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Metallurgy

EXPERIMENT NO.1 STUDY OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PLANES & THEIR DIRECTIONS

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Metallurgy EXPERIMENT NO.1 AIM: - Study of crystallographic planes & their directions. OBJECT: To study various crystallographic terms. To study the Miller indices for crystallographic planes & directions.

POINTS OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CRYSTALLINE & AMORPHOUS SOLIDS 1) Crystalline solids have regular arrangement of atoms whereas amorphous solids have an irregular arrangement of atoms. 2) Crystalline solids have different physical properties in different directions whereas amorphous solids have same physical properties in all directions. 3) Crystalline solids have sharp melting point whereas amorphous solids do not have sharp melting point. 4) Examples of Crystalline solids are Cu, Ag, Al...etc. (all metals) & Examples of Crystalline solids are Glass, SiO 2, Plastic, rubber,...etc. TYPES OF CRYSTAL STRUCTURES FOR METALS The following are the important crystal structures of metals. a) Simple Cubic Structure, b) Body Centered Cubic Structure, c) Face Centered Cubic Structure, d) Hexagonal Closed Packed Structure. Simple Cubic Structure (S.C.C.) :In a Simple Cubic Structure, there is one atom at each corner of a cube. Any corner atom has four nearest neighbor atoms in the same plane & two nearest neighbor atoms (one exactly above & one exactly below) in a vertical plane. Hence its B.C.C...= 4 + 2 = 6. Atomic radius As shown in fig.1, one atom is there at each corner of a cube. ;If 'a' is lattice parameter & 'r' is the atomic radius then, a=2r OR r = a/2 No. of atoms per unit cellThere are eight corner atoms of a cube shared by :eight adjoining cubes therefore number of atoms in an unit cell = 8x1/8 = 1 atom Atomic packing factor It is defined as the ratio of the volume of atoms per : unit cell to the total volume of unit cell. OR APF = volume of atoms per unit cell / total volume of unit cell since there is only one atom per unit cell for the S.C.C. structure & its volume = 4/3 r3

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The total volume of unit = = APF =

cell axaxa a3 4/3 r3 / a3


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Metallurgy Now substituting r = a/2, we get, APF = 0. 52 or packing efficiency is 52%. Body centered cubic structure (B.C.C.): As shown in fig. 3 the unit cell of B.C.C. has one atom at the center of a cube which touches all eight atoms at the corner of a cube. The metals having B.C.C. structure are chromium, tungsten, iron, vanadium, molybdenum, etc. Coordination No:As the corner atom is surrounded by eight body centered atoms of the surrounding unit cells hence its Coordination No. 8. is Atomic radius As shown in fig.4, L(AG) = r + 2r + r = 4r 2 2 2 B ut L(EG2) = a + a = 2a 2 2 L(A G ) = 3.a Therefore, OR
2 (4r)2 = 3a r = 3 /4 . a

No. of atoms per unit cell Since each corner atom is shared by 8 adjoining cubes and there central is one atom therefore, atoms at the corner x 1/8 = 1 atom 8 1 center atom = 1 atom. Total no. of atoms / unit cell = 2 atom. Atomic packing factor: 2 atom / unit cell Therefore, A. P. F. = Volume of atomics / Unit cell Total volume of the unit cell r = 3 .a / 4 Therefore, A. P. F. = 2 x 4 /3( 3 .a ) 3 /4 A. P. F. = 0.68 Or 68 % Face Centered Cubic Structure: The unit cell of f. c. c. structure contains 8 corner atoms and one atom at the center of each face of a cube. Few metals having F. C. C. structure are Nickel, Aluminum, Iron, Cooper, Silver, Lead, e.t.c. Coordination Number : In f. c. c., for any corner atom there will be four face centered atom of the surrounding unit cells in it's own plane, four face centered atoms above this plane and four atoms below this plane.

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Coordination Number = 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 Atomic Radius; Atomic radius is obtained by referring the fig.3
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2 AG2 = AB2 + BG 2 2 2 (4r) = a + a r = a 2 / 4 Number of atoms / unit cell ; 8 atoms at the corner x 1/8 = 1 atom 6 face center atoms x 1/2 = 3 atoms Total number of atoms / unit cell = 4 atoms

Atomic Packing Factor : A, P. F. = Volume of atoms / Unit Cell Total volume of the unit cell 4 No. of atoms / unit cell, therefore
3 A . P . F . 4 x 4 /3 (a 2 / 4 ) = a3 = 0.74 or 74 %.

Hexagonal Closed Packed Structure: As shown in fig. 4 H. C. P. structure contains one atom at each comer of hexagon, one atom at the center of two hexagonal faces and 3 atoms inn form of triangle mid way between two base planes. The metals which execute H. C. P. structure are Zn, Be, Mg, Ti, Zr. etc. Coordination Number: H. C. P. Structure the coordination number is 12. For Atomic Radius: = a / r 2 No. of atoms / unit cell: For a h. c. p. structure the coordination number is determine by the formula given below: N = Nc / 6 + Nf + Ni/1 /2 = 12/6 + 2/2 + 3/1 = 6 Atoms / unit cell. Atomic Packing Factor: P. F. = Volume of atoms / Unit cell Total volume of the unit cell
A.

It contains 6 atoms / unit cell. 3 Therefore A. P. F. = x 4 /3 (a/2) 6 3 a2 sin 60 x c = 0.74 or 74%

( For H. C. P. c/a = 1.633)

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SUMMARY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS CRYSTAL STRUCTURES:

Sr.No. 1 2 3 4

Characteristics Atomic Radius Atoms / unit cell Coordination No. A. P. F.

S.C.S. a/2 1 6 0.52

F.C.C. a2 / 4 4 12 0.74

B.C.C. 3/4a 2 8 0.68

H.C.P a/2 6 12 0.74

Crystallographic Planes: The layers or planes along which atoms are arranged are called as crystallographic planes. The system of notation that denotes the orientation of the faces of crystal and the planes and it's directions within that crystal is called as miller indices. The miller system of designation indices for crystallographic planes and direction is accepted universally.

Steps for finding Miller Indices: 1) Find the three intercepts on the three axes considering the point of intersection of three axis as the origin O. (If the plane is parallel to an axis then its intercept on that axis is considered as infinity) 2) Take the reciprocal of these intercepts. 3) Multiply these reciprocals with a common denominator and obtained an exact no. 4) Enclose these values in parenthesis.

CONCLUSIONIn this way we have studied crystallographic planes and their : directions.

