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The Egyptian Fellahs Reviewed work(s): Source: The Illustrated Magazine of Art, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1853), pp.

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THE ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE

OF ABT.

29

THE EGYPTIAN
of the valley of the Nile has ever fertility incomparable Tigs the desire for con and ever excited attractions, had peculiar ambition it has been to of those whose in the minds quest, the number of their of empire, and increase extend the bounds their their noble of Egypt, with The people slaves. coimtry, their temples of mineralogy, their treasures abundant harvests, to of their abundance and palaces, have ungrudgingly given their date forests, their the world ; they love their country, time was then Nile reared when young, colossal arcMtecture, with its annual inundations lotus covered with the blue their fields, irrigating ; and the mighty graMte its banks structures

FELLAHS.
to Moslem Arab rulers. ; Turkish ; it has been

in the land of -viceroys have reigned independent 'princes have held sway khaleefehs ; by a governed by Arab and by Circassian of Kurds ; by Turkish dynasty sultans, who or slaves ; it has been annexed in their youth were mamlukes, and governed to the TurMsh in empire, by Turkish pachas, a prey to the mam with nianilukes?and become conjunction the Pharaohs over Egypt lukes Erance alone. The has wrested lily has the govermnent again been wrested French to the Turks. the conquered from the Turks, by the English The history crescent. and the from the of Egypt

has government and so restored French,

AN EGYPTIAN FELLAH.

wMch separated as them from the arid sand plains ; Egypt, Ms is dear, to the Egyptian. fatherland, "The soil of Egypt," were to the Egyptians accustomed " for tiiree months hi the year is white like say, and sparkling pearl ; for three it is green like an emerald ; and for three it is like amber." re yellow Such was its fertility that it was garded as the granary of the world. But the character of the people is essentially They pacific. have no love for the have of arms, and then enemies glory but little experienced in overcoming them, so ill able difficulty are In from predatory themselves incursions. they to defend the year of Arabia became masters 640-41, the hardy shepherds of ; and since that period to be subject it has continued Egypt

them the Egyptians with wMch continued struggle, of Egypt The had very little to do. conquest by in the year under Sultan 1517, rendered Seleem, than it much worse of the labouring the condition population of cultivating had no notion The Turks formerly had been. extreme treated with the land, and, therefore, rigour the agri to labour so unremit cultural classes, whom they compelled state of to the most reduced that they were abject tingly, into four-and-twenty was then divided pro Egypt slavery. jurisdiction vinces, each of wMchwas placed under themilitary of a mamluke beys were subject bey ; and the four-and-twenty a general of a Turkish to the authority governor, pacha, two centuries sultan. after the Nearly by the appointed is one selves have the Turks

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OF ART:

of the authority of Egypt Seleem, by the Sultan conquest by respected each successive pacha was, with few exceptions, the ascendancy, obtained the beys, but the latter-by degrees became and Egypt oligarchy. subject to a military, had been thus enslaved at, labourers who The agricultural for the most the.. of Sultan, Seleem were, the invasion part, Fellahs. of one particular inhabitants district, they were.called in every .part of the country. They They are now to be found The tribes. nomade with united have become neighbouring and likeness the general to observe" cannot fail traveller, and the resemblance wMch characteristics they all possess, and ancient Egyp the modem which may be traced between the same tians. The same soil, the same, sky, the same water, of times, the same alternations acts, the same work at certain the cir in a word, hope and fear, the same sphere of ideas ; exercise of necessity of life entirely cumstances identical, must over beings modified" a powerful influence by the laws of and , creation to the country which they inhabit, according wMch conforms physiognomy, expression, feeling, thought, it would Thus are" surrounded. to the objects by wMch'they of the are the veritable descendants appear that the Eellahs rather than from the Copts, to wMch ancient Egyptians, origin them." The to trace endeavoured been it has sometimes of the ancient and the peculiarities of tliis people, peculiarities are totally dissimilar. The Copts were without people of Egypt, without without commerce, artisans, without agriculturists, and thus continue from generation.to generation government, on the other tribe ; the Egyptians, ?an nomade uncultivated the Copts for all those tilings of which celebrated hand, were ... -. were entirely destitute. and well-pro is tall, vigorous, The Egyptian agriculturist sunken ;Ms features regular, his eyes dark, deeply portioned and full of fire. hi then but remarkably sockets, expressive clear and beautiful, their teeth Their formed, lips are well The then faces long, and terminated by a black curly beard. are thick and full. of and eyebrows The Fellahs moustache are of a copper colour, and thin'and spare in Upper Egypt Li the form and features'of the female then proportions. and perfect to be found a striking resemblance Fellah may as we find their representa of Egypt, the former population on the most ancient monuments. Such as are tion sculptured such are the women of Isis, of modern the statues Egypt. We to two most are thus brought conclusions ; the interesting afforded of the ancient one, the criterion by art for judging the other, corroborating the evidence state of Egyptian genius; wMch the influence the climate of science of a respecting in the court of The artists country has upon its inhabitants. chew after nature the Pharaohs ; nature afforded them models still are the living proofs for their divinities ; and the people

