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Wayne Carter

Systems Analysis and Design

Chapter 16

1. What are the three broad approaches available to the systems analyst for attaining quality in newly developed systems? These are done by securing total quality assurance through designing systems and software by using a top-down and modular approach; by documenting software while using the appropriate tools; and testing, maintaining, and auditing software.

2. Who or what is the most important factor in establishing and evaluating the quality of information systems or decision support systems? Why? They are the systems users and management; these are actual users of the system and are most familiar with their problems and information needs. 3. Define the total quality management (TQM) approach as it applies to the analysis and design of information systems. It conceives quality as a process that goes towards the development of a perfect information system throughout the systems development life cycle rather than correcting immediate problems. 4. What is meant by the term Six Sigma? The Six Sigma is a top-down approach to quality assuring that is more than just a methodology, but a philosophy and a culture as well.

5. What is an IS quality circle? An IS quality circle is a group to identify both current problems that are needed to be addressed and possible problems residing in information systems and to correct them. This is mainly done by group discussion and individual suggestions for defect-free information systems.

6. Define what is meant by doing a structured walkthrough. Who should be involved? When should structure walkthroughs be done? Structured walkthroughs are a way to use peer reviewers to monitor the system's programming and overall development, point out problems, and allow the programmer or analyst responsible for that portion to make suitable changes. They should involve at least four people, including the person responsible for the part of the system being reviewed; a walkthrough coordinator; a

Wayne Carter

Systems Analysis and Design

Chapter 16

programmer or analyst peer; and a person to take notes about suggestions. Structured walkthrough are useful to obtain valuable feedback from a fresh perspective.

7. List the advantages of taking a top-down approach to design.

A few advantages of a top-down approach to design are: Avoiding the chaos of attempting to design a system "all at once." The ability to have separate systems analysis teams working in parallel on different but necessary subsystems. Prevents systems analysts from getting so mired in detail that they lose sight of what the system is supposed to do.

8. Define modular development. A method of programming from a top-down design approach. In the modular development concept, the whole system is broken into several logical, manageable portions. 9. List four guidelines for correct modular programming. Four guidelines for correct modular programming are: To keep each of the modules down to a manageable size. Pay close attention to the interfaces that are critical to the systems. Minimize the number of modules the user needs to modify when making changes. Maintain the hierarchical relationships set up in the top-down phases 10. Name the two types of arrows used in structure charts. These two arrows are "data couples" and "control flags."

11. What is service-oriented architecture? Service Oriented Architecture or SOA for short is a new architecture for the development of loosely coupled distributed applications.

12. Give two reasons that support the necessity of well-developed systems and software documentation. To facilitate easier learning processes and for effective maintenance.

Wayne Carter

Systems Analysis and Design

Chapter 16

13. In what four categories does the FOLKLORE documentation method collect information? The FOLKLORE documentation method collects information in the following categories: Customs Tales Sayings Art forms

14. List the Six guidelines for choosing a design and documentation technique. Must be compatible with existing documentation. Is understood by others in the organization. Allows you to return to working on the system after you have been away from it for a period of time. Must be suitable for the size of the system you are working on. Allows for a structured design approach if it is considered to be more important than other factors. Allows for easy modification.

15. Whose primary responsibility is it to test computer programs? The original creator of the program has primary responsibility for its testing the program.

16. What is the difference between test data and live data? Live data is the data that has successfully been processed through the existing system. Test data is data that needs to be checked for logic errors several times of before implementation.

17. What are the two types of systems auditors? They are internal auditors and external auditors.

18. List the four approaches to implementation. Shifting more computer power to users via an information center or distributed processing, Training users, Converting the old system, and Evaluating the new system.

Wayne Carter

Systems Analysis and Design

Chapter 16

19. Describe what is meant by distributed system. A distributed system includes work stations that can communicate with each other and with data processors as well. The system may have different hierarchical architectural configurations of data processors that communicate with each other and that have different data-storage capabilities

20. What is client-server model? A design model that features applications running on a local area network. The computers on the network divide processing tasks among the server and clients.

21. Describe how a client is different from a user. The client is the computer that is hook up to a network and the user is the human that interacts with the client machine.

22. What are the advantages of using a client/server approach? They offer greater computer power and greater opportunity to customize applications. 23. What are the disadvantages of using a client/server approach? The disadvantages of a client server system are greater expense and applications must be written as two separate software components running on separate machines.

24. Who should be trained to use the new or modified information system? All people who will have secondary or primary use of the system will likely need training.

25. List the five possible sources of training for users of information systems. A few possible sources of training for users of information systems are: Vendors Systems analysts External paid trainers In-house trainers Other system users