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Metallurgy

EXPERIMENT NO. 2

STUDY OF METALLURGICAL MICROSCOPE

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Metallurgy EXPERIMENT NO. 2 AIM: Study of metallurgical microscope. OBJECT To understand the terminology of metallurgical microscope. : THEORY: Metallurgical microscope differs from biological microscope regarding by illumination arrangement. Since the metallurgical sample is opaque to light the sample is to be illuminated by reflected light rays. SIMPLE METALLURGICAL MICROSCOPE: As shown in fig. 1 of simple metallurgical microscope, a horizontal beam of light from source is reflected that by means of a plane glass reflector downwards tube. Through the microscope. Objective on the surface of specimen surface will magnified while passing through the lower lenses and will continue upward through the glass reflector and magnified again by the upper lenses and ultimately the observer get the fully magnified virtual image of the original structure or the metal specimen. The structure is known as microstructure of that particular metal of which the specimen is made. INVERTED METALLURGICAL MICROSCOPE: It differs from a simple metallurgical microscope in the manner of specimen position. In this the specimen is place on stage with its surface downwards and then illuminated by the illumination arrangement as shown in fig. 2. STAGE OR SPECIMEN: It is a flat table for supporting the specimen to be observed. It is obtained by clip arrangement to hold the specimen in position. It can be moved in x and y direction with respect to application along the optical axis. To scan the maximum possible specimen surface area for illumination the top plate of the stage in step box in which three untouchable disks fit having sizes (box ) %, %, inches. The smaller or bigger specimen can be observing without mounting. CENTRAL CHAMBER WITH TURRET: It serves the purpose of drawtube of simple metallurgical microscope. It is dust proof special metallic chamber having insight a plane glass reflector. It has condenser lenses at the water and turret accommodates three objectives at the top. Just below the specimen surface with changes of magnification is possible by rotating the turret on the front side. It has a special adaptor light arrangement in which binocular eye piece or camera can be fitted in binocular arrangement projection consist of crown glass on which magnified viscous of a microstructure can be seen. This assembly can be moved up and down by rake and pillion arrangement and thus loose focusing can be achieved. Eyepiece spares are available in magnification range as follows: 5X , 10X, & 15X And objectives are available in 5X, 15X, 45X so that we can get magnified form in the range 25X to 1500X in stages magnifying the power of eye piece or objective are in grooved on it.

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ILLM!NATION ARRANGEMENT: It consists of a power supply unit, which converts 230 V A. C. in 12 50and V Hz. The actual voltage required or the Tungsten Halogen lamp can be controlled so that the output voltage intensity can be increased or decreased to suit various observation; Tungsten Halogen lamp 12 V, 50 Hz. Is fitted in a container as a light source. Above the lamp at the top the iris diaphragm is fitted to control the cross sectional area of the light rays coming out of convex lenses, a pillar of a green swing design is mounted on the iris diaphragm. The entire lam p-focus housing is mounted on the box mega scope. CONCLUSION: In this way we have studied the metallurgical microscope.

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Metallurgy

EXPERIMENT NO. 3

TO STUDY IRON-IRONCARBIDE EQUILIBRIUM DIAGRAM

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Metallurgy EXPERIMENT NO. 3 AIM: To study Fe Fe equilibrium diagram. 3C OBJECT: To study the various micro constituents and their properties at varying compositions. To study the various critical temp. To study the basis of classification for steel and cast iron. THEORY: Alloy of Iron - Carbon system includes steel and cast iron. Alloy with carbon contains up to 2 % are known as steel where as those having carbon above 2 % are called as cast iron. IRON ALLOTROPY: If a metal exists in more than one type of crystal structure at various temperatures, then such a metal is known as allotropic metal. In it's normal room temp.Iron has B. C. C. structure where as at 908it changes to F. C. C. c and then at 1430 back to B. C. C. again vice versa. At about c the Iron c 770 looses itsmagnetic property. This temperatures, is known as curie temp. MICROCONSTITUENT OF IRON AND STEEL: Austenite: It is an interstitial solid solution of carbon in gamma iron. It is soft, ductile and non magnetic in nature. It is the highly unstable form of Iron. It dissolves maximum 2 % of carbon at 1130temp. c Alpha ferrite: It is an interstitial solid solution of carbon in alpha iron. It has B. C. C. structure with very limited solubility for carbon about 0.025 %. It is highly magnetic in nature. exists in the alpha region of the Iron - Iron carbine diagram. It Cementite: It is the constituent in Iron - Iron carbide diagram containing 6.67 % carbon by weight. It is typically hard and brittle internetallic compound of low tensile strength but of high compressive strength. It has orthorhombic crystal structure. Ledeburrite: It is an eutectic mixture of austenite and Cementite. It has fixed carbon contain of 4.3 % at 1130 c. Pearlite: It is an utectite mixture of ferrite and Cementite having fixed carbon contains of 0.8 % at 723 It consists of alternate layers of lamellae of ferrite c. and Cementite. It is the product of eutectoid reaction.

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Metallurgy Bainite: It is the constituent produced in steel when austenite transforms at a temp, above which perlite is produced and below which mratensite is formed. It is a decomposition product of austenite containing an aggregate of ferrite and Cementite. ,Mratensite: It is a Meta stable phase of steel formed by the transformation of austenite below the Mstemperature It is a super saturated interstitial solid solution of . carbon in alpha iron and has body centered tetragonal lattice structure, Trosite: It is mixture of radial lamellae of ferrite and Cementite. Therefore it is different from perlite only in the degree of fineness. The carbon contains which the same as that in the austenite from which it is formed. Soorbite: It is the mixture of microstructure of ferrite and finely divided Cementite produced on tempering mratensite above c. 450 Iron-Iron carbide equilibrium diagram: It is also called as constitutional diagram or phase diagram. It is a graphical representation of the effects of temp, and composition up on the phases presents in an alloy. It is constructed by plotting temperature along Y-axis &%carbon along X-axis. The diagram shows the ranges of temp, and composition within which the various phase changes are stable and also provides the boundaries within which the phase change occurs. It indicates the phase change that occurs during heating and cooling and the nature and the elemental amount that exists at any temp. Besides it establishes a co relation between microstructure and properties of steel and cast iron. It also provides a basis for understanding the principles of heat treatment. It also provides a basis to classify steel and cast iron. The three important reactions which occurs on it are discussed below. 1. Peritectic Reaction The reaction in which a solid phase react with a liquid phase and gives a solid product is called as paratactic reaction. Heating Austenite 8 +liquid 1492 c Cooling The above reaction occurs at 1492and 0.18 % carbon at paratactic point c denoted by letter P on the equilibrium diagram. 2. Eutectic Reaction The reaction in which liquid reacts to give two . different solids products is known as eutectic reaction. The reaction is written 35 follows:
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Heating

Liquid

1130c

Austenite + Cementit

Cooling The eutectic reaction occurs at eutectic point E that is at 1l30and 4.3 % c carbon. The eutectic mixture of austenite and Cementite is called as Ledeburrite. It is not seen in microstructure because austenite is not stable at room temp, and may under goes another reaction during cooling. 3. Eutectoid Reaction: The reaction in which one solid reacts and gives two solids is known as eutectoid reaction. The reaction is shown below: Heating