smoke pipe and cup of coffee. The Fellahs being an occasional is a peculiar common to the soil, which of tobacco species and affords an agreeable perfume. prepared by a simple process, and taken without is made The coffee strong, remarkably sugar. is a long robe drawn The national of the Fellahs costume a pah of full at the waist by a girdle of red cloth ; The head is or trousers or white calico. of. blue feet and lower, cotton. The covered with, a turban- of.white women, The dress, of the Fellah part of the legs are naked. is more com-; The head-dress is a long robe of blue or brown. of silk and A handkerchief than that of the men. plicated and covers cotton is attached to the hood, the. lower part of in a long peak ; this the face, hanging down upon the bosom of the eyes, the exception hides the whole of the features with ' a very extraordinary An under effect. and produces covering of and the whole of white cotton descends the forehead, upon together drawers the head-dress with the Egyptian is ornamented pearls, when of is fortunate to possess any, but usually with pieces enough are decorated with and Their wrists :"shiny.metal;large beads, there these women is an ah of coquetry about altogether their oppressed which with is strangely inconsistent condition, and the miserable labour to which they are condemned. cases it is a hard matter for the Fellah to pre In very many His whole serve himself life is a "and family from starvation. " for a bare subsistence, it "circumstances though struggle with can hardly a struggle, for they are so beaten down be called of energy is in that they possess but a small amount ; there a fearful sub a dogged them a stolid indifference, resignation, mission a pipe, and to the tyranny of those who govern ; a few dates or a cup of coffee and a pipe, to soothe them appear tells One English wants.'' traveller, indeed, and'satisfy'their us that a discontented' vented his discontent, and Egyptian that the English Ms idea of liberty, by wishing expressed come over and subvert the Moslem have no would sway?they no trust hi their own energy and power. hope in themselves, are cordial,- patient, The Fellah women are far more industrious than the men, and affectionate ; they and bear all their trials to the harsh government

with submitting tranquil resignation, of the husband One great distinctive with perfect docility* in. misery. these companions subsists between The inequality He eats his scanty meal and cruel. husband is imperious on him as a slave. When he has satis alone, his wife waiting

the artists of the old time repre of the accuracy with which It is, indeed, in the bare outline the forms of nature. sented the case, for some of the prin hi wMch tMs is so evidently faith prevented them .from accurately ciples of their polytheistic the human form ; but it is hi the general character of copying that the case is so. evident. the whole are not remarkable The Fellah women for any great beauty; charm about but there is an indescribable them, a grace and wMch attracts immediate attention. elegance They marry about the age of twenty ; and generally in less than five years are worn down by misery and fatigue, the cares of'a family wants whose and the harsh and cruel they can ill supply, of then husbands; treatment In many of th? Egyptian cities these mothers a child with astride may be seen, sometimes and another in then their shoulders, are arms, while they at the same time to bear a on their compelled heavy burden almost heads destitute of clothing, ; sometimes, lyino- at full streets or public squares, with length in sunny children, per as neglect and as filthy and superstition can naked, fectly make them, playing by their sides. The food of the Fellahs is almost It. entirely vegetable. of a piece of bread, consists and wild cooked, dates, badly a morsel of cheese, a small portion of fish, fruits, occasionally rare intervals and at very a piece of meat. The water of. is their common chink ; .the sole the Nile luxury they possess.

