied in the input appears in the amplified form in the collector circuit.

Heat sink

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Waste heat is produced in transistors due to the current flowing through them. Heat sinks are needed for power transistors because they pass large currents. If you find that a transistor is becoming too hot to touch it certainly needs a heat sink! The heat sink helps to dissipate (remove) the heat by transferring it to the surrounding air.

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CONNECTORS
Connectors are basically used for interface between two. Here we use connectors for
having interface between PCB and 8051 Microprocessor Kit. There are two types of connectors they are male and female. The one, which is with pins inside, is female and other is male. These connectors are having bus wires with them for connection. For high frequency operation the average circumference of a coaxial cable must be limited to about one wavelength, in order to reduce multimodal propagation and eliminate erratic reflection coefficients, power losses, and signal distortion. The standardization of coaxial connectors during World War II was mandatory for microwave operation to maintain a low reflection coefficient or a low voltage standing wave ratio.

Seven types of microwave coaxial connectors are as follows: 1.APC-3.5 2.APC-7 3.BNC 4.SMA 5.SMC 6.TN 7.Type N

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LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)


A junction diode, such as LED, can emit light or exhibit electro luminescence. Electro luminescence is obtained by injecting minority carriers into the region of a p-n junction where radioactive transition takes place. In radioactive transition, there is a transition of electron from the conduction band to the valence band, which is made possibly by emission of a photon. Thus, emitted light comes from the hole electron recombination. What is required is that electrons should make a transition from higher energy level to lower energy level releasing photon of wavelength corresponding to the energy difference associated with this transition. In LED the supply of high-energy electron is provided by forward biasing the diode, thus injecting electrons into the n-region and holes into p-region. The pn junction of LED is made from heavily doped material. On forward bias condition, majority carriers from both sides of the junction cross the potential barrier and enter the opposite side where they are then minority carrier and cause local minority carrier population to be larger than normal. This is termed as minority injection. These excess minority carrier diffuse away from the junction and recombine with majority carriers. In LED, every injected electron takes part in a radioactive recombination and hence gives rise to an emitted photon. Under reverse bias no carrier injection takes place and consequently no photon is emitted. For direct transition from conduction band to valence band the emission wavelength. In practice, every electron does not take part in radioactive recombination and hence, the efficiency of the device may be described in terms of the quantum efficiency which is defined as the rate of emission of photons divided by the rate of supply of electrons. The number of radioactive recombination, that take place, is usually proportional to the carrier injection rate and hence to the total current flowing.

LED Materials:
One of the first materials used for LED is Ga As. This is a direct band gap material, i.e., it exhibits very high probability of direct transition of electron from conduction band to valence band. GaAs has E= 1.44 eV. This works in the infrared region.
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GaP and GaAsP are higher band gap materials. Gallium phosphate is an indirect band gap semiconductor and has poor efficiency because band to band transitions are not normally observed. Gallium Arsenide Phosphate is a tertiary alloy. This material has a special feature in that it changes from being direct band gap material. Blue LEDs are of recent origin. The wide band gap materials such as GaN are one of the most promising LEDs for blue and green emission. Infrared LEDs are suitable for optical coupler applications.

DIODE
ACTIVE COMPONENT-

Active component are those component for not any other component are used its operation. I used in this project only function diode, these component description are described as bellow. SEMICONDUCTOR DIODEA PN junctions is known as a semiconductor or crystal diode.A crystal diode has two terminal when it is connected in a circuit one thing is decide is weather a diode is forward or reversed biased. There is a easy rule to ascertain it. If the external CKT is trying to push the conventional current in the direction of error, the diode is forward biased. One the other hand if the conventional current is trying is trying to flow opposite the error head, the diode is reversed biased putting in simple words.

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1. If arrowhead of diode symbol is positive W.R.T Bar of the symbol, the diode is forward biased. 2. The arrowhead of diode symbol is negative W.R.T bar , the diode is the reverse bias. When we used crystal diode it is often necessary to know that which end is arrowhead and which end is bar. So following method are available. 1. Some manufactures actually point the symbol on the body of the diode e. g By127 by 11 4 crystal diode manufacture by b e b.

2. Sometimes red and blue marks are on the body of the crystal diode. Red mark do not arrow wheres blue mark indicates bar e .g oa80 crystal diode.

ZENER DIODE-

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It has been already discussed that when the reverse bias on a crystal diode is increased a critical voltage, called break down voltage. The break down or zener voltage depends upon the amount of doping. If the diode is heavily doped depletion layer will be thin and consequently the break down of he junction will occur at a lower reverse voltage. On the other hand, a lightly doped diode has a higher break down voltage, it is called zener diode .

A properly doped crystal diode, which has a sharped break down voltage, is known as a zenor diode. In this project I used semiconductor diode for bridge rectifies, two-crystal diode

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CONCLUSION

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CONCLUSION: This Automatic Railway Crossing Controller overcomes the drawbacks of earlier system. We are able to implement successfully our mission which is to develop a fire protection system that able to provide the solution to the problems faced by fire accident . The developing of this project has been a learning experience for all team members and would prove as a milestone in their academic career. The achievement of this project are:-

i.

The project has achieved its set target well in Time and Budget.

ii.

Based on cutting edge technology called Embedded development which is niche in the market today and its future is much bright.

iii.

The product developed is ready for implementation and can bring financial benefits too by sale in the market.

So, we conclude that the advanced security system is still far away from the perfect, but we believe we have laid the groundwork to enable it to improve out of sight.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
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Mehta V.K., Principles of Electronics S.Chand & Co. Ltd., New Delhi Intel Microcontroller and Features Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Ltd., New Delhi
Boylstead

Circuit Theory Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi Millman Jacob & Halkias C. Christos Integrated Electronics Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Ltd., New Delhi

Robert & Nasceslsky Louis Electronic Devices &

WEB SITES

www.microtutorials.com www.datasheets.com www.archives.com www.nationalsemiconductors.com www.atmel.com www.seimens.com www.fairchildsemiconductors.com

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