Solid 723Qc Cooling Ferrite + Cementite

The reaction occurs at eutectoid point J that is at 723 'c and point 8 % carbon. The eutectoid mixture of ferrite and Cementite is known as perlite which is soft,malleable and ductile. Cooling along x-x section: As shown in equilibrium diagram at point X1, there is only liquid alloy up to point X2 the point X2 is on liquid us line. On further cooling austenite will solidify and there are liquid and austenite between X2 S X3 points. The point X3 is on solitdus line below, which the whole liquid phase transforms to gamma austenite. The gamma austenite is highly unstable and appears between X3 and the eutectoid point J. At eutectoid point the eutectoid reaction occurs and gives the perlite as product, which is stable at room temp, and appears in the microstructure of hypereutectoid steels At eutectoid point, the percentage constituents are found by applying lever a rule for the isothermal transformation at 723 as follows: c Solid a ferrite = 6.67 - 0.8 = 88.44 % 6.67 - 0 025 Solid Cementite = 0.8-0.025 =11.56%. 6.67 0.025
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Metallurgy Solidification along section Y-Y : As shown in equilibrium diagram between point Y1 and Y2 there is only liquid phase present. The point Y2 lies on liquidous line and point P lies on solidus line between which there is liquid and solid phase (5 Iron), At point P, paratactic reaction occurs and gives gamma austenite as a product. Between point P and Y3 we have the gamma austenite presents The gamma austenite being unstable decomposes along the upper critical temp, line AC3 into alpha ferrite and we have alpha ferrite and gamma austenite present between the Y3 S V4 points The point Y4 lies on lower critical temp, line AC1. Along the AC1 line, the remaining gamma austenite transforms and gives us alpha ferrite + perlite as the stable phases in the microstructure at room temp. The amount of micro constituents reacting at paratactic point P can be found by lever rule as follows: Amount of solid & Iron = 055-0.18 = 82.2 % 0.55-0.1 Amount of liquid alloy = 0.18-0.1 = 17.8 % 0.55 - 0.1 Solidification of alloy along section Z-Z: As shown in equilibrium diagram between point Z1 & E we have only alloy liquid present. At point E eutectic reaction occurs and gives Ledeburrite as product. The furthered cooling gives us austenite and Ledeburrite between E & Z2. The point Z2 lies on lower critical temp, .line and finally the stable structure contains Cementite and transformed Ledeburrite. The amount of micro constituent at utectite point can be found by lever rule as follows. % of gamma austenite = 6.67- 4.3 = 50.74 % 6.67-2 % of Cementite = 4.3 - 2 = 49.26 % 6.67-2

CONCLUSION: We have studied Iron- Iron carbide diagram.

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Metallurgy

EXPERIMENT NO. 4

Study of microstructure of plain Carbon steel

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Metallurgy EXPERIMENT NO, 4 AIM: study of microstructure of plain carbon steel OBJECT: To know what are the plain carbon steel. To study their micro constituent, properties and applications. THEORY; The plain carbon steel is an alloy of iron and carbon; these are malleable, ductile, and machinable and are different from cast irons in regards of percentagecarbon content. The important plain carbon steels are discusses below 1. Mild Steel: The steel which contains 0 37 % of carbon are known as mild steel it contains mainly alpha ferrite and perlite in its microstructure. These are ductile malleable and machinable hence most commonly used as structural steels. II is highly used for fabrication work, structural bars, grills, channels, etc. 2. Dead Mild Steel: It is a low carbon steel and contains carbon between 0 02 % to 0.15 % the dead mild steel contains mainly alpha ferrite and the traces of perlite in its microstructure. These are highly ductile and malleable hence commonly used as sheets, wires, revege, screws, pipe and chains. It has a tensile strength of 390N/ M2 and hardness 115 BHN. Its microstructure appears M white because of very less of negligible perlite content. 3. Medium Carbon Steel: These steels are medium high not so ductile and malleable, medium tough cannot be machine easily and difficult to weld or hardening. Since they requires very high cooling rates for hardening hence called as non hard enable steels. They are difficult to cold work and hence they are hot worked steels. They are mainly used for machine components hence called as machinery steels. They are used for bolts, lock washers, axles, large dies, spring wires, wheel spokes, "hammers turbine rotors, crank pins, cylinder pins, rails, etc. It contains carbon between points 0.3 % to 0.6 %. 4. High Carbon Steel: It contains carbon between 0.6 % to 2 %. They are hard, wear resistant brittle, difficult to machine, difficult to weld; they are easily hardened by neat treatment. The hardness produce after heat treatment is high also the depth of hardness is mark-able. These skills cannot be colt work and hence some times hot worked. They are also called as tool steels. They are used for forging dies. Punches, hammers, springs, clutch disk, car bumpers, chisel, vice jaws, hacksaw trades, drills, reamers, mandrels, razor blades, races of ball bearings etc

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Metallurgy 5. Eutectoid steels: The normalized eutectoid steel contains 0.8 % carbon. This type of structure is obtained by normalizing and largely depends up on the thickness of cross section 'as- it will affect the rate of cooling. A thin section gives much finer grains structure than thick section. The microstructure shows the while plates of alpha ferrite and dark Cementite traces. CONCLUSION:In this way we have studied the plain carbon steel.

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Metallurgy

EXPERIMENT NO. 5 STUDY OF MICROSTRUCTURE OF CAST IRONS

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Metallurgy EXPERIMENT NO. 5 AIM: Study of microstructure of cast iron. OBJECT: To study the variation in the properties and Microstructure of cast iron w. r. t. Metallic element To study the application of cast iron. INTRODUCTION: Cast irons are basically the alloys of iron and carbon in which the carbon contains varies between 2 % to 6.67 %. They have mostly cementite. as the micro constituent present in its structure hence they are hard and brittle. They have poor ductility and malleability therefore they cannot be forged, rolled, drawn or pressed in desire shapes. Therefore they are mostly shaped by casting to the desire size. Hence they are called as cast iron. Since the properties of cast iron are derived from their micro structure, they are classified on the basis of their microstructure as follows. 1. White Cast Iron. 2. Gray cast iron. 3. Nodular Cast Iron. 4. Malleable Cast Iron. 5. Mottled Cast Iron. 1. White Cast Iron In white cast iron there is no free carbon as all the carbon presents in the combine form or as cementite. Therefore because of absence of graphite (Free carbon), the fracture surface gives white metallic luster hence they are named as white cast iron. The eutectic reaction on the equilibrium diagram provides the basis for the classification of white cast iron into two categories as: a) Hypo-eutectic Cast Iron and Hyper-eutectic Cast Iron. b) Due to presence of all carbon in the combine form degrades the desired properties with increase in carbon content which makes the cast iron unsuitable for engineering application therefore the majority of white cast iron are hypoeutectic with following composition range: C -2.3% to 3% Si -0.5% to1.3%. S -0.06% to 01 %. P -01 % to 0,2% Mn -05% to 1 %. These cast irons are hard, strong in compression and wear and abrasion resistant in nature. They are difficult to machine hence their finishing to size is done by grinding. They are widely used for road rollers, surface mills liners, grinding balls, die and extrusion nozzles, etc.