of what she is permitted ' to partake fied his wants, remains. not She must received him, without speak with having and conjugal from her lord. Her obedience love are authority in the government of a better fate. When any change worthy it nearly administration takes place, produces always great are com taxed and enslaved, ; and the people, imposts already to render more assistance. In this case it sometimes pelled a Fellah is unable that the money to furnish happens He strives hard, but cannot his pur "required. accomplish of the government Mm refrac pose ; the officers pronounce and punished with prison, tory, he is lodged in the common man The wife of the unhappy the bastinado. immediately sets about magistrates, be spared. and pleads with his the officers and liberation, as a woman only can plead, that her husband may not only exerts her She but her eloquence, are unavailing, so that if her words she may at last

'

industry, 'to furnish the required and have be able her lord sum, to her. restored .The wretched are to these' people continually e'xp'osed shameful article is taxed, of produce' aiut' outrages. Every the sum is arbitrarily Thus arranged by the pacha himself. are reduced to abject the Fellahs and live oil, irC slavery, worse than the fatalism of the Turk?something far something from..the different of' the martyr ? resignation something a storm,?in from the calm which aj entirely distinct precedes life which'is which knows no energy, only a sort of vegetation, no hope, no and casts them-down-far lower' principle, elevating . than the brutes. . an Egyptian tlie numerous turrets; village, On.approaching the appearance of a grand bazaar; but a nearer view: present shows us that even the houses, of the wealthy, are'but poor and

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are of the common and that the dwellings people ill provided, in The wMch huts. than mud little better raged plague the atten of drawing the means in the year 1838 was Egypt of these habitations, to the condition tion of the government were but their state is and some remedial measures applied, is the shores of the Nile The scenery along still deplorable. the fields of Here and there, however, flat and uninteresting. hi vegetables the gardens abounding grain, the .orange-groves, the locust-tree, the acacia, the stately and flowers, palm, the fact cannot be But of the prospect. relieve the monotony of the agricultural amid "all, the homes that, disguised, are of a most miserable and wretched description. peasantry were AU of introduced which Mehemet The improvements some expense, raised by a and tMs was course attended with of the Fellahs tax imposed on the people. being unable Many to gaol committals the necessary to furnish amount, various were of even ensued, and the sanatory measures productive hito great distress, more evil than good, plunging very many and wretched much increase to the poverty and producing population. are situated hi localities the least are built of of health ; the houses adapted for the preservation renders the whole of the Nile earth ; the annual overflowing are continually Miasmatic vapours neighbourhood unhealthy. villages is most pernicious ; the cemeteries arising, and the atmosphere are over-crowded and ill-arranged ; the tombs badly kept, and no precautionary to prevent measures the spread of adopted are here died of the plague who infection. thousands The and the fatal odour arising from the grave huddled together, deleterious the ah with the most principles. charges yards the same hurtful with The water becomes proper impregnated measure ties ; and in a country where every precautionary is more necessary be adopted?where reform sanatory ?f the agricul whole than hi any other part of the world?the are exposed to the deadly tural population effects of a fetid and wretchedness all the miserywith atmosphere, together can bring Upon them. and oppression which idleness, poverty, should The mud ordinary and straw. and habitations A date-tree the leaves clematis are composed of of the Fellahs forms the centre of the building, The exterior walls are celling. and two or three honeysuckle, ness of the labouring Most of the Fellah

OF ART.

