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AP Biology: Period 2

Zhang, Emily # 35 111028

Homework #9 : Chapter 9 1. In general terms, distinguish between fermentation and cellular respiration. Fermentation: o No oxygen o Only produces a small amount of ATP Cellular Respiration: o Use of oxygen o Produces a lot of ATP

Fermentation does not use oxygen and only a small amount of ATP is produced. Cellular respiration uses oxygen and produces a lot of ATP. 2. Write the summary equation for cellular respiration. Write the specific chemical equation for the degradation of glucose. Cellular Respiration: o C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy The equation for cellular respiration is C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy The summary equation for cellular is 3. Define oxidation and reduction. Oxidation: o Molecule that gains electrons o Positive charge reduced Reduction: o Molecule which loses electron Oxidation is the molecule that gains the electron, the positive charge is reduced. Reduction is the molecule which loses the electron. 4. Explain in general terms how redox reactions are involved in energy exchanges. Redox reactions: o Transfer electrons

Redox reactions is the transfer of electrons which takes place during cellular respiration. 5. Describe the role of NAD+ in cellular respiration. NAD+ o An electron acceptor o Accepts electrons in the electron transport chain and krebs cycle NAD+ is an electron acceptor which accepts electrons in the electron transport chain and krebs cycle which oxidates the glucose. 6. In general terms, explain the role of the electron transport chain in cellular respiration. Electron transport chain: o Produces the most ATP o Keeps the reaction from being explosive The electron transport chain produces most of the ATP and keeps the reaction from being explosive like gasoline. 7. Name the three stages of cellular respiration and state the region of the eukaryotic cell where each stage occurs. Glycolysis: o cytoplasm Electron transport Chain o Inner membrane of mitochondria Krebs Cycle: o Mitochondrial matrix Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm. The electron transport chain takes place in the inner membrane of the mitochondria, and the krebs cycle takes place in the mitochondrial matrix. 8. Describe how the carbon skeleton of glucose changes as it proceeds through glycolysis. Glucose changes from a 6 carbon to 2 3-carbon. The smaller molecules are oxidized and rearranged into 2 molecules of pyruvate. 9. Explain why ATP is required for the preparatory steps of glycolysis.

The cell spends it as investment fees and is repayed later with dividends during the energy payoff phase. 10. Identify where substrate-level phosphorylation and the reduction of NAD+ occur in glycolysis. Phosphorylation: o When electrons are released from food o This is when ADP is converted directly into ATP from food Phosphorylation is when electrons are released from food and ADP is converted directly into ATP from food. 11. Describe where pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl CoA, what molecules are produced, and how this process links glycolysis to the citric acid cycle. Pyruvate oxidized: o When it enters the mitochondrial membrane o Acetyl CoA is needed in the Krebs cycle o It is also needed for glycolysis

Pyruvate is oxidized when it enters the mitochondrial membrane and Acetyl CoA is needed in the Krebs cycle. 12. List the products of the citric acid cycle. Explain why it is called a cycle. Products: o NADH o FADH2 o ATP o GTP o CO2 Cycle: o It repeats itself every time more citric acid is needed The citric acid cycle produces NADH, FADH2, ATP, GTP, and CO2. It is called a cycle because these are recycled and repeated over and over again. 13. Describe the point at which glucose is completely oxidized during cellular respiration. Glucose: o Completely oxidized

o During the citric acid cycle Glucose is completely oxidized during the citric acid cycle towards the end. 14. Distinguish between substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation. Substrate-level phosphorylation: Oxidative phosphorylation: 15. In general terms, explain how the exergonic slide of electrons down the electron transport chain is coupled to the endergonic production of ATP by chemiosmosis. Slide: o Electrons go down the chain one by one o Each molecule is more electronegative than the one before it o Hydrogen ions also go with the electrons o This forms a gradient o Gradient powers ATP synthase 16. Explain where and how the respiratory electron transport chain creates a proton gradient. Respiratory electron transport chain: o Proton gradient formed by hydrogen ions going down electron transport chain o In the mitochondrial inner membrane 17. Describe the structure and function of the four subunits of ATP synthase. Rod: o Holds ATP synthase together Knob: o Where reaction takes place Stator: o Helps anchor it down Rotor: o Rotates with H+ going through

Key Words to Construct Concept Maps

acetyl CoA aerobic alcohol fermentation anaerobic ATP synthase beta oxidation

cellular respiration chemiosmosis citric acid cycle cytochrome electron transport chain facultative anaerobe fermentation

glycolysis lactic acid fermentation NAD+ oxidation oxidative phosphorylation

oxidizing agent proton-motive force redox reaction reducing agent reduction substrate-level phosphorylation