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Continuous Evaluation 3

16 Coordination in humans
Class Practice
16.1 What is coordination?
A. 1. (a) receptors
(b) effectors
2. (c) nervous
(d) hormonal
B. (iii) (iv) (vi) (v) (i) (ii)

16.2 The general plan for the nervous system

Consists of
Nervous (a) Central nervous system (b) brain
(c) spinal cord
system
Peripheral nervous system (d) cranial nerves
(e) spinal nerves

16.3 Neurones
(a) Motor neurone

CNS

(b) A – cytoplasm B – nucleus


C – axon/nerve fibre D – myelin sheath
(c) D is made of fat. It prevents the spread of nerve impulses and helps to speed up the rate
of transmission of nerve impulses.
(d) X is an effector, e.g. muscle/gland.

16.4 Protection of central nervous system


1. (a) cranium/skull
(b) vertebral column
2. (c) cerebrospinal fluid
(d) nourishing the neurones
(e) protecting the brain from mechanical injury

16.5 The functions of the main parts of the brain


A. 1. F
2. T
3. F
4. F
5. T
6. T
7. F
B. 1. C
2. B
3. D

16.6 Structure and functions of the spinal cord


16.7 Reflex action
A. 1. A
2. A
B. (a) The stimulus should be applied on the tendon below the knee cap.
(b) The leg would give a little kick.
(c) Stretch receptor neurone X neurone Y thigh muscle.
(d) Yes, because the nerve impulses are also carried to the brain through another
neural pathway.
(e) The person could feel the tap but the leg would not kick immediately.

16.8 What are voluntary actions?

Reflex actions Voluntary actions


(a) Pathway taken by nerve not involving cerebrum involving cerebrum
impulses
(b) Is a receptor involved? yes may not be involved
(c) Control not under control of the will under control of the will
(d) Inborn or not inburn? inborn not inborn
(e) Speed of response faster slower
(f ) Response to the same always the same may be different
stimulus
16.9 Hormonal coordination in humans
16.10 Similarities and differences between hormonal and nervous coordination
A. 1. C
2. C
3. B
B. 1. F
2. F
3. T
4. T
5. T

Exam Practice
A. Multiple Choice Questions
1. C
2. C
3. A
4. B
5. C
6. B
7. B
8. B
9. A
10. B

B. Structured questions
1. (a) A – cerebrum / cerebral cortex, B – cerebellum, C – medulla, D – spinal cord
(b) He would have difficulty in maintaining balance and could not make precise and
accurate movements.
(c) This increases the surface area so that a greater number of brain cells can be
packed into the cerebral cortex.
(d) It controls breathing rate. It controls heart rate.
(e) The brain is enclosed in the cranium of the skull.
It is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid which acts as a cushion to absorb shock.
2. (a)
cross section of spinal cord

grey matter

dorsal root

effector white matter


(biceps muscles) motor neurone
interneurone
pain receptor
sensory neurone

a pin

(b) (i) neurone ‘X’


(ii) motor neurone
(iii) sensory neurone
(c) knee-jerk reflex, blinking, or any other reflexes
3. (a) islets of Langerhans
(b) glucagon
(c) insulin
(d) liver
(e) glycogen
(f) glucose
(g) glucose
(h) glycogen
4. (a) A – thyroid gland B – pancreas/islets of Langerhans
C – adrenal gland D – ovary
(b) They are the pancreas and the ovary.
The pancreas produces pancreatic juice for digestion.
The ovary produces ovum for reproduction.
(c) The hormones are transported by blood in blood vessels.
(d) (i) insulin/glucagon
(ii) Insulin stimulates the liver to change excess glucose into glycogen./ Glucagon
stimulates the liver to change glycogen back to glucose.
C. STS Connections
(a) Atropine and curare
(b) LSD, nicotine and caffeine (Any two)
(c) Atropine inhibits the transmission across the synapse. The nerve impulses produced by
the stimulated light receptors cannot be passed to the iris muscle.
(d) It may lead to drug addiction and even death. It can seriously damage the body,
especially the nervous system.
17 Locomotion in humans
Class Practice
17.1 Why do animals need a skeleton?
17.2 The human skeleton
A. 1. F
2. T
3. F
4. F
B. 1. B
2. A

17.3 General plan and functions of the human skeleton


A. Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton

ribs femur

skull pectoral girdle


sternum knee cap

B. 1. C
A
D
C
B
A
2. F
E
D
B
A
C

17.4 Joints
A. 1. F
2. T
3. F
4. T
5. F
B. 1. D
2. C

17.5 Muscles
1. F
2. T
3. F
4. F
5. F

17.6 Locomotion in humans


A. 1. C
2. C
3. C
4. B
B. (a) A is biceps (or flexor) and B is triceps (or extensor).
(b) B contracts and A relaxes.
(c) The hinge joint at the elbow acts as the fulcrum.
The force created by contraction of biceps acts as the effort.

Exam Practice
A. Multiple Choice Questions
1. B
2. C
3. C
4. C
5. D
6. C
7. A
8. D
9. C
10. B

B. Structured questions
1. (a) ball-and-socket joint
(b) at the shoulder and the hip

(c) Name Function


A synovial fluid acts as a lubricant to reduce friction

B cartilage absorbs shock

C synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid

D ligament connects bones to bones


(d) D
(e) The wearing away of part B exposes the pain receptor which will be stimulated to
cause pain.
(f) The metal joint does not have ligaments, synovial fluid or cartilage.
Blood cells are not produced by the metal joint.
2. (a) X – ball-and-socket joint; Y – hinge joint
(b) Joint X allows movement in three planes / all directions.
Joint Y allows movement in one plane only.
(c) synovial fluid and articular cartilage
(d) (i) They work in pairs but export opposing actions. When one muscle contracts,
the other relaxes.

(ii)

(e) B is the flexor because it bends a limb by its contraction.


(f) I

3. (a) Component of the arm model Structure in human arm


(i) screw A shoulder joint
(ii) screw B elbow joint
(iii) balloon X biceps
(iv) balloon Y triceps
(v) string tendon

(b) The human shoulder allows the upper arm to move in three planes but in the
model it only allows the wooden board to move in one plane.

C. STS Connections
1. (a) Cartilage discs join the vertebrae together and allow a limited degree of bending.
(b) If the feet are close together, the lifter may lose balance easily.
(c) A and B. A is extensor. B is flexor.
(d) Keep the arms and elbows close to the body when lifting. / Do not twist the body.
Bend the knees when lowering the load; do not stoop. (any one) (Or other
reasonable answers)
2. (a) It is a disease with the decrease in the level of minerals, especially calcium, in the
bone tissue.
(b) The female sex hormone level decreases significantly at about 45 years old. The
hormone is important for maintaining bone mass.
(c) The bone is so weak that it cannot support the mass of the upper body.
(d) (i) Calcium is used for making bones.
(ii) Under sunlight, the skin makes vitamin D which can regulate the uptake of
calcium.
(iii) It can strengthen bones.