31

"the tionupon good old wray," ridicule every improvement, a supreme and entertain for everything modern. contempt of the Nile, which in their The waters effect great. disorder as to be annual be so governed inundations, might possibly umte rendered far more serviceable than they .are?art might nature hi her irrigating process?but with the pacha regards as signs of mental all such attempts and every alienation, a malice effort is balked with European truly discouraging. the Egyptian he boatman hears of steam-navigation, When " demands of the European, Where, angrily dog, is a steam The than our fathers' boats?" boat, that it should sail better :whiter, divide the year into tMee rural divisions Egyptians and Nile. is very of the fertile country The whole summer, are nearest wMch the river are rather flat; but the-lands are farther than those which remote. TMs. has been Mgher to result from a greater amount of mud deposited supposed . upon the former ; but this, however, cannot be the case, for it are generally is observed that the fields near the river above the reach of the inundation, while those towards the mountains are abundantly the latter yield but one overflowed ; but while are cultivated the whole crop, the former year ; tliroughout and it is the constant that so and frequent watering cultivation of mud raise the soil, not so much considerably by the deposit as by the accumulation and of stubble left by the water, manure. is free from soil tMoughout The cultivable Egypt in parts immediately to the desert. stones, excepting adjacent It almost everywhere abounds with nitre. The annual inundation for one irrigates the land sufficiently ; for care must crop, but not without any labour of the Fellah too be taken to detain the water by means of dams, or it would soon

ever known would rise of the Nile The Mghest subside. to drain off if the waters' were be sufficient allowed scarcely the fields when A very high rise of the the river itself falls. than a very scanty is indeed an event not less calamitous Nile cahnot be rise ; for it overflows the vast tracts of land wMch it washes down many of the mud-built and drained, villages, an awful loss of lives as well as property.* occasions Nearly hi Egypt to .agricultural the whole of the soil wMch is adapted has been ,TMs river. purposes, would, deposited by the lead one to think .that the banks would ultimately perhaps, too Mgh to be subject but it must to the inundation, become be borne hi mind that the bed of the river rises at the same " rises the Nile At Thebes^ time, and hi the same degree. about forty ; at Rosetta, feet; at the Cataract of the mouth, it only rises to the proximity to rise hi of about tMee-and-a-half. The Nile begins height is to say, about the end of June, or the begmnhig of July?that or soon after the summer attains its greatest solstice,?and or sometimes hi the end of September, (but rarely) in height is to say, about or soon after of October,?that the"beginning the first tMee months the autumnal of its equinox. During about owing thirty-six to the it decrease, the # during It slowly. days at its mhiimuni increase, Without than those other half the height it has attained, and six months, it falls more and more or four remains than tMee not longer generally and the same, length of time at its maximum, on the therefore be said to be three months ; it may and nine months ; it often remains gradually falling or diniuMtion at other times increase any apparent loses remaining about

its branches

covered with and th? enclosure, Within palms cast their shadow on the house. are and poultry, the father, mother, beasts of burden, children, the smoking There goes on continually? thronged together. are cooked?there th? family sleep. The there the provisions serve to render the place at all habit only light and air which or rather able are admitted small windows, loopholes through and wife have each a box or made hi the walls. The husband of furniture which and these are the only pieces cupboard, are composed of These boxes deserve any special attention. on the banks of the the wood of the lemon-tree which grows is fastened The Nile. by a sort of latch, and the opening and decorated. is curiously The Fellahs whole carved prize these boxes very highly ; hi them they store all they count as decorated robes, ornaments, &c, valuable, gifts from friends, and hi whiter cheese and dates. in attracts is another The hand-mill attention object wMch the home of the Fellah. of two pieces is composed The mill of stone, one immoveable, ah upright on which having pivot the other stone moves. are generally from made the They remains of old columns. to wMch This is the only purpose, the Fellah the relics of Ms devotes country's glory. by-gone are covered with of these mills the most and curious Many interesting of porous sculptures. earth, these the indeed With are the the exception of certain vases possess only objects which any a Fellah furniture- wMch home

interest, only exhibits. The Fellahs are creatures have no inventive genius. They of habit. are conducted Their oh the pursuits agricultural traditions which to son have been handed from- father down in the old days the method of Egypt. concerning pursued are totally never have Otherwise, they ignorant. They arid know of other examined, about, the systems nothing nations. reject every new They idea, resent every innova

or least elevation, and is subject to of its greatest becomes turbid a little The Nile irregularities.. slight a green and soon after it assumes its rise-is before apparent, than a fortnight. It is not drunk by it retains more Hue, which a supply the people while it is green, there being previously and kept hi cisterns. drawn, The .still bear the husbandmen boats upon the. water?the in the flood?bread seed is still scattered cast irpon the waters are pursued, most primitive methods of agriculture ?the and as if with had ceased the Fellah time it seems people in their condition there is something more But march. a natural It is not alone the for indolence. disposition ' has reduced them to their present state. bias which They as it is tyrannical. as fickle governed by a system * Englishwomen in Egypt. Ms than lazy are .The.

