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RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT On (Employees Training & Development)

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the requirement for the Award of degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION of (Gautam Buddha Technical University, Lucknow) By Sonam gupta Under the Supervision of Mrs. Meenal Singh

United institude of management Greater Noida Roll No: 091070106 2011

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PREFACE
A comprehensive practical study of management is a supplement to the theoretical classroom knowledge. It helps to understand more precisely. This report tries to outline idea of professional world and helps in understanding the pragmatic aspects of TRANING AND

DEVELOPMENT . Own observations are significant towards the contribution in learning. The report is therefore designed as a reference of organization functioning rather than copy down instrument. The purpose of summer training is to make management student familiar with day to day functioning of business. The current report is an effort in this direction. My humble endeavor and motive in presenting the project is to impart a balanced introduction and knowledge of workers participation in Management. It is hoped that this project will serve as a supportive document to research workers as efforts has been tried to make this report an informative, stimulating and self explanatory.
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DECLARATION
I, hereby declare that this research report titled TRANING AND DEVELOPMENT is prepared by me, during the academic year under the guidance of Miss Meenal Singh, United Institute of Management, Greater Noida I also declare that this research work is the result of my own effort and has not been submitted to any other university or institution for the award of any degree. Also this research report is strictly for assessment purpose and can not be held against the company. The facts held in the report may have been altered to protect the interest of the company.

Sonam Gupta United Institute of Management, Greater Noida

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Sl. No . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Chapter I Chapter II Chapter III Chapter IV Chapter V PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT DECLARATION TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Literature review Objective & scope Research Methodology Recommendation & Suggestions 10 11 10 Chapter VI Chapter - VII Chapter VIII Conclusion limitations Bibliography pp. 60 to 62 pp. 63 to 64 pp. 65 to 66 I II III IV pp. 6 to 26 pp. 27 to 29 pp. 30 to 50 pp. 51 to 56 pp. 57 to 59 CHAPTER CONTENT Page No.

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EMPLOYEES TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION In the field of Human Resource Management, Training & Development is the field concerned with organizational activities aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups inorganizational settings. It has been known by several names,including employee development, human resource development,and learning & development.Training & Development ensures that randomness in organizational setting is reduced, and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format.The conflicts at workplace, with perhaps the most devastating career consequences, are those that take place between employees and their bosses.Training an
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employee to get along well with authority and with people who entertain diverse points of view is one of the best guarantees of long-term success. Training & Development encompasses three main activities: training, education, and development.These three are often considered to be synonymous; however, they encompass three separate, although interrelated, activities: 1.Trainin g: This activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individual currently holds. 2. Edu cation: This activity focuses upon the jobs that an

individual may potentially hold in the future, and is evaluated against those jobs. 3. De velopment: This activity focuses upon the activities that

the organization employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate.

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Traditional Approach to Training & Development - Most of the organizations never used to believe in training before.They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth the time and efforts involved. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing. Modern Approach to

Training & Development - Indian Organizations have now realized the importance of corporate training .Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost.The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results.Stakeholders in Training & Development The "stakeholders" in training and development

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are categorized into several classes: Thespon sor s of training and development are senior managers of the organization.

Theclients of training and development are business planners. Line managers are responsible for coaching, resources, and performance. Thepar t ic ipants are those who actually undergo the processes. Thefacilitator s are Human Resource Management staff. Theproviders are specialists in the field. Each of these groups has its own agenda and motivations, which sometimes conflict with the agendas and motivations of

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the others. Any organisations foundation mostly relies on four pillars, i.e. Men, Machine, Material, and Money. Among these pillars Men (Employees) are the most valuable and important assets of the organization. The success and growth of any organization depends largely upon caliber and performance of its workforce. It is essential to train and develop employees so that they will be able to get maximum productivity for their efforts.

Concept of Training Training is the process of increasing the knowledge and skills for doing a particular job. It is an organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and skill for a definite purpose. The purpose of training is basically to bridge the gap between job requirements and present competence of an employee. Training is aimed at improving the behavior and performance of a
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person. It is a never ending or continuous process. Training is closely related with education and development but needs to be differentiated from these terms.

NEED OF TRAINING Training is required on account of the following reasons: Job Requirements. Employees selected for a job might lack the qualifications required to perform the job effectively. New and inexperienced employees require detailed instruction for effective

performance on the job.