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Metallurgy 2. Gray Cast Irons These cast irons contains graphite in the form of flakes. As the fracture surface appears gray in color hence called as gray cast iron. The graphite plays interrupt the matrix to the large extend and hence theses cast iron are brittle and relatively weak in tension as compare to malleable cast iron. This cast iron has good cast ability, good fluidity, and low shrinkage during solidification. They are mostly used for machine beds because of their excellent damping capacity. These cast irons have following composition range C -3.2% to 3.7% Si -2% to 3.5%. S -0.06% to 0.1 % , P -0.1 % to 0.2% Mn -0,5%to1 %. These cast irons are widely used for machine bases, engine frames, drainage pipes, elevators, counter weight, pump housing, cylinder and piston of I. C. engines, flywheels, etc. 3. Nodular Cast Iron. These cast irons contain graphite flakes in the form of nodules or spheroids, which increases the tensile strength, ductility & toughness hence they are called as Spheroids Graphite Cast Irons (S.G. C. I.) or ductile cast irons. They are produced by nodulizing treatment by the addition of small quantity of nodulizing elements such as Mg, cerium, calcium, lithium or zirconium. When the nodulizing elements are added to the molten bath & stirred, large amount of gas evolved & also get dissolved in the melt. This is gives rise to large number of blowholes in the solidified casting. Also, the contraction of nodular cast iron during freezing is considerably greater that that of the ordinary gray cast iron. Due to this,a careful design of the moulds is necessary to avoid shrinkage cavities in the solidified castings. They combine the advantages of cast iron & steels. They do not suffer from the defects of gray C.I. such as growth & fire-cracks when used at elevated temperatures. The matrix of a nodular C I can be controlled by controlling composition i.e. carbon & silicon or alloying elements or by cooling rate. A typical microstructure of nodular C.I. is shown in the metallurgical slip. This C.I. has the following composition range; C - 3.2 to 3.7 % Si -2,0 to 3.5% S -Less than 0.03% Mg -0.06toO.Oe% P -Qr1 to 0.2% Mn -0.5 to 1.0% The range of properties of these cast irons is as below. 2 T.S. - 3 8 to 80 Kg/mm Elongation - 6 to 20% Hardness -100 to 300BHN They are widely used for crankshafts, gears, punch dies, sheet metal dies, metal working rolls, furnace doors, pipes, pistons, cylinder blocks & heads & bearing blocks.
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Metallurgy 3. Malleable cast irons: These C.I. contains rosettes of temper carbon, which disrupt the steel like matrix much less as compared to the flakes of graphite in gray C.I., S therefore they greatly diminish the internal notch defects. Due to this, these cast irons shows some ductility, toughness and are bendable in contrast to gray cast irons, which are brittle. Hence, they are called as malleable cast irons. These cast irons are produced from white cast iron castings by malleablizing treatment. It consists of heating the white cast iron castings very slowly (to avoid cracking) to a temperature between eutectoid & eutectic temperatures, usually at around 900c (or in between 850 to 950 c) S holding at this temperature for a long time (24 hours to several days), followed by cooling toroom temperature The treatment cycle is shown in fig.5 (a). Due to heating to900c(i.e. at point 1), the structure of cast iron consists of austenite S cementite. Being a metastable phase, cementite decomposes to austenite & graphite(i.e. temper carbon graphite) with a long holding time The above graphitization of cementite gives rise to rough, ragged irregular nodules or spheroids called as rosettes of temper carbon graphite. Therefore at point 2, the structure consists of rosettes of temper carbon graphite in the matrix of austenite. Cooling to room temperature with moderate cooling rate results in the transformation of austenite to pearlite at eutectoid temp. 8 Therefore at point 3, the microstructure shows rosettes of temper carbon graphite in the matrix of pearlite called as pearlitic malleable cast irons. However, if the cooling rate is slow (or if the silicon in the white casting is more), the cementide from the pearlite may also decompose giving ferrite S graphite& the structure at room temperature i.e. at 3' may show rosettes of temper carbon graphite in the matrix of ferrite known as Ferritic malleable cast irons For intermediate cooling conditions, the matrix results in the combination of pearlitic & ferritic & called as Ferrito-Pearlitic Malleable cast irons. Most of the malleable cast irons have the following composition range: C - 2 3 % to 3 % Si -0,5% to 1.3% S -006% to 0.1 %, P -0.1% to0.2%& Mn -0.5% to 1 % Their properties vary with the matrix & are as below T.S. -2 5 to 70 Kg/mm*, Elongation -6 to 18%, Hardness -80 to 275BHN They are widely used for pipefittings, valves, farm equipments, chains, bearings blocks, crankshafts, axles, gears, links automotive parts, and ordnance parts. They are also used for electrical applications such as switchgear parts, fittings for high & low voltage transmission & distribution system S for railway electrification systems.

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Metallurgy 4. Mottled cast irons: These cast irons shows free cementide as well as graphite flakes in their microstructure. For certain compositions, particularly in terms of carbon & silicon contents, such structures are observed under the existing conditions of cooling. For a given composition faster cooling rates gives white structure & slow cooling rate results in gray structure. For intermediate cooling rates, mottled structure is observed. Hence, mottled structure is also observed in certain regions between the surface & center of chilled castings. Mottled structures do not have good properties & should be avoided This is done by increasing the carbon & silicon contents in sufficient am ounts so that the m elt solidifies as gray instead of mottled under the existing conditions of cooling. 5. Chilled cast iron: This type of cast irons show! White structure at surface & gray structure in the center. Due to this, the good properties of white cast iron (hardness & wear resistance) & gray cast iron (mach inability, damping capacity & low notch sensitivity) can be coupled together in a chilled front. cast The composition of melt is adjusted in such a mannerthat rapid cooling gives white structure 7 usual coding gives gray structure. Generally carbon content varies between 3.3 to 3.5 % with silicon between 2.010 2.5 Surface is cooled by fast by %. using m etal or graphite chillers or chill The depth of chill i.e. the thickness of plates. white layer can be controlled by controlling the carbon 7 silicon contents & by other alloying additions, which are carbide formers or either graphitizes. Increase in the amount of carbon, silicon & graphitizes decreases the chill depth, whereas decrease in carbon, silicon & increase in carbide formers increases the chill depth. Chilled cast irons are used for railway-freight-car-wheels, crushing rolls, grinding baits, road rollers, hammers, dies & such other application!. CONCLUSION: In this way we have studied various cast irons.

