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A New Control Strategy of a Wind Power Generation and Flywheel Energy Storage Combined System

Jian Wang, Long-yun Kang, and Bing-gang Cao


Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Xian JiaoTong University, Xian, 710049, China wangjianxjtu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

Abstract. The paper analyzes the structure character of a wind power generation and flywheel energy storage combined system, and presents a new control strategy fuzzy neural network (FNN) based on genetic arithmetic (GA) for the nonlinear problem of the control system. The control strategy realizes automatic regulation of direct current (DC) bus voltage in the system, so it stabilizes the DC bus voltage of the system. The experimental results show that the controller has better self-learning and robustness, and realizes the satisfactory operation of the proposed system.

1 Introduction
In recent years, researchers have reported about the studies of the wind power generation and flywheel combined system. Boutot Tobie et.al introduced a low speed flywheel system for wind energy [1]. Ludovic Leclercq et.al proposed a control based on fuzzy logic for a flywheel energy storage system associated with wind and diesel generators [2]. Crdenas Roberto et al. improved the control strategy based on fuzzy logic for enhanced power smoothing in wind energy systems [3][4]. In such systems, wind speed fluctuations produce fluctuations in the generator output voltage. The global scheme of the system under study is shown in Fig.1. An equivalent continuous model of this system is proposed in this paper [5][6]. When the DC bus voltage E dc decreases, the induction machine is controlled to operate as a generator, transforming the inertial energy stored in the flywheel into electrical energy supplied to the DC Bus. When the DC bus voltage E dc increases, the induction machine motors, transferring energy from the DC Bus to the flywheel. With reference to Fig. 1, the control plant is the DC bus voltage against fluctuations in this system. Though the controller with fuzzy logic method could regulate the DC bus voltage of the wind power generation and flywheel combined system, the fuzzy logic rules of the controller built were required a lot of experimental data. To intelligentize the control of the system, this paper proposed a new control strategy of a wind power generation and flywheel combined system. Firstly, the parameters of fuzzy member function were regulated off-line by the GA; secondly, the DC bus voltage of the system was controlled online by the FNN.
J. Wang et al. (Eds.): ISNN 2006, LNCS 3972, pp. 1370 1377, 2006. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

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Fig. 1. Global scheme of the wind power generation and flywheel combined system

2 System Modeling
The energy control system based on vector-controlled induction machine is shown in Fig. 2. In the system, it is based on a standard indirect-rotor-flux-orientated (IRFO) [7] control of the induction machine driving the flywheel [8][9][10]. The current and voltage values are referred to the reference frame aligned to the rotor flux and take DC values in steady state. The torque current reference is derived from the FNN controller based on GA. To obtain a relationship between the DC bus voltage and the current the power balance is used. In Fig. 1, the power balance between the DC bus side and the induction machine side is expressed as

dE E dc (iG i L ) C dc = Ploss + k (Vd i d + Vq i q ) dt

(1)

Where E dc is the DC bus voltage, iG is the output current of wind generation simulator, i L is the current of DC load, Ploss is the inverter and iron power losses, k is the coefficient of the 2-3 axes scaling, Vd and Vq are the dq voltage of the stator respectively, i d and iq are the dq current of the stator respectively, C is the total capacitance of the DC bus. According to the mathematical model of rotor-flux orientation of induction machine, Vd , i d , Vq and iq are given by

Vd = ( R s + Ls p )i d sL s i q Vq = sLs i d + ( R s + Ls p )i q + s Lm r Lr

(2)
(3)

Where Rs and Rr are the stator and rotor resistance respectively, Ls and Lr are the stator and rotor inductance respectively, Lm is the magnetizing inductance, r is the rotor flux, s is the rotational speed of stator, p is the differential operator,

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= 1
as (4)

L2 m . Using (1)-(3), it can be shown that the power balance can be de rived Ls Lr

2 2 L L2 i 1 dE2 1 diq di2 2 2 2 Edc(iG iL) C dc = P + kRs (id + iq ) + m Rriq + r m d iq + Ls + d (4) loss L Lr 2 dt 2 dt dt r

* + Edc

i* q
i* d

+ +

Vd
Vq

Vs
e j V s

Va Vb Vc

Edc

s
id is
e-j

1 * Tr id

ia

ib

sl

iq

is

+ +

Fig. 2. Energy control system based on vector-controlled induction machine

Since the flywheel inertia will be large (the speed dynamics will be slow), and neglecting the variation in the energy stored in Ls , C and Ploss , then the steady-state torque current iq is expressed as
L2 i r m d Lr
2 L 2 Rs + Rr m L r

iq =

r L2 id m L r

2 2 2 4 Rs + Rr Lm Rs id 1 ( Edc (iG iL )) L k r 2 L 2 Rs + Rr m L r

(5)

3 Controller Constructing
The FNN control system based on GA is shown in Fig. 3. The principle of FNN is shown in Fig. 4. The FNN includes one input layer, two hidden layers, and one output layer. The input layer is composed of error e and differential coefficient of error de dt . The output layer is u . The fuzzy variable of e is {N,Z,P}, where N,Z,P are abbreviations for the commonly used names Negative, Zero, Positive. The fuzzy variable of de dt is {NB,NS,Z,PS,PB}, where NB,NS,, are abbreviations for

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the commonly used names Negative Big, Negative Small, and so on. The fuzzy member functions are expressed as x c 2 i ij 6 Aij ( x i ) = exp bj
Where x i is the input variable, cij is the center of the function, b j is the width of the function.