Technological Changes Technology is changing very fast. Increasing use of fast changing techniques requires training into new technology.

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Organizational Viability An organization can build up a second line of command through training in order to meet its future needs for human resources. Trained staff is the most valuable asset of a company.

Internal Mobility Training becomes necessary when an employee moves from one job to another due to promotion and transfer.

IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING A well planned and well executed training programme can provide the following advantages:

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Higher Productivity Training helps to improve the level of performance. Trained employees perform better by using better method of work.

Better Quality of Work In formal training, the best methods are standardised and taught to employees. Trained employees are less likely to make operational mistakes.

Less Learning Period A systematic training programme helps to reduce the time and cost involved in learning. Employees can more quickly reach the acceptable level of performance.

Cost Reduction Trained employees make more economical use of materials and

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machinery. Reduction in wastage and spoilage together with increase in productivity help to minimize cost of operations per unit.

High Moral

Proper training can develop positive attitudes among employees. Job satisfaction and morale are improved due to a rise in the earnings and job security of employees.

Personal Growth Training enlarges the knowledge and skills of the participants. Therefore, well trained personnel can grow faster in their career.

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Organisational Climate

A sound training programme helps to improve the climate of an organization. Organisational stability is enhanced because training helps to reduce employee turnover and absenteeism

BENEFITS OF TRAINING TO EMPLOYEES Training is useful to employees in the following ways: Self confidence Training helps to improve the self confidence of an employee. It enables him to approach and perform his job with enthusiasm.

Higher Earnings Trained employees can perform better and thereby earn more.

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SafetyTraining helps an employee to use various safety devices. He can handle the machines safely and becomes less prone to accidents.

Adaptability Training enables an employee to adopt to changes in work procedures and methods.

Promotion Through training employee can develop himself and earn quick promotions. New Skills Training develops new knowledge and skills among employees. The new skills are a valuable asset of an employee and remain permanently with him.

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TYPES OF TRAINING Training programes may be of the following types : Orientation training Induction or orientation training seeks to adjust newly appointed employees to the work environment. Every new employee needs to be made fully familiar with his job, his superiors and subordinates and with the rules and regulations of the organization.

Job training It refers to the training provided with a view to increase the knowledge and skills of an employee for improving

performance on the job.

Safety training Training provided to minimize accidents and damage to

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machinery is known as safety training. It involves instruction in the use of safety devices and in safety consciousness.

Promotional training It involves training of existing employees to enable them to perform higher level jobs. Employees with potential are selected and they are given training before their promotion.

Refresher Training When existing techniques become obsolete due to the development of better techniques, employees have to be trained in the use of new methods and techniques.

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Remedial training Such training is arranged to overcome the shortcomings in the behaviour and performance of old employees.

SYSTEMATIC APPROACH OF TRAINING

IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS Job Present Performance E V A L U A T I O N C R I T E R I A Desired Performance Gap

SETTING TRAINING OBJECTIVES AND POLICY

F E E D B A C K

DESIGNING TRAINING PROGRAMME (Companys Training Plan)

CONDUCTING THE TRAINING

FOLLOW UP AND EVALUATION

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NATURE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

In simple terms, training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. A formal definition of training & development is it is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employees ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employees attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need for training & development is determined by the employees performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training & Development need = Standard performance Actual performance.

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We can make a distinction among training, education and development. Such distinction enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning of the terms. Training, as was stated earlier, refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Education, on the other hand, is confined to theoretical learning in classrooms.

Though training and education differ in nature and orientation, they are complementary. An employee, for example, who undergoes training is presumed to have had some formal education. Furthermore, no training programme is complete without an element of education. In fact, the distinction between training and education is getting increasingly blurred nowadays. As more and more employees are called upon to exercise judgments and to choose alternative solutions to the job
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problems, training programmes seek to broaden and develop the individual through education. For instance, employees in well-paid jobs and/or employees in the service industry may be required to make independent decision regarding there work and their relationship with clients. Hence, organization must consider elements of both education and training while planning there training programmes. Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Instead, it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher positions. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities, such as those supplied by management developmental programmes, are generally voluntary.
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To bring the distinction among training, education and development into sharp focus, it may be stated that training is offered to operatives, whereas developmental programmes are meant for employees in higher positions. Education however is common to all the employees, there grades notwithstanding

IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS A training programme should be launched only after the training needs are assessed clearly and specifically. In order to identify training needs, the gap between the existing and required levels of knowledge, skills, performance and aptitudes should be specified. Training needs can be identified through the following types of analysis.

