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II. Menstrual Cycle B. Structures involve 1.

Hypothalamus - The part of the brain that, among many other functions, releases gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF) which regulates the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary gland. 2. Anterior Pituitary gland- A pea-sized gland located at the base of the brain and connected to the hypothalamus. Among many other functions, it produces, stores, and releases FSH and LH. 3. Ovaries- The pair of glands in the female which produce ova (eggs) and the female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone. 4. Uterus- A hollow, muscular organ in the female pelvis in which the fertilized ovum grows and develops during pregnancy. In the absence of fertilization of the ovum, it sheds its lining during menstruation. 5. Cervix- The neck (or entrance) of the uterus. Note: *Vagina- The genital canal in the female, extending from the cervix of the uterus to the vulva. It is the passageway through which babies are born and menstrual fluid flows. *Ovum (plural = ova) egg cell. The female reproductive germ cell that, when fertilized by a male sperm, can develop into a new individual of the same species. *Ovarian follicle- Small sac in the ovary that encloses an ovum. At the beginning of each menstrual cycle, several ova begin to mature. One ovum fully matures and is then released by the dominant ovarian follicle. At birth, each woman has about 600,000 ovarian follicles in each ovary. During a woman's lifetime, only about 400 ova fully mature. The remainder dissolve and are reabsorbed by each ovary. *Corpus luteum- Corpus luteum or yellow body. After ovulation, the dominant ovarian follicle becomes the corpus luteum which produces small amounts of estrogen and large amounts of progesterone.

*Fallopian tubes- Fallopian tubes (also called uterine tubes) is two long, thin tubes connected to the uterus, which provide passage for the ova from the ovaries. It is the place where the sperm meets the ovum and fertilization takes place. *Endometrium The mucus membrane which lines the inner wall of the uterus. III. Prenatal Period A. Fertilization 1. Requirements/ Factor For Fertilization a. Ovulation Its the process in a female's menstrual cycle by which a mature ovarian follicle ruptures and discharges an ovum (also known as an oocyte, female gamete, or casually, an egg). b. Survival rate of mature ovum The ovum is capable of surviving for 24 to 48 hours inside the female genital tract. c. Survival rate of spermatozoon/ sperm cell The sperm is viable for a period of 72 hours in the female genital tract. d. Sperm count The number of spermatozoa in a given amount of ejaculate (typically one milliliter), often used as a gauge of male fertility. A normal sperm count is measured at 20 million sperm or more per ejaculate, with 50 percent motility (swimming ability) and 60 percent normal morphology (shape). e. Copulation/ coitus/ sexual intercourse The act in which a male's penis penetrates a female's vagina for the purposes of sexual pleasure or reproduction.