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the whole of that system are discoverable throughout The pacha is a tyrant ; the courtiers of the land. arrangements are tyrants ;Mgh and low are alike subject to the most degrad the of the rich and powerful In the harems ing punishments. acts of women abominable are frequently guilty of the most and lower classes the middle Among cruelty and oppression. and female slaves are often treated with the utmost both wives and the latter The former are often cruelly beaten, brutality. tells us not unfrequently A recent traveller beaten to death. that slave so severely, that a man not long since beat a female

was one of the cruel lords into whose the people should be given over ; and as of Ms as many marks of his cruelty bears perhaps Egypt " has wisdom. writer, itself," says an old English "Egypt is gone ; the land of obliviousness become ; her ancient civility hath vanished her glory, as a phantasma, ; her youthful days She no longer are over, and her face hath become wrinkled. He said, an Egyptian. it was hands foretold in her, and her astronomy is dead the heavens, upon not Memnon resoundeth not her cycles. maketh knowledge Her deities heareth voices. unto the sun, and Nile strange poreth

FELLAH WOMEN. she lingered in great pain for about a week, and then died ; and that another beat one of Ms female slaves till she tlirew on the spot. and was killed herself from the window The are subjected to the most Fellahs cruel treatment, and the and children find harsh and bitter wives of the Fellahs tyrants in husbands and fathers. The wisdom of the Egyptians was in the old time proverbial, but for mental remarkable We they are now inferiority. Ali as a wonderful man ; hear, indeed, of Mehemet frequently and so he was ; but he was a Greek, and not, as is sometimes

have past

her pomp is spoiled, and the ornaments of her departed, serve to shadow forth the prin remain greatness wMch and the ceaseless efHuxion of things." ciple of vicissitude tell us, that while are as destitute Travellers the Egyptians

and reflection as children, of thought not their they have of observation the Egyptian ; that for guides qMckness boys are in all respects to the men. are as The boys superior as the men are for their remarkable for their cleverness " I had," one says, "two of them at Thebes, stupidity. and, in my visits to the ' tombs of the as guides and water kings,'

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than children (not more they were mere carriers, and, though with their acuteness delighted six or ei?ht years old), I was or two of English, and amiableness. They knew only a word to make of Arabic ; yet we managed and I only a few words use of our stock in such a way as to be at no loss for conver and Mohammed Their names were Mohammed? Ali; sation. or the latter of whom, who had only the sMed of a bemoose ' ' or shoes,' and no kefiah, for the covering cloak, no marakub or not I need for reasons I called, Timsa, specify, head,' i never failing, name he joyfully which adopted, crocodile,' when among ! Water-boy Ali Mohammed !' Timsa very good. very good ; guide-boy me to the On the day before leaving Thebes they followed me or Nile boat on the opposite shore, and requested kanjiah * a as Mohammed Ah and Mohammed in book to put them I Timsa, water-boys?guide-boys?very good ;'which,'should he saw me approaching the rest of his companions, the shore, to shout ' Timsa ! Timsa Ana from ness, ruined its

OF ART.

3?

temples,

departed. the old, greatness

its sphynxes, its tombs its pyramids, despoiled, its buried cities from wMch the glory has these objects, the mind reverts to upon Looking old story of the Pharaohs, and contrasts the former sons with of Egypt's the present condition of its

people. The direct taxes on land are about eight shillings per feddan, is somewhat which less than an English acre. But the culti vator can never calculate the full amount of what the exactly will require of him. to supply The Fellah, bare government of life, is often obliged to steal, and convey necessaries secretly as he can of the produce to his hut, as much of the land. He the seed for Ms land, or obtain it as may either himself supply a loan from the government ; but in the latter case he seldom a sufficient a considerable obtains quantity, portion being hands it passes before he stolen by the persons tMough whose receives it. The oppressions which the peasantry of Egypt

A FELLAH DWELLING.