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Organisational Analysis It involved a study of the entire organization in terms of its objectives, its resources, resource allocation and utilization, growth potential and its environment.

Task Role Analysis It is a systematic and detailed analysis of jobs to identify job contents, the knowledge, skills and aptitudes required and the work behaviour.

Manpower Analysis In this analysis the persons to be trained and the changes required in the knowledge, skills and aptitudes of an employee

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are determined. First of all, it is necessary to decide whether performance of an individual is substandard and training is needed. Secondly, it is determined whether the employee is capable of being trained. Thirdly, the Specific areas in which the individual requires training are determined.

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Literature Review of Traning & Development


Employee relations during the year remain cordial. Management maintained an open door policy with fair and transparent approach while dealing with the employees and their unions and associations. An atmosphere of mutual trust, confidence and goodwill was maintained. Not a single man-day was lost due to Industrial Relations problem. This manifested a growing sense of responsibility, cooperation and support amongst all sections of its employees.

The society always considers its employees as its assets and gives paramount importance to human resources. Unions/ Associations are consulted and their suggestions are given due consideration while framing Human Resource Policies.

According to Casse and Banahan (2007), the different approaches to training and development need to be explored. It

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has come to their attention by their own preferred model and through experience with large Organisations. The current traditional training continuously facing the challenges in the selection of the employees, in maintaining the uncertainty related to the purpose and in introducing new tactics for the environment of work and by recognizing this, they advising on all the problems, which reiterates the requirement for flexible approach. Usually the managers have the choice to select the best training and development programme for their staff but they always have to bear in mind that to increase their chances of achieve the target they must follow the five points highlighted by Miller and Desmarais (2007). According to Davenport (2006), mentioned in his recent studies that its easy to implement strategy with the internet supported software.

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES

The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal. Individual Objectives help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization.
Organizational Objectives assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness.

Functional Objectives maintain the departments contribution at a level suitable to the organizations needs.

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Societal Objectives ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society. Principal Objective - To make sure there is availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization.

Individual Objectives To help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an

organization.

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Organizational Objectives To assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness. Functional Objectives To maintain the department contribution at a level suitable to the organization needs. Societal Objectives To ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to

the needs and challenges of the society


The main objectives of a training may be defined as follows:
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(a)

to impart to new entrants the basic knowledge and skills

required for efficient performance of definite tasks:

(b) to assist the employees to function more effectively in t heir present positions by exposing them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and developing the skills they would require in their particular fields:

(c)

to build up a second line of competent officers and prepare

them to occupy more responsible positions:

(d) to broaden the minds of senior managers through (e) interchange of experience within and outside so as to

correct the narrow outlook caused due to over specialisation.

TRAINING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES

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The methods employed for training of operatives may be described as under:

On-the-job Training (OJT)

In this method the trainee is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform it.

Vestibule Training.

In this method a training center called vestibule is set up and actual job conditions are duplicated or simulated in it. Expert trainers are employed to provide training with the help of equipment and machines which are identical with those in used at the workplace.

Apprenticeship Training

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In this method, theoretical instruction and practical learning are provided to trainers in training institutes. In India the Government has established Industrial Training Institute (ITIs) for this purpose.

Class room Training

Under this method, training s provided in company class rooms or in educational institutions. Some companies maintain their own training institutes or schools. Special training courses are designed e.g. management course for foremen, computer course for typists, etc.

Internship Training

It is a joint programme of training in which educational

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institutions and business firms cooperate. This method of training is used in professional work e.g., MBBS, CA, ICWA, Company Secretaries etc.

ROLE OF EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT & TRAINING

The major roles play by the training and development in an organization are: -

Leadership development

This is the foremost role played by the training. The employee after training develops in itself as the leader character. The overall research evidence concerning the amount of influence of leader on their followers are that

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Co-operative relationships between leader and followers tend to improve group effectiveness. Followers motivation and commitment may be heightened by their participation in making certain types of decision. Leader technical expertise is necessary to gain and maintain influence with followers. Upward and lateral influence enables the leader to represent the group and keep it viable through the appropriation of needed resources.