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Metallurgy

EXPERIMENT NO. 6

STUDY OF ANNEALING AND NORMALIZING AND THEIR EFFECTS ON MICROSTRUCTURE OF PLAIN CARBON STEELS

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Metallurgy EXPERIMENT NO. 6 AIM: - Study of annealing and normalizing and their effect on microstructure of plain carbon steel. OBJECT: * To under the concept of heat treatment. To study the changes that occurs during heat treatment process, which are generally used in engineering industry. INTRODUCTION ; Heat treatment is defined as a combinationof heating and cooling operation, timed and applied to a metal or alloy in the solid state in a way that will produce desired properties". All the basic heat treatment for sleet involves the transformation or decomposition of austenite. The first step in heat treatment of steel is to heat the maternal to some temperature in or above the critical range in Heat treatment processes are classified mainly into four groups as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) Annealing Normalizing. Hardening. Tempering.

ANNEALING:-It is the process of heating a metal lo a temperature which will remote the instability or distortion and then cooling in furnace to room temperature to gel a stable and strain free structure. PURPOSE OF ANNEALING: -1) To get refined homogeneous stable structure 2) To remove the residual stresses. 3) To reduced hardness. 4) To increase m ach inability. 5) To increase cold working characteristics. 6) To improve the mechanical, electrical, Physical and properties. CLASSIFICATION: 1) Stress relieving annealing 2) Process annealing 3) Spheroid annealing. 4) Full annealing. Stress relieving annealing: -Stress relieving annealing can be applied well to ferrous and nonferrous metals. As shown in figure, in stress relieving annealing hypo, hyper eutectoid steels are heated to about 5008C-6008C and cooled in furnace itself to room temperature.
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magnetic

Metallurgy This annealing relieves the internal residual stresses produced by tasting, quenching, machining welding, cold working, etc. PROCESS ANNEALING: It is applied to remove the effect of cold work, to soften and permit further cold working of metals as in wires and in sheet industries. In these methods, low carbon steels are heated to a temperature lower than AC1 of the transformation range (500C-600C) are held at that temperature in furnace and then cooled usually in air to carry on the cold working process. Process annealing doesn't involve any phase change and the constituents, Ferrite and Cementite remain present in the process. It is carried out generally in batch type or continuous furnace, SPHERODISE ANNEALING: Spheroids annealing is extensively employed for high carbon tool steel to, transfer lamellate paralytic Cementite into spherical type. These spheroids are trapped in a matrix of ferrite. In spheroid processes as figure, steels are heated to a temperature just below the lower temperature line up to about 700C and cooled at a rate of 25C to 30Cper to 600C. Such hour process is repeated for long time period. During such prolonged heating, surface tension causes the Cementite part to globular form, which tend to improve 1) The mach inability. 2) Surface finish during machining. 3) Cold working properties and 4) Prevent the cracking of steel during cold working operation Sperodized steel has a lower hardness and tensile strength and correspondingly higher ductility than any other type of annealed steel. FULL ANNEALING:- In this type of annealing, hypo eutectoid steels are heated to a temperature about (AC3 + 30C) and hyper eutectoid steels are heated to temperature about (AC1 + 30C) in the Austenitic region. Holding at this temperature to a definite period of time depending upon its thickness or diameter (about 2.5 to 3.0 minutes per mm thickness). So that it become completely Austenitic and then cooled very slowly through the transformation preferably in furnace. This slow cooling enables the austenite (unstable) decompose at low degrees of cooling so as to form. 1] A Pearlite + ferrite structure in hypo eutectoid steels. 2) A Pearlite + Cementite structure in hyper eutectoid steels. Full annealing improves the following properties. 1) Refines grain structure. 2) Remove strains (from forging and casting). 3) Induce softness. 4) Improve formability and machinability, 5) Improves electrical and. magnetic properties.

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Metallurgy NORMALIZING: It is the heat treatment process in which the hypo eutectoid steels are heated to (AC3 + 50C) and hyper eutectoid steel are heated to (ACm+ 50C). Holding at that temperature for a short lime and then cooling instill air at room temperature. The type of structure obtained by normalizing will depend on the thickness of cross section, as this will affect the rate of cooling. Normalizing produces microstructure containing the ferrite and Pearlite for hypo eutectoid steel (up to 0.87) far eutectoid steels. The microstructure is only Pearlite and it Is Pearlite and Cementite for hyper eutectoid steels PURPOSE Of NORMALIZING : 1) Produces a uniform structure 2) Can achieve the required strength and ductility in steel that is too soft ductile for machining 3) Reduce internal stresses 4) Improves structure In weld 5) Produces harder and stronger steel than full annealing. 6) In general improve engineering properties of steel DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ANNEALING ANDNORMALIZING: Annealing Produces less hardness, T.S. and toughness. For plan carbon steel microstructure show pearlite almost in accordance with the Fe3C equilibrium diagram Pearlite is coarse and usually gets resolve by optical microscope. Grain size distribution is more uniform. Internal stresses are less. Cooling rate is higher than annealing. Lower cooling rate. Normalizing Produces slightly hardness, T.S. and toughness. Microstructure show more pearlite that observed in annealed compounds. Pearlite is fine and unresolved with optical microscope. Grain size distribution is less uniform. More Internal stresses.

CONCLUSION :- In this way we have studied annealing and normalizing and their effect on microstructure.

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Metallurgy

EXPERIMENT NO.7

STUDY OF HARDENING, HEAT TREATMENT AND

ITS EFFECT ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF STEELS

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Metallurgy

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Metallurgy EXPERIMENT NO.7 AIM: Study of hardening, heat treatment and its effect on the microstructure of steel. OBJECT:

To know various hardening processes . To know about the effects of hardening, heat treatment process on the infrastructure of steel.

INTRODUCTION: In many applications such as crankshaft, can shaft, gears, etc., hard and wear resistance surface is required with tough over to withstand impact Load. Such a requirement is difficult to achieve by using a steel of uniform composition. Low carbon steels are tough but cannot be harden High carbon steel can behardened but are not so tough. Also they are very likely to distort or crack during hardening because of their poor Hardenability and are difficult to machine even before hardening Hardenability is the ease with which a steel piece can be hardens by maratensite transformation of it is the depth of hardening produced under the given conditions of cooling. It is evaluated by determined the minimum cooling rate to transform an austnitized steel to a structure that is predominately or entirely mratensitic It has the following purposes: 1. To harden the steel to the maximum level by austenite to martens tic transformation 2. To increase the wear resistance and cutting ability of the steel The steels can be hardened by the following methods: A) CARBONIZING : The method of increasing the carbon on the surface of the steel is called as carbonizing. It consists of heating the steel in the austenitic region in contact with the carbonizing media, molding at this temp for a sufficient period and cooling to room temp. In the austenitic region, the solubility of the carbon is more and hence the carbon from medium diffuses into the seal i. e. in the austenite. High carbon content on the surface does not mean the high hardness, unless the carbon is present in the martensitic form. Hence after carbonizing hardeningtreatment is necessary to bring the carbon in the martensitic form, therefore the hardening heat treatment that follows the carbonizing operation is as important as a carbonizing itself Carbonizing is also known as cementation, case carbonizing and case hardening. Depending on the medium used, it is classified into the following types: 1. Pack carbonizing 2. Gas carbonizing 3. Liquid carbonizing.