r (t ) e(t ) +

u (t )

y (t )

de dt

Fig. 3. FNN control system based on GA

(2 o11 )

o1(3)

(1 11)

cj , j = 1,2,L,15

x1 (e)

o1(1)
k =3

(1 12)

M
(1 1k )

o
j =1

15

u
( 3) j

o ( 4)

(2 11 )

x2 (de dt )

(1) 2

(2 12 )

k =5

M
( 1k2 )

Fig. 4. Principle scheme of FNN

In Fig. 4, the input layer and first hidden layer correspond to the antecedent part of the fuzzy control rules, and the second hidden layer and output layer correspond to the conclusion part. The input-output relationships of units in the FNN are defined as (1) Input layer:

) (

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J. Wang, L.-y. Kang, and B.-g. Cao

oi(1) = x i (2) First hidden layer:

(i = 1,2)
k = 1,2,3 i = 2 k = 1,2,3,4,5) k = 1,2,3 i = 2 k = 1,2,3,4,5)

(7)

(3) Second hidden layer:


( (2 ( net kl3) = o1k ) o 22) l

(4) Output layer:


15

j =1

o (j3)

To regulate the parameters cij , b j of fuzzy member function by the GA, the optimal problem should be described by the algorithmic language. If there are some data obtained (ei , dei dt , u i ) , 1 i m , the problem is described as when the inputs are

e = ei and de dt = dei dt , the output is ui = u i , searching the optimal parameters cij , b j of fuzzy member function, bringing on

1 min E = 2

(
m i =1

u i u i

Where u i is the demanded output, u i is the output of FNN controller. The optimal parameters are used in the FNN controller. The weight c of FNN is j regulated online by the BP gradient algorithm. The performance index is defined as

Jc =

1 [r (t ) y (t )]2 2

Where r (t ) is the demanded input, y (t ) is the output of control object. Then, the weight c in the FNN is changed as j

c (t + 1) = c (t ) j j

J c j

+ c (t ) j

Where is an adaptive learning rate, is a momentum constant.

) (

o ( 4) = u =

net ( 4)

) (

o (j3)

net (j3)

( j = 1,2, L ,15)

) (

(k = 1,2,3

l = 1,2,3,4,5)

(13)

(14)

(15)

) (
10

( ( oik2) = (net ik2) )

(i = 1

) (
9

( net ik2) = oi(1)

(i = 1

11

12

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4 Experimental Results
The 15 fuzzy control rules as shown in Table 1 are seen as the learning sample. The number of population is 500. The parameters cij , b j are change at [1,1] . The

crossover rate p c is 0.8. The mutation rate p m is 0.07. The number of the generation is 30. The optimal parameters cij , b j of FNN are obtained through 27 generation. The

initial fuzzy member functions of error and differential coefficient of error are shown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 7. The fuzzy member functions of error and differential coefficient of error optimized are shown in Fig. 6 and Fig. 8.
Table 1. Fuzzy function rules

Fig. 5. The initial fuzzy member function of error

Fig. 6. The optimal fuzzy member function of error

Fig. 7. The initial fuzzy member function of differential coefficient of error

Fig. 8. The optimal fuzzy member function of differential coefficient of error

In the paper, induction machine of rating power 550W is used for the actuator of the flywheel energy storage system. PMSM of rating power 2kW and induction motor of rating power 2.2kW are combined for the actuator of the wind generator simulator.

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The demanded DC bus voltage is 120V. The demanded DC load is 1500W. Fig. 9 shows the response of current iG i L and DC bus voltage E dc . Fig. 10 shows the response of DC bus current I dc and DC bus power P . The DC load is disconnected at t = 0.135s and applied at t = 0.625s . When the load is connected, the overshoot of DC bus voltage E dc is 14V. When the load is disconnected, the overshoot of DC bus voltage E dc is 12V. The stable value of the DC bus voltage is 120V. The fluctuations of the DC bus voltage are very small.

Fig. 9. The response of current iG i L and DC bus voltage E dc

Fig. 10. The response of DC bus current I dc and DC bus power P

5 Conclusions
This paper has proposed a novel energy complementary control strategy of a distributed power generation system. The control strategy for regulating the DC bus voltage is performed in an experimental wind flywheel hybrid energy system. The system uses a metal flywheel for power smoothing employing an inverter-fed vectorcontrolled induction machine. The FNN controller based on GA embedded in the system is used for the object of energy complementary control. The experimental results confirmed the satisfactory operation of the proposed system.

References
1. Boutot, T., Chang, L., Luke, D.: A Low Speed Flywheel System For Wind Energy conversion. In: Proceedings of th 2002 IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical & Computer Engineering, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada (2002) 251-256 2. Leclercq, L., Robyns, B., Grave, J.M.: Control Based on Fuzzy Logic of a Flywheel Energy Storage System Associated with Wind and Diesel Generators. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 63 (2003) 271-280 3. Crdenas, R., Pea, R., Asher, G., Clare, J.: Control Strategies for Enhanced Power Smoothing in Wind Energy Systems Using a Flywheel Driven by a Vector-Controlled Induction Machine. IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics 48 (2001) 625-635

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4. Crdenas, R., Pea, R., Asher, G., Clare, J.: Power Smoothing in Wind Generation Systems Using a Sensorless Vector Controlled Induction Machine Driving a Flywheel. IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion 19 (2004) 206-216 5. Marmin, F., Grave, J.M.: Etude de