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# STAGE 2 PHYSICS Investigations Folio: Practical Investigation 1 Circular Motion

This is a completion practical in which students demonstrate some design skills relating to hypothesising and discussing variables, and choose the masses to be added.

Purpose: To determine the effect of increasing the applied force on the period of an object undergoing uniform circular motion.

Variables: Dependent variable for this experiment is the period as we are measuring time for twenty spins.

## Independent variable for this experiment is the suspended mass as it is changed.

The mass of the rubber stopper is kept constant as the same one is used each time.

The radius is kept constant by marking the position on the fishing line with the alligator clip.

The spinning technique is kept constant by using the same person for each spin.

Results:

Investigation Results tables display all the required data using appropriate symbols and units, however only generally effective formatting as the format is not efficient.

Mass (g)

Time 1 (s)

Time 2 (s)

Time 3 (s)

## Page 1 of 8 SACE Board of South Australia 2010

Stage 2 Physics annotated student response for use from 2011 99815554.doc (October 2010)

Investigation Teacher observation noted generally careful and effective safe manipulation of apparatus, although safety considerations have not been addressed in the report.

## Radius = 0.24 m Mass of stopper = 0.032 kg

Calculations

Mass (g)

Tension (N)
Investigation Results were obtained effectively, although the small variation in the suspended masses makes it difficult to see the trends in the data.

## Page 2 of 8 SACE Board of South Australia 2010

Stage 2 Physics annotated student response for use from 2011 99815554.doc (October 2010)

Application Demonstrates the ability to use generally appropriate physics conventions through the use of correct axes, scale and plotting of points. Labelling of axes is partially completed.

Application Attempts to use physics terms, conventions and formulae through the drawing of labelled vectors and the manipulation of formulae to derive a predicted relationship between tension and period.

## Page 3 of 8 SACE Board of South Australia 2010

Stage 2 Physics annotated student response for use from 2011 99815554.doc (October 2010)

Tension Mg (N)

1/T2 (1/s2)

Analysis and Evaluation Attempts to extract meaning from the data through analysis of data, calculations, and the use of graphs to extract meaning. However the calculations are incomplete, the graphs lack information and, in one case, a line of best fit, and no separate conclusion is presented.

## Page 4 of 8 SACE Board of South Australia 2010

Stage 2 Physics annotated student response for use from 2011 99815554.doc (October 2010)

## Page 5 of 8 SACE Board of South Australia 2010

Stage 2 Physics annotated student response for use from 2011 99815554.doc (October 2010)

Random errors: The level of wind blowing during spinning changes air resistance. Fishing line is deformed and stretched slightly after each spin. The results for this experiment were replicated and an average was drawn minimising the effect of random errors.
Analysis and Evaluation Demonstrates some ability to critically evaluate the procedure through an analysis of some of the causes of random and systematic errors. Makes suggestions about improvements to the procedure to reduce the occurrence and effect of each type of error.

Systematic errors: The weights may be incorrectly calibrated along with rulers used to measure radius. The stopwatches may have been either too fast or too slow. By repeating the experiment with a different set of equipment and drawing results the systematic errors can be neutralised.

To reduce random error, then an environment within a vacuum or somewhere unaffected greatly by air resistance would be ideal for spinning. Using a material that doesnt deform at all would be helpful as well. Or using a material which only deforms a small amount.

To reduce systematic errors in the experiment, maybe use more than one stopwatch to record each time. Then use new weights and new rulers to redo the measurement each time.
Additional comments Teacher observation noted generally constructive individual and collaborative work skills. (Application)

## A review of the work provides evidence of:

some basic knowledge and partial understanding of physics concepts relevant to this topic. The student communicates this knowledge and understanding of physics with some general effectiveness.( Knowledge and Understanding) on balance, use of generally appropriate physics terms, conventions, formulae, and equations with some general effectiveness. (Analysis and Evaluation)

This evidence contributes to an overall decision for the Investigations Folio, demonstrating:
Page 6 of 8 Stage 2 Physics annotated student response for use from 2011 99815554.doc (October 2010) the use appropriate physics terms, conventions, formulae, and equations. (Application) and Board of South of physics concepts. (Knowledge and Understanding) knowledgeSACEunderstanding Australia 2010 ability to communicate knowledge, understanding, and ideas in a variety of forms. (Knowledge and Understanding)

Investigation

## Analysis and Evaluation

Critically and logically analyses and evaluates connections between data, concepts, and issues in physics. Critically and logically evaluates procedures and suggests a range of appropriate improvements. Systematically and perceptively analyses and evaluates data and other evidence to formulate conclusions and make logical and highly relevant predictions.