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Metallurgy 1. Pack carbonizing: The components to be carbonize are packed with a carbonaceous material in steel or cast iron boxes and sealed with clay if these boxes are not properly sealed air comes in contact with the carbonaceous medium and the medium simply burns without any carburisor The usual carbunsing medium consist of hard wood, charcoal, coke, energizer and accelerator such as Berium carbonate or some other carbonate like Sodium or Calcium carbonate. A typical composition consist of 53 to 55 % charcoal, 30 to 32 % coke and reaming carbonates ofBeriumh Calcium and Sodium. These boxes are heated to some temp, in the sustenitic region and kept at this temp, until the desire degree of penetration is obtained. Carburizing occurs by the following reactions: O2 (from the box) + C (from the medium)

Ba Co + C0 C02 + C (FROM THE MEDIUM) 2CO 2CO CO + C (Dissolve in austenite)


AND Ba Co 3
3 2 2

CO

The maximum carbon at the surface and the case depth depends on the temp of carbonizing and the time of holding. Higher the temp. Higher will be the diffusion of COand more is the case depth. However the higher temp, lead 2 to excessive grain coarsening and are not recommended. At a given temp, increase in holding time increases the case depth without changing the maximum carbon at the surface. At the usual temp, of carbonizing (925C to 950C), the case depth varies from 1.0 mm to 2.5 mm for total carbonizing time of 6 to 15 hours. It is principally used to produce relatively thick carbonized cases where extreme uniformity in carbon content is not essential For thinner and more uniform cases, gas carbonizing and liquid carbonizing are used. 2. Gas Carburizing: In gas carbonizing the component are heated in the austenitic region in the presence of carbonaceous gas such as Methane, Ethane, Propane, or Butane diluted with a carrier gas such as flue gas These gases decomposed and the carbon defuses into the steel. To maintain the constant and uniform rate of carbon diffusion, gas composition must be properly control along with the proper circulation of gas in the furnace chamber This is necessary to avoid dead spots or the formation of sooth on the component. Gas carbonizing produces extremely uniform cases with shorter times. Also the process can D be performed at somewhat lower temp. (900C TO 925 than those C) normally used for pack Carburizing. It is commonly used to obtain relatively thin case of high uniformly. Case depth between 0 2 to 0.5 mm can be obtained in 1 to 2 hours at a temp, of 900C. It is particularly suited to large volume [production and provide accurate control of case depth arid carbon content. The process ahs less labor cost as compare to pack carbonizing but the skill persons are required to maintain the necessary controls.
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Metallurgy 3. Liquid carbonizing: In this method the carbonizing is done by immersing the steel component in carbonaceous fused salt bath medium at a temp in the austenitic region The bath is composed of Sodium cyanide, Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Chloride Alkaline earth salt of Barium, Calcium or Strontium are usually added to the bath to encourage the Cyanamid shift In presence of oxygen, the following reaction occurs in the bath: 2 N a C N +2 O 3Na CNO 4NaCNO 2 NaC N + 2CO

O2

2Na CNO NaCN + Na CO3 + C +2N 2 NaCN + Na CO3 + CO +2N 2 N a2 C O + C O + 2 N 3 C + C2 O

The atomic nitrogen thus produced diffuses into the steel and results in nitriding along with carbonizing. The use of salt bath offers advantage of rapid & uniform heat Transfer, low distortion, negligible surface oxidation & rapid absorption of carbon. Due to this. highly uniform case depths are obtained with uniformity of carbon content. It is cheaply used for the rapid production of relatively thin carbonizing cases on small components. Case depths between 0.1 to 0. 5 mm can be obtained in period of 0.5 to 1 hours at the usual carbonizing temp.Since the Sodium cyanide is highly poisonous hence necessary care should be taken during its storage and use and disposal.

Nitriding; It is a accomplished by heating the steel in contact with a source of atomic nitrogen at a temp. Of about 550 In liquid nitriding, occurs by the c. formation and decomposition of cyanide by the same reaction as given in liquid carbonizing. Since the temp, in the nitriding is less, carbon cannot diffused into the steel because of absence of austenite and hence only nitriding is achieved. Whereas gas nitriding is very much similar in operation to that of gas carbonization. The atomic nitrogen produced due to the dissociation of ammonia defuses into the steel (2NH 2N + 3H). For good results control over a 2 the dissociation rate of ammonia and its circulation is necessary, atomic the nitrogen diffuses into steel and reacts with Iron and forms a continuous layer of iron nitride. This layer does not get etched with most of the common etching reagents used in microscopic examination of the steel and hence appears the white under the microscope and therefore it is identify as white layer. It is extremely hard and brittle and tends to crack in service and hence is not desirable. Plane carbon steels produces the white layer and therefore are not suitable for nitriding,

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Metallurgy

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Metallurgy Carbonitriding: On this process both carbon and nitrogen are diffuse the surface of steel. into The source of carbon and nitrogen may be fused salt bath or a gaseous medium containing methane, ethane, etc. with 5 to 10 % ammonia. The carbonitriding temp is between 1 & A3 of the steel (750 to 850c). The A c phases present in the steel at this temp, is ferrite and austenite. Nitrogen diffuses in ferrite and carbon diffuses in austenite if temp is lower, nitrogen diffuser is promoted and the process becomes similar to nitriding and if the temp, is higher carbon diffuser is promoted and the process approaches to that of carbonizing. Nitrogen absorption at the surface of steel retard the carbon diffusion so much that within an hour or so further increase in phase depth becomes extremely slow therefore the treatment time for carbonitriding are usually less than on e hour and correspondingly the case depth are also smaller (0.075 to 0.25 mm). Best reasons from carbonitriding are obtained when the steel is of alloy type suitable for minding. However, it does not produce a superficial fine hard skin on the plane carbon shin of Jess a then 0.5 % carbon and alloy steels that cannot be effectively nitriding. Liquid carbo-nitriding is very much similar to liquid nitriding and is done in a similar gait bath containing the higher amount of sodium cyanide. Whereas gas carbonitpiding is almost similar to gas nitriding or gas carbonizing. Flame hardening: It is process of heating the surface layer of hardenable steel to above its upper critical temp, by means of oxyacetylene flame followed by the water spray quenching to transform austenite to maratensite. It can be done in different ways such as spot method, progressive method, inning method or sp a combination of progressive and spinning method. In spot hardening, a spot or local area of the component is heated by one or more flames followed by quenching In water whereas in progressive method, heating and quenching devices are moved over component the surface at controlled rate Spinning method is used for pails having rotational symmetry in which the flames are held against [he rotating work piece and when heating is complete the pat is quenched by water spray or by complete immersion in water In combination method, the work is rotated and the flames are traversed for heating followed by quenching in water or by water spray. The depth of harden layer depends on the following parameters:
i)

Distance between the gas flame and the component surface Gas pressure and the ratios Rate of travel of flame bed or components. Type, volume and application of quench

ii)
iii) iv)

By controlling above parameters, the depth of harden layer can be varying from very small to maximum of 5 mm Flame harden components are tempered at low temp, to relive internal residual stresses. This method causes less distortion than conventional hardening and due to high heating rate, oxidation and decarburisation are minimum.