Advisory

The employee development service once it is established, will find its major task in the area of constructive advice, evaluation and monitoring to the organization development. It will be much less concerned with policing the system than it will be

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concerned with helping operational management to achieve its corporate objectives. A high level of interdependent relationships and interactive process will mark the supportive role of the central department.

Environmental awareness

It is due to training, the employee come to know about the environmental changes, which are occurring day by day. Things are becoming obsolete another day as the technology grows advance. Without this awareness of the changing environment the employee will become bureaucratic, self-perpetuating and se4lf-protective. It will lack the vitality to survive and the innovative creativity necessary for the twenty-first century.

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Co-ordination

The employee development support has a prime responsibility to ensure the effective co-ordination of activities in order to make the optimum use of resources. Training helps the employee to how to co-ordinate between different departments, different section of the organization for better achievement.

Information and Communication

Closely linked with the co-ordination role of the employee development and training is that of the dissemination of information without the dissemination of information into the organization disintegrated development and repetitive

rediscovery is likely to occur. Unless the information is

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systematically available it will probably fail to overcome problems of repetitions in the organization or to act as a stimulus to progressive thinking. Information is linked to communication. The Quality of communication in an

organization will be large measure to determine its cultural health and well- being provide and important dimension of its success.

Motivation

One of the basic reason for which the training is provided to the employee is motivation. This motivation plays a key role in the organizational development. Until or unless the employee feels motivated the productivity will be very less. This motivational factor is less of an auditing function than a stimulating role.

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Evaluation and review

Any employee development system that is going to achieve its objectives in real terms will be a self-monitoring process. Not only has it a stimulating and monitoring role in relation to the business to which it is providing a service but it will also act as its own internal evaluation and review agency simple because it is set aside for a particular task it is provided with a unique opportunity to Question, evaluation, and re-create policies, procedure and systems.

Standardization

It has been constantly suggested that the success of employee development system is more dependent on its capacity to influence rather than to require. But even in an organization

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individual standard of effectiveness in things like selection, appraisal, salary policy, implementation and general workculture will vary. The role of employee development must in part be to see that approximately uniform standards are maintained across the whole spectrum of organization.

METHODS OF APPRAISING EMPLOYEE

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Performance Appraisal is the process through which an individual employees behavior and performance over a fixed time period is measured and evaluated. It is a systematic and objective way of finding the relative worth or ability of an employee in performing the task. it helps to identify those are

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performing their tasks well from those who are not and also indicates the reasons for such performance.

Uses of Appraisals System

It provides information of paramount importance/ assistance in making decisions such as promotion, additional charge etc. As such, through the system, ability of an individual can be recognised. Every employee wants to know how he is performing on the job and what his superiors feel about his performance.

Performance appraisal plays a very important role to meet this requirement of the employee through feed-back system. The systems help considering employees suitability for different types of assignments, transfers and placement.

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Appraisals Report written objectively can reduce grievances and develop better relationship. Keeping in view its various uses in relation to the developmental needs of the employees, the Appraisal System of KRIBHCO is being revised and developed from time to time. The main features of the existing system are as under :-

Forms of Appraisal

(a) Appraisal Form No. 1

This form is used for employees in Grade O to Grade I. This has a forced rating scale.

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(b) Appraisal Form No. 2

This form is used for employee in Grade H1, H, G2, G1 & G. Rating on various performance factors is on a four point scale.

(c) Appraisal Form No. 3

Devised for executives in grade F1, F and E.

(d) Appraisal Form No. 4

This has been devised for executives in Grade D and above. It has provision for self appraisal by appraisee which is required to be evaluated by the Appraising Officer.

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General Instructions for filling up Appraisal Forms

1.

To be filled up with a high sense of responsibility.

2.

Objective is not fault finding but identifying the strengths, weaknesses and potential of the employee.

3.

Not to fill up hurriedly but with due care and attention.

4.

Although performance appraisal is an annual exercise, the Appraising Authorities are to review the performance periodically and take corrective steps.

5.

to depict true picture of the appraisee.

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6.

Assessment to be confined to the period of report only.

7.

Some posts of the same rank may be more exacting than others. The degree of stress and strains are to be borne in mind while appraising.

8.

After completion of appraisal report, Appraising Officer may discuss the same with appraisee highlighting his strengths and weaknesses. This may be done in the presence of Reviewing Officer, if he is in station at the same location.

