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Thurstone Scale

Thurstone scale was the first formal


technique for measuring attitude.
There are three types of scale
Equal-appearing intervals method
Successive intervals method
Paired comparisons method
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Thurstone Scale
Write statements (positive and negative)
related to the attitude under study.
Judges are asked to sort the statements
into eleven (11) stacks from most positive
to most negative.
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Neutral Most +tv /
Favourable
Most -tv /
Unfavourable
Thurstone Scale
For each statement, plot the distribution
of points assigned by the judges.
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0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Median
Inter Quartile Range
(Q3-Q1)
Choose
those items
that are at
equal
intervals
(from 1 to 11)
and that
have the
smallest
inter quartile
range
Thurstone Scale
For final selection of items of the scale,
sort the table of Medians and Inter
quartile Range 1
st
in ascending order by
Median and then in descending order by
Inter quartile Range.
Select statements that are at equal
intervals across the range of medians.
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Thurstone Scale
We may select one statement for each of
the 11 median values. For the same
median value, select the statement that
has the smallest Inter Quartile Range
(because this is the statement with the least variability
across all judges).
The median values of the statements are
weight of the statements. (Do not display the
weights in the questionnaire).
Questionnaire is ready.
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Thurstone Scale
Subjects are asked to tick the statements
that they agree.
A Subjects score (agreement with
favourableness) is the average of the weights
of all the items that he/she agrees with.
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Semantic Differential
Semantic differential is a type of a rating
scale designed to measure the
connotative meaning (beyond the literal
meaning) of events, concepts or attitudes.
It measures people's reactions in terms of
ratings on bipolar scales defined with
contrasting adjectives at each end.
For me skipping class is
Good _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Bad.
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Semantic Differential
Please rate car model A on each of the
following dimensions
Durable _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Not durable
Low fuel cons. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ High fuel cons.
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Semantic Differential
A subject checks one blank indicating his
opinion. Blanks are scored 1-7. Groups of
subjects can then be compared.
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Survey Research
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Survey Research
Survey research is used to quantitatively
describe specific aspects of a given
population.
Data are collected from people and hence
they are subjective.
It uses a sample from the population and
the findings are generalized for the
population.
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Survey
A survey is a data collection tool for
carrying out survey research.
It gathers information on the actions,
characteristics, opinions of people.
Survey is used to assess needs, demand,
examine impact of some action.
The term survey instrument is used to
distinguish Survey tool from the Survey
research that it is meant to support.
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Strength and Weakness of Survey
A large number of variables, including
peoples attitude can be studied through
survey.
Survey provides estimates for the true
population characteristics and not exact
measurements for the population. Hence,
there is a chance of error in the estimates.
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Strength and Weakness of Survey
Survey estimates may have biases
(deviation from true value) due to
Lack of response from target participants.
Non-accurate responses of respondents.
Intentional misreporting of behaviour by
subjects.
Respondents not able to assess their own
behaviour or do not remember the situation
surrounding their behaviour.
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Classification of Survey Research
Method of communication
Personal Interviews
Telephone interviews
Self-administered interviews
Temporal basis
Longitudinal study
o Panel study
Cross-sectional study
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Classification of Survey Research
Structured and Disguised questions
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Structured Unstructured
Undisguised Closed ended direct
questions.
Open ended
questions in an
exploratory survey.
Disguised Attitudinal studies. Projective
techniques.
Measurement Error
Variation in response which cannot be
attributed to the variable being measured.
The measurement is expressed as M=T+e,
where M is the measured value, T is the
True value, and e is the error.
Types of Measurement Errors
Random
Systematic
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Random Error
All chance factors (uncontrollable) that
confound (get mixed) with measurement
of any phenomenon.
They are expected to cancel each other
out in the long run: in direction and
magnitude.
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Total Error
Random
Sampling
Error
Systematic
Error
Admin Error
Respondent Error
Non Response
Error
Response Bias
Sample Selection Error
Data Processing Error
Interviewer Error
Interviewer Cheating
Errors in Survey Research
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Response
Bias
Deliberate
Falsification
Unconscious
misrepresentation
Acquiescence
bias
Extremity
Bias
Interviewer
bias
Auspices
bias
Social
desirability
bias
Errors in Survey Research
Tendency to agree
Respondent influenced
By person collecting data
..
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Types of Random Errors
Transient qualities
Mood, motivation, degree of alertness,
boredom, fatigue etc. of the individual.
Situational factors
Physical settings
o Noise level, lighting etc.
o Presence of peers.
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Systematic Error
Factors that consistently / systematically
affect the variable being measured.
Education.
Personal style of individual to make
response.
o Social desirability - a tendency to give a favourable
impression of oneself.
o Acquiescence - a tendency to agree with
statements irrespective of their contents.
o Deviation - a tendency to give unusual or
uncommon responses.
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Systematic Error
Personal style .(continued)
o Contrast error - a tendency to rate others as
opposite to oneself in regard to a particular trait or
characteristics.
o Halo effect - a tendency to be unduly influenced by
a single favorable trait.
o Error of leniency - a tendency to rate too high or to
always give favorable response.
o Error of severity - a tendency to rate too low or to
always give unfavorable reports.
o Error of central tendency - a tendency to rate in the
middle, thus avoiding any extreme positions.