ness

ever write one, I to do. Poor boys ! all tMs acute promised and amiableness will be beaten out of them before they are men. ! I shall see then* pensive faces no more " I have mentioned To this all classes are exposed beating. hi Egypt, beats the and this all classes The master inflict. beats the crew, the husband servant, the reis or captain beats

of the Mamoors and inferior from the dishonesty endure, be scarcely for It would possible officers, are indescribable. taken and live. them to suffer more The pacha has not only but he has of the lands of the private proprietors, possession a considerable of the also thrown into his treasury proportion their institutions, deeming the palm tax upon The to about a hundred thou-. a twelfth is generally sand pounds The income-tax sterling. In the larger or salary. or more income annual of a man's it is levied towns individuals ; hi the villages upon upon of the metro of all the inhabitants The income-tax houses. or about forty thou to eight thousand purses, polis amounts sand pounds sterling. Their of servants, Servants they arc held hi bitter bondage. and charitable of religious incomes accumulated wealth superfluous. trees has been calculated to amount country, wisdom, once beauty, the of pride and truth,?a the world?once the focus immortal of land wMch still boasts

the wife, the parent the children, and the khadee beats beats them all. a man with I have seen a janizary in Cairo strike the belt of his on the mouth till it gushed with blood, korbaj and then kick him as he lay on the ground and crouching like a beast of prey, having neither moaning spirit to resist nor sense to escape." the Greek,1 the Roman, the Persian, the Babylonian, the Turk, have each in turn overrun and subdued the and now it is scarcely possible to sink for humanity country, lower than it has sunk in that land. It is with melan unhappy look upon of its former the monuments choly that we great Vol. I. d Saracen, The

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monuments low in its vast the

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so dark and wretched, pyramids?so of nations, that its glory is gone and notlhng but slavery and darkness remain. Yet altogether, of antiquity on has monuments all others Egypt surpassing the globe. camiot tell when the most of History stupendous them was constructed be no improbable ; and it would pro that they are destined to the end of time. to remain phecy enormous "Those to rank with constructions?assuming on this planet, nature's ancient works and raised as if to defy the powers of man, and the elements, and time to demolish that retired hito the impenetrable dark them, by a generation ness of antiquity on the when done?stand their work was down in scale surface in solemn relationsliip to the subterraneous mansions of death. A shade of mystery rests on the whole economy to wMch all these objects belonged. to tMs our associa Add the region from those memorable transactions tions with and recorded in sacred Mgtory, the imagina phenomena by wMch tion has been, so to speak, permanently located in it, as a field and wonders." crowded with primeval interests the land of Egypt with is full of connected Everything none more so than the present of its condition interest,?and Fellah, or agricultural population.

of home, and to learn the elaborate arts of billiard trammels of ecarte, and the other scientific peculiarities playing, piquet, the French caf?. six months the revolution About before of 1848, I paid a visit to the city of Strasburg. I carried letters of introduc tion to several persons? but I found little benefit from any save one. I certainly cheles, but my desire got hito very pleasant was to learn sometMng of society. classes of the less formal was about my own age, a B-, My new friend, Arthur or two younger at the bar, month ; he had just been received but had not yet left the city where he had completed Ms in very good society, he did he moved education. Though the students. He abandon Ms old acquaintances, pre with many of them, and friendly relations served amicable a great desire and to study their manners and as I expressed me mto then haunts ; and as I am customs, he introduced to speak French generally supposed sufficiently well to deceive a practised ear, 1 got on at once admirably. many During I devoted months hours every day to their many As soon as I had completed my morning quantum society. I became for the time of work, I sallied forth among them. in manners, in habits. hi appearance, behig a student myself, a student, I had never, been really and enough, singularly in general men though a year or two past the age at wMch are so called, I was to be one even in fancy for a delighted several time. for me, as to when all these young It soon became a problem men of them at I always found the greater number studied. a large and popular to first introduction estaminet. My took me to the this place was amusing. My friend M. Arthur I Colonnes?a Milles students. cafe monopolised by the in a large room, so and found myself entered the doorway, dark with smoke, that I could not clearly distinguish objects. I blundered on, however, my friend having politely yielded as yet me the pas, hi search of a seat ; but so indistinct were all objects to me, that crash ! crash ! and here I was brought a waiter, Ms to a sudden stop against upsetting tray, and A merry, tMee glasses. breaking entree. Next thus my signalised seated at a table, and, as the only but not mhiute, a mocking however, laugh, I was not