Application
Applies physics concepts and evidence from investigations to suggest solutions to complex problems in new and familiar contexts. Uses appropriate physics terms, conventions, formulae, and equations highly effectively. Demonstrates initiative in applying constructive and focused individual and collaborative work skills. Applies physics concepts and evidence from investigations to suggest solutions to problems in new and familiar contexts. Uses appropriate physics terms, conventions, formulae, and equations effectively. Applies mostly constructive and focused individual and collaborative work skills.

## Knowledge and Understanding

Consistently demonstrates a deep and broad knowledge and understanding of a range of physics concepts. Uses knowledge of physics perceptively and logically to understand and explain contemporary applications. Uses a variety of formats to communicate knowledge and understanding of physics coherently and highly effectively.

Designs logical, coherent, and detailed physics investigations. Critically and logically selects and consistently and appropriately acknowledges information about physics and issues in physics from a range of sources. Manipulates apparatus and technological tools carefully and highly effectively to implement well-organised safe and ethical investigation procedures. Obtains, records, and displays findings of investigations using appropriate conventions and formats accurately and highly effectively.

Designs well-considered and clear physics investigations. Logically selects and appropriately acknowledges information about physics and issues in physics from different sources. Manipulates apparatus and technological tools carefully and mostly effectively to implement organised safe and ethical work investigation procedures. Obtains, records, and displays findings of investigations using appropriate conventions and formats mostly accurately and effectively.

Clearly and logically analyses and evaluates connections between data, concepts, and issues in physics. Logically evaluates procedures and suggests some appropriate improvements. Uses mostly logical analysis and evaluation of data and other evidence to formulate conclusions and make consistent and relevant predictions. Analyses and evaluates connections between data, concepts, and issues in physics. Evaluates some procedures in physics and suggests some improvements that are generally appropriate. Analyses and evaluates data and other evidence to formulate conclusions and make simple and generally relevant predictions.

Demonstrates some depth and breadth of knowledge and understanding of a range of physics concepts. Uses knowledge of physics logically to understand and explain contemporary applications. Uses a variety of formats to communicate knowledge and understanding of physics coherently and effectively. Demonstrates knowledge and understanding of a general range of physics concepts. Uses knowledge of physics with some logic to understand and explain one or more contemporary applications. Uses different formats to communicate knowledge and understanding of physics with some general effectiveness.

Designs considered and generally clear physics investigations. Selects with some focus, and mostly appropriately acknowledges, information about physics and issues in physics from different sources. Manipulates apparatus and technological tools generally carefully and effectively to implement safe and ethical investigation procedures. Obtains, records, and displays findings of investigations using generally appropriate conventions and formats with some errors but generally accurately and effectively.

Applies physics concepts and evidence from investigations to suggest some solutions to basic problems in new or familiar contexts. Uses generally appropriate physics terms, conventions, formulae, and equations with some general effectiveness. Applies generally constructive individual and collaborative work skills.

Prepares the outline of one or more physics investigations. Selects and may partly acknowledge one or more sources of information about physics or an issue in physics. Uses apparatus and technological tools with inconsistent care and effectiveness and attempts to implement safe and ethical investigation procedures. Obtains, records, and displays findings of investigations using conventions and formats inconsistently, with occasional accuracy and effectiveness.

Describes basic connections between some data, concepts, and issues in physics. For some procedures, identifies improvements that may be made. Attempts to extract meaning from data and other observations and to formulate a conclusion or make a simple prediction that may be relevant.

Applies some evidence to describe some basic problems and identify one or more simple solutions, in familiar contexts. Attempts to use some physics terms, conventions, formulae, and equations that may be appropriate. Attempts individual work inconsistently, and contributes superficially to aspects of collaborative work.

Demonstrates some basic knowledge and partial understanding of physics concepts. Identifies and explains some physics information that is relevant to one or more contemporary applications. Communicates basic information to others using one or more formats.

## Page 7 of 8 SACE Board of South Australia 2010

Stage 2 Physics annotated student response for use from 2011 99815554.doc (October 2010)

Investigation

## Analysis and Evaluation

Acknowledges that connections exist between data, concepts, and/or issues in physics. Acknowledges the need for improvements in one or more procedures. Attempts to organise some limited data or observations.

Application
Identifies a basic problem and attempts to identify a solution in a familiar context. Uses some physics terms or formulae. Shows emerging skills in individual and collaborative work.

## Knowledge and Understanding

Demonstrates some limited recognition and awareness of physics concepts. Shows an emerging understanding that some physics information is relevant to contemporary applications. Attempts to communicate information about physics.

Identifies a simple procedure for a physics investigation. Identifies a source of information about physics or an issue in physics. Attempts to use apparatus and technological tools with limited effectiveness or attention to safe or ethical investigation procedures. Attempts to record and display some descriptive information about an investigation, with limited accuracy or effectiveness.

## Page 8 of 8 SACE Board of South Australia 2010

Stage 2 Physics annotated student response for use from 2011 99815554.doc (October 2010)