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Communication with respondents
Human interactive media.
Electronic interactive media.
Non-interactive media.
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Interactive media
Personal interview
More information due to face to face
interaction.
Clarification of doubts.
Probing.
Less non-response.
Use of aid.
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Interactive media
Personal interview
Door-to-door interview
o Better sample space.
o Less non-response.
o Household information.
Intercept interview
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Interactive media
Disadvantages of Personal interview
More time and cost.
Skilled interviewers.
More respondent bias on issues that they do
not want to share and get exposed.
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Interactive media
Telephonic interview
Interviewer can remain in a central place.
Fast and cost effective.
Absence of face to face contact is helpful in
collecting some sensitive data.
Not 100% people have telephone.
Interview can end abruptly.
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Non-interactive media
Self administered questionnaire
Mail questionnaire
Emails
Internets
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Self administered questionnaire
Mail questionnaire
Cover large geographical area.
Respondents answer at own convenience.
Comparatively low cost.
Answering sensitive questions easier due to
absence of any interviewer.
Response rate is usually low.
Usually structured questionnaire.
A follow up call letter can be used.
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Self administered questionnaire
Emails
Low cost.
Can reach only those having emails.
Can be useful for a within company survey.
Risk of same respondent sending multiple
response.
Easy to follow up.
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Self administered questionnaire
Internet survey
Low cost and high speed.
Easy for the respondents to fill questionnaire.
Can be useful for a very specific group of
respondents.
Easy to follow up.
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Observational techniques
Direct observation
Pantry audit
Optical scanner
Bar codes
Monitoring web site traffic
On-line purchase.

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Pantry audit
It is a method to estimate consumption of
goods at consumer level.
Types, quantity and price of goods
purchased are captured.
Objective is to find out what type of
consumer buys which brand (preference).
Can be misleading when promotional or
other offers are present.
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Sampling
Population & Sample
Population
All elements of interest in a study.
Samples
A representative subset or part of the
population.
Sampling theory is associated with
finding out the unknown population
characteristics with the help of samples
drawn from it.
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Population & Sample
Population
Sample
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Name of all residents of a city, as
appears in the telephone directory.
A few residents of a city, selected
from the telephone directory.
Simple Random Sampling (SRS)
All units in the population have equal
probability of selection.
All units are assigned an unique identity.
Sample of predetermined size is chosen
from the population.
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Simple Random Sampling - Example
Draw a sample of 10 customers from 40.
Write name of each customer in a piece of
paper.
Put them in a box.
Pick up ten pieces of paper from the box.
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Simple Random Sampling - Example
Draw a sample of 10 customers from 40.
Assign numbers 1 to 40 to customers.
Chose a Random Number from (1,40).
Suppose the number selected is 23.
The customer with number 23 assigned is
selected.
Repeat the process.
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Advantage / Disadvantage
Advantage
Simple
Analysis of data is reasonably easy.
Disadvantages
If population is heterogeneous estimates
have large variance.
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Stratified Sampling
This is done when population is
heterogeneous w.r.t. the characteristic we
want to measure.
The population is sub divided into
mutually exclusive groups or STRTA, so
that each Stratum is nearly homogeneous.
Samples from each Stratum is selected
based on SRS.
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Stratified Sampling - Example
A cell phone service provider wants to
increase market share. In order to capture
customers voice, wants to make a survey
What extra benefits do the customers desire.
Customers could be divided into Strata
based on income group / Age /
Occupation.
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Advantage / Disadvantage
Advantage
Stratification produces a gain in precision in
the estimates.
Disadvantage
Strata formation is based on characteristics.
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Systematic Sampling
Each unit of Population is assigned a
serial number.
Selection of 1st unit in the sample is
based on SRS.
Subsequent units selected are every nth
unit. (n is a predetermined number).
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Systematic Sampling - Example
A bank want to get feedback from
customers on their service quality.
1st customer is selected based on SRS.
Next, every 10th subsequent customer in
the queue is selected, till a pre decided
sample size.
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Advantage / Disadvantage
Advantage
Easy procedure.
Often more precise than simple random
sampling as more evenly spread over the
population.
Disadvantage
In certain cases leads wrong result due to
periodic selection of sample.
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Cluster Sampling
The population is divided into Clusters.
Sample from each Cluster is drawn based
on SRS.
Units within a Cluster are not
homogeneous (as in the case of Stratified
Sampling).
Each Cluster is a small representation of
population.
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Cluster Sampling - Example
Government wants to find out
effectiveness of immunization program.
Entire population is divided into localities
(Clusters).
Sample is drawn from each cluster.
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Advantage / Disadvantage
Advantage
Easy procedure.
Cost effective.
Disadvantage
Formation and selection of cluster plays an
important role.
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Sampling
Sample provides only an
Estimate of the actual
population parameters.
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Sample Size
We need an idea about the standard
deviation of the variable under study.
We have to decide on the Precision of
estimate desired (error).
We have to decide on the Confidence
level (%) with which we want to make the
estimate.
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Sample Size
The formula is,