9.

Report to be filled up annually (April to March).

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10. Appraisal is to be made only if the employee has worked for more than three months during the appraisal period. In case, where an employee has worked under two Appraising Offices during one appraisal year, appraisal is to be made by the officer under whom he has worked for more period during the year.

Filling up of Reports

In applying and using the appraisal system it will have three phases:-

(a)

Reporting

(b) Evaluation; and (c) Follow - up

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The rating of the employee should be done annually at one time. The first page of the appraisal format is to be filled by the Personnel Department and passed on to the Appraising officer by 1st week of April who will give his rating by 10th April and send it to the Reviewing officer and from him to the Accepting officer. The Accepting Officer after recording his observation on the appraisal of the employee will send the report to personnel Department latest by the end of April.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem involving a study of various steps that are adopted br the researcher in studying his/her research problem.

Research in common refers to a search for knowledge. It is a scientific system and search for pertinent information on a specific topic. It is to analyze and scrutinize the finding to get the fair and right out come. Methodology refers to the method or procedure used to solve the research problem. Which gives an opportunity

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to put forth his argument for having opted for certain alternatives and also he can justify his ruling out other possibility

Objective of research : The purpose of this research is to find out the best possible mixture of information i.e. scientific information to be presented in front of a Doctor so as to produce a long lasting impression, to provide that extraedge to the Doctor which other companies are not providing, to supply only useful information to the prescriber to make his or her efforts toward the patient more effective. All this exercise is being conducted to make the time of a Medical Representative inside the Doctor chamber more productive and informative.

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This includes : Defending the research problem Sampling Design Research Design Method of Data collection Data Analysis & Interpretation

Sampling Design

Probability sampling design i.e. Random Sampling was adopted as a definite plan for obtaining a sample from the population. The Selection technique was a Stratified Random Sampling a restricted probability sampling.

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Research Design

An overall Rigid descriptive research design has been used focusing attention on : Formulation of Objective of the Study Designing methods for the Data Collection Selecting the sample size Collecting the Data Processing & Analysis of data Reporting the finding

Methods of Data Collection

1) Primary Data Primary data is that kind of data which is collected

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by the investigator himself for the purpose of the specific study. The data such collected is original in character. The advantage of this method of collection is the authentic. Primary data was collected using Questionnaire

2) Secondary Data When an investigator uses the data that has been already collected by others is called Secondary Data. The secondary adapt could be collected from Journals, Reports and various publications, web sites. The advantages of the secondary data can be- it is economical, both in terms of money and time s

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SUGGESTION Following are few suggestions after analyzing the employees development and training procedures in the organizations: There is a need by the management to evaluate the training and it can be made on the basis of reaction, behaviour and performance. Feed back on training effectiveness should be provided to the employees. Retraining is required at all the levels, but is is more common at O to I level. It is necessary due to change in jobs, technology and the environment.

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The frequency of eminent professor visit to energize the people should be increased. Training should be given on latest technology to the technical person. There should be training on communication to develop the communication skill of employee for effectiveness.

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CONCLUSION Through its 16 years of operation to manufacture and distribute chemical fertilizers, Krishak Bharti Cooperative Limited has gained a reputation of being Indias premier fertilizer producing cooperative under administrative control of department of fertilizer, Government of India. It has an outstanding track record to its credit in all spheres of its activities.The organisation ,with special emphasis on, the Personnel & Administration Department has been functioning

Successfully according to the norms of the government and also in consensus with the IFFCO pattern. As a consequence, the employees are satisfied and working at peace within the organisation. As far as development is concerned various

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seminars and guest lectures form a platform for employees suggestions and clarification of whenever possible. The top management has truly been concerned about the training needs and conducting the training at various reputed centers like VAMNICOM (Pune), Brahmakumari, M.D.I., (Gurgaon). This gives satisfaction of employees and thus successful in performing the function of employees effectively. I

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Limitation The project may have certain limitations:

The source of data collection were mainly secondary.

The organisation scenario is dynamic and may have changed after the completion of the project and in present context.

The information is subject to personal and other biases.

The project may not be complete due to time constraints.

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Bibliography The following sources of data were used: Personal Management C.B. Mamoria Human Resource Management C. B. Gupta Employees Development and Training Robert L. Craig Various Internet Sites : www.humanresource.com

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