THE

ECCENTRIC
BY PERCY

STUDENT.
B. ST. JOHN.

in my time. I have travelled much There are few important or America, in Europe, wMch bear not the imprint of places the second, ; and, if during my footsteps and, I hope, longer as I have as much I only peregrinate part of my existence, in wMch I was the memorable born?that of since year of being as great death, I shall run a good chance Napoleon's a traveller as the Wandering I have been to school hi Jew. at Dijon, in Switzerland, in London, and in other are pretty well the same everywhere, at least Schools them so ; but student life is as varied as the military and Germany. A London law of England, uniform France, a French and medical ?tudiant and a German, student, have, Caen, in Paris, places. I found ideas hi common, and remarkable resemblances. however, many in tobacco hi general All ; your indulge largely genuine and Perkins of Barclay British ; youth swallows huge draughts a decoc imbibe burnt brandy, blue wine, and your true Gauls as beer ; while taken tion of quassia, the good-naturedly. German rising generation ingulph huge quantities of a similar liquor. one is, perhaps, Strasburg to study life student which its provincial character, with for legal its young aspirants hi my it far more enhvening, berg. nearly useful

of the most original hi localities in France. Its Germanic style, the fiery and energetic nature of and medical rendered honours, eyes, even than Paris or Heidel of whom 80,000 inhabitants, to be either men, aspiring than can obtain ; far more

the thick remedy against of tobacco took a pipe myself. In five smoke, atmosphere all disagreeable sensation was over, and I could sec mhiutes a in a large room ; in the centre was I found myself clearly. around were small tables, occupied billiard-table, by students, coffee and beer, and playing at cards. all smoking, taking one used a pipe, cigars being things hi Avhich the juve Every savants of France nile that the rarely indulge?the surety a common clay pipe forms one of the great art of blackemng in the life of a student. features until Cards continued day at the estaminet stood for all. about the important thus one, when question being as to who were to pay for the morning's settled, consumption, were seized upon, more beer ordered, more the billiard-tables a pound?and tobacco?at until three Strasburg eightpence One

about The city contains are young one thousand or magistrates doctors, lawyers,

of 1789, and France has, since the revolution results. under a great disadvan since the peace, laboured especially For every lawyer, doctor, magistrate, and civil servant tage. who can possibly gain a living, there are at least ten students the vacant position. Not more than twenty per cent, seeking severe preliminary to qualify of those who go through studies, for the schools which lead to a certain social themselves are received ; and, every year, a host of half-educated position, render a return to a up hi ideas which brought young men, are cast loose upon almost more humble impossible, position instances poor clerks, to become hi many adventurers, society, and too slaves. at all events, are usually seven or hi Strasburg, eight a liberal to make themselves hundred young men, seekhig to be seekhig or rather, who are supposed to do so. position, a firm determination to do then duty to Some go there with then* parents, and society ; others simply to spend themselves, to amuse to be free from the their allowance, themselves, There often caf?-habitu?s, estaminet heroes, and even galley

of nothing was heard but the rolling of balls and the strokes At three the students the players. abandoned the caf?, some some to read, some- to keep an appointment to take a walk, ; but at six all were again at their post, and until twelve o'clock At twelve the caf? rigorously the same scene was presented. inclined for bed, they closed, but a few of the students were to the lodgings in general of mutual and adjourned friends, several more hours in drinking and smoking. consumed One that no money Colonnes, viz., tiling struck me at the Milles All the students was ever paid. had unlimited No credit. how extensive their orders, they were always executed, matter recourse to the parents the proprietor when having any of the young men failed to pay their accoimt. One evening my friend Arthur took me, about seven o'clock, of one of the students-at-law. to the residence I found about a dozen young men assembled. On the table was a vast bowl, a whole loaf of white around which the sugar, containing a huge host was engaged in pouring of brandy. The quantity bowl once filled, the whole mass was scene was The ignited. The singularly picturesque. large half-furnished room, the