Sample size=


Where, Z
(o/2)
is the Normal ordinate for the
confidence Level.
Generally taken as 1.96 for prediction with
95% confidence.
( )
2
2
Error Allowable
Z
n
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
o
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Questionnaire
Design
Questionnaire Design
Questions to be asked.
Phrasing/ Type of the questions.
Sequence of questions.
Questionnaire layout.
Pretest of questionnaire.
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Questionnaire Design
Make a list of variables.
Background variables
Dependent variables
Independent variables
Anticipate how data will be analyzed.

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Questions to be asked
Management questions
Basically the management dilemma.
Research questions
The questions for which the researcher must
find answers based on facts and provide
answer to the management questions.
Investigative questions
Specific questions that the researcher must
answer to provide details to the research
questions.
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Questions to be asked
Measurement questions
Questions that are put to the questionnaire
and respondents provide answers.
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Types of Questions
Pre-coded, single-choice questions.
Open-ended questions.
Presence-absence questions.
Rank-ordering questions.
Likert-type questions.
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Pre-Coded Single-Choice
Pre-coded, single-choice questions ask
respondents to indicate which one
category applies.
Answers are pre-coded for easy data entry.
If all options can not be listed, include a
category Other with a space to indicate
what the Other category implies.
Please specify ______________
Categories should be mutually-exclusive.
No categories overlap with one another.
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Open-Ended Questions
Open-ended questions do not have pre-
set answers.
Use open-ended questions when
Too many response categories.
Dont know the possible categories.
Qualitative data collection.
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Open-Ended Caution
Do not have too many open-ended
questions
Time-consuming to code.
Responses have large variations.
More likely to be left blank.
May decrease response rate
Takes more time to complete questionnaire.
Use opinion-seeking questions sparingly.
Place open-ended questions towards the
end.
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Presence-Absence Questions
Presence-absence questions ask
respondents to choose which items in a
list do or do not apply to them (or they
agree or disagree).
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Rank-Ordering Questions
Rank-order questions ask respondents to
indicate an ordering of response items -
from most preferred to least preferred.
These types of questions should be
avoided or minimized because they take
time.
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Questionnaire Development
Use a brief statement to introduce the
survey to the respondent
Who is conducting/sponsoring the study
Assure confidentiality and anonymity
Place easy to answer/salient questions at the
beginning
Avoid double-barreled question.
Question that covers more than one issue.
Avoid Leading / Loaded question
Leading questions imply answer. Loaded
questions suggest a desirable answer.
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Questionnaire Development
Decide on question sequence.
Order bias.
o Ordering of questions may lead to respondent
making biased choice of options.
o Simple to Complex / General to specific questions
(Funnel technique).
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Pre-test
Pre-test the questionnaire
May start by filling out the survey yourself.
Ask for feedback on the questionnaire.
o Is it too long? Any problem with wording?
Pilot study
Send questionnaire to a small sample of
respondents.
Use response data to make modification
o Modify unclear questions, create pre-coded,
single-choice questions based on responses to
open-ended questions etc.
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