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Metallurgy Induction hardening: In this method the heating of the component is done by means of an instructor coil, which consists of one or several turns of water-cooled copper tube. High frequency alternating current flowing through the inductor generated alternating magnetic field this electromagnetic field induces eddy currents of same frequency in the surface layers, which rapidly heat the source of the component within a short period of n2-5 min the temperature of source layer comes to above the upper critical temperature of the steel. The layers through which these current flow is inversely proportional to the square root of frequency of induced current and hence depth of hardened layer can be controlled by controlling the frequency of supply voltage .the usual range of supply frequency isfrom 1000Hz to 100000Hz and hardened depths obtain are from 0.5 to 6 mm After necessary temperature is attained, the the component is quenched by water spray usually without removing from the inductor coil as shown in fig. 14. Due to very fast heating arid no holding time, the austenitic-grained size is very fine which result in fine grained marten site. Induction hardening if followed by low temperature tempering at 1600cto 2000c steel with carbon between 0.4 to 0.5% are most suitable for induction hardening. Some example are crankshaft, camp shaft, axe) gears rolls of rolling mills, boring, bars , break drum etc. ADVANTAGES:1. Fast heating and no holding time leads to increase production rate. 2. No scaling and decarbonzation. 3. Less distortion because of heating of only surface. 4. Depth of hardening can be easily controlled by adjusting supply frequency. DISADVANTAGES: 1. Irregular sections are not suitable for induction hardening. Because 2 of high cost of induction hardening unit the process is not economical for small-scale production

CONCLUSION: In this way we have studied hardening of steel .

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Metallurgy

EXPERIMENT NO: 8

STUDY OF MICROSTRUCTURE OF BRASSES AND BRONZES

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Metallurgy

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Metallurgy EXPERIMENT.No.8 AIM : Study of microstructure of brasses and bronzes. OBJECT: To understand the basis of classification of brasses & bronze & their application To study the variation in mechanical properties of brasses & bronzes with varying zinc content INTRODUCTION: Brasses: These are the alloys of copper and zinc. The equilibrium diagram which classifies the brasses into two categories: 1) -brasses. 2) + brasses.) ( The equilibrium solubility of Zn in Cu is around 38% with additions of Zn exceeding the solubility limit a second phase is formed. The mechanical properties of brasses depend on the amount of zinc % in alloy and the type of phases. Majority of commercial brasses contain Zn less than 40%. If the brass contains zinc more than 50%, y-phase exists then it becomes quite brittle and finds almost no engineering application except for brazing. Brasses are classified either on the basis of structure: 1) -brasses (below 30% Zn) & + brasses (between 30-40% Zn) 2) color -Red (below 20% Zn) -Yellow (above 20% Zn) Brasses are classified into 1) Cap copper 2) Gilding metal 3) Cartridge brass 4) Admiralty brass, etc, ( + ) brasses are classified into1) Muntze metal 2) Naval brass 3) Leaded brass 4) Brazing brass 5) High tensile brass, etc. Cartridge Brass: (70:30 brass) It contains about 30% Zn with remaining 70% copper and has maximum ductility and malleability amongst all the brasses and it is used for forming by deep drawing, stretching, trimming and press work operations. It is known as "70-30 brass". It is used for cartridge cases, radiator, fins lamp, fixtures, rivets and springs. In cast condition is shows heavily cored dendritic structure coring can be removed by a suitable homogenization or annealing heat treatment? Cold working and subsequent annealing replaces dendritic structure by enquired structure and also removes coring> Annealed brasses can be cold
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Metallurgy Worked to the extent of 90% without intermediate annealing. If grain size after annealing is very coarse (over 50 micron), i.e. if brass is annealed from a very high temperature such as 750C to 8OOC, the brass shows surface defect suchas orange peel during subsequent cold working of brass .Hence brass are cold worked and annealed at 600 and lower than C this temperature. Very high temperature during annealing not only causes grain coarsening but also may result in volatilization of zinc and incipient fusion such brass is called as burnt brass and is not useful and remains as scrap. Muntz Metal: (60:40 brass). It contains about 40% Zn with 60% Cu. Thealloy becomes single phase at about 700c. Hence it can be easily hot wonted, extruded and rolled in the temperature range at 600C to 8OOC. is used for utensils, shafts, nuts It and bolts, pump parts, condenser tubes and similar applications where corrosion is not so severe. Bronzes: Bronzes are alloys of copper containing elements other than zinc. In these alloys zinc may be present in small amounts actually the name was used to denote copper tin alloys. Commercially important bronzes are aluminum bronzes, tin bronzes, beryllium bronzes and silicon bronzes. Some important tin alloys are: 1) Coinage bronze 2) Gun Metal 3) Phosphorus bronze: a) Wrought phosphor bronze b) Cast phosphor bronze 4) Statuary bronze 5) 80-10-10 bronze 6] 85-5-5-5 (ounce metal) Phosphor Bronze:These bronzes contains phosphor as a strong deoxidizer and higher amount of phosphorus than necessary to complete deoxidization serves as an alloying element and improves the mechanical properties and cast ability of metal phosphor bronzes are also of two types as given below: a) Wrought phosphor bronzes: -They contain 2.5 to 8% tin 0.1 to & 0.35 phosphorus. They are single phase a-solid solution and are good for cold working purpose. They are widely used for spring, wire gauges, wire brushes and electrical contacts. b) Cast phosphor bronze: - 5 to 13% tin and 0.3 to 1% phosphor are added in these bronzes. These are mainly use for gears, brushings, slide valves etc. RESULT - In this way we have studied microstructure of brass and bronze :

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Metallurgy

EXPERIMENT NO. 9

STUDY OF MICROSTRUCTURE OF ALLOY STEEL (H. S. S.)

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Metallurgy EXPERIMENT NO. 9 AIM. Study of microstructure of alloy steel (H.S.S.). OBJECT: To understand difference between plain carbon steel and alloy steel. To study the changes occur in during their heat treatment and variation in mechanical, properties. INTRODUCTION: This steel is highly alloyed to obtain the following characteristics properties. 1. Excellent red hardness. 2. Good shock resistance, 3. Non-deforming properties. 4. Easy heat treatment cycle. 5. Good wear and abrasion resistance, 6. Very high resistance to oxidation. 7. Ability to keep sharp edges Because of all above [properties H. S. S are mostly used for cutting tools such as drills, taps, rammers, chisels, milling cutters, lathe tools, punches, etc. As they can cut other metals at very high speed easily hence named as high-speed steels. They contains large amount of W, Mo, along with Cr, V. and some times Co. CLASSIFICATION: These steels are mainly classified into two tools A) Tungsten base Major constituent as Tungsten. Denoted by T-series. Most popular grade T-1. Composition: W: Cr: V: C 18: 04: 01:07 B) Molybdenum Base: Major constituent is Molybdenum Denoted by M-series. Most Popular grade M-2. Composition: Mo: W: Cr : V : C 06 : 05 : 04 : 02 : 0.87 Since the molybdenum is easily available at low cost than tungsten hence the Mo type steel are cheaper but there heat treatment is somewhat difficult because of more tendency of oxidation decarburisation and grain growth during heat treatment as compare to W based steels. HEAT TREATEMNT OF H. S- S. (18: 04: 01): The hardening and tempering cycle for H. S. S. is shown in fig. 10.7. The following are major stages involved in its heat treatment: A) Heating for Authentication : Heating is than a two stages to avoid the thermal shocks and micro cracking of steel. The first stage heating is done in the range of 800 - 850 C. in ordinary furnace al his temp, the C steel is soaked for 4 to 10 minutes. After Soaking in first stage heating,
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Metallurgy the steel is quickly transferred to a salt bath furnace maintained at 1250 C 1280C, The salt bath provides the uniform and quick heating and reduces oxidation and decarburisation. Here the steel is soaked for a short time 2-5 minutes. This short time soaking is essential for the equalization temp, of throughout the cross section and also to reduce the grain growth AT the end of soaking period, the steel consist of 90 % austenite and 10 % complex carbide For this condition of austenite the Mtemp, is around 200 and Mf is around C s -100C. B) Hardening cycle: From the elevated temp, of around 1280 the steel is quenched in oil bath C maintained at room temp. Since The is below room temp. i. e. -100 and the Mf C, austenite does not transformed to marten site and a part remains untransformed which is called as retained austenite (Ra). The structure at room temp. Consist of 55 % marten site and 35 % (Ra) and 10 % complex carbides. The steel does not crack during quenching from such a high temp, because of large amount of Ra which is soft and ductile. The hardness of steel under this condition at room temp. is approximate. Rc: 57 / 58. (C) SUB ZERO TREATMENT: As there is 30 % Ra present in the infrastructure of H. S. S. at room temp, therefore it is essential to transform this unstable austenite to hard marten site for the improvement of its strength and hardness. Therefore the H.S.S. follows a treatment, which is carried out below the room temp called as sub zero treatment. In this treatment the steel is quenched in a cooling media maintained at about -100 and soaked for 5 minutes. After this treatment C Ra is 25 % andhardness is Rc: 62/63. (D) TRIPPLE TEMPERING: In tempering cycle, H. S. S is reheated to above 550 and soaked for 2 to 2.5 C hours and quench in oil to room temp. This treatment transforms a large amount of Ra to marten site the hardness raises to 64 / 65. The formation Rc: of fresh marten site during first tempering cycle results in higher order micro stresses. Here the steel is more likely to crack during quenching fro tempering temp, during hardening because it does not have soft cushion of Ra to deform and reduce stress level. Therefore second Tempering cycle is essential and should be immediately followed to illuminate these stresses and to avoid cracking. During second stage tempering some part of Ra will transform to marten siteand the complex carbide will separate out and reduce the micro stresses. At the end of second tempering Ra = 10% and Rc: 65/66. Third tempering cycle is carried out to relive the micro stresses and to transform the remaining Ra. Therefore at the end of triple tempering cycle, Ra =5 %, which is essential to observe the shock and vibration while machine operation.The hardness as high as 67 / 68 is obtained at he end Rc: of heat treatment cycle. CONCLUSION: In this way we have studied the microstructure of alloy steel (H. S. S.).

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Metallurgy

EXPERIMENTNO. 10

STUDY OF MICROSTRUCTURE OFBEARINGMETAL

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Metallurgy EXPERIMENT NO. 10 AIM: Study of microstructure of bearing metal. OBJECT: To understand the phases present in the microstructure of bearing metal, To study their mode of classification and properties INTRODUCTION TO BEARING METALS :All those non-ferrous metals and alloy which are use for making bush type bearing are popularly known as bearing metal. The selection of particular type of bearing metal depends upon the condition under which it is to be used to involve factor relating to bearing pressure, working speed, temperature, impact, vibration, lubricationetc. The widely used bearing metals on e can be classified as follows:(1) Tin-base alloys (2) Lead base alloys. (3) Copper base alloys Basically the alloys of Cu-Sn and antimony or Cu-Pb and antimony are called as "babbits" Babbits are classified into two groups are given below. Table 1: Type of babbit Pb-based Sn-based Sn 1 to 10 balance s As these alloys have good bearing properties hence widely used for bearings. Tin based babbits have batter corrosion and wear resistance as compaired to lead base babbits. But are costly. Lead is used to this babbits to reduce their cost. However lead decreases the load bearing properties of this bearings. REQUIREMENT OF BEARING METALS:(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) Low co-efficient of friction, Good bearing strength. Resistance to wear. High melting point Minimum shrinkage. High corrosion resistance. Economical in cost. Should work satisfactorily at high temperature etc.
64

Pb balanced Up to 10

Sb 10-15 5-15

Cu 1.5-3.5 3-5

Others Cd: 1.5-2.0 As: 0.0-1.0 As: 0.0-0.1

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Metallurgy The widely used bearings are: 1. SILVER BEARING: Silver is plated with lead to reduce risk of seizure. Such bearings are called as silver bearings usually a thin coat of indium is given to increase the corrosion resistance of lead to acidic oils. They are used for heavy load conditions, such as in aircraft. These bearings have high fatigue strength, high corrosion resistance andexcellent austiseizing properties. 2. POROUS BEARINGS {SELF LUBRICATING ):

These bearings are manufacture by powder metallurgy. Porous bearings are made from copper or irons based powders with as such as 40% to 50% porosity and are impregnated with oil. During the use, oil from pores slowly comes out and forms a self-lubricating film on the moving surface. When working is stopped, the oil goes back to the pores by capillary action They do not required any external lubrication and hence called self lubricating bearing The wastage of oil in this bearing is almost nil. Cu (90%) (10%) - graphite - Sn and Fe (96%) - graphite bearings are widely used as self lubricating bearings. CONCLUSION:

In this way we have studied microstructure of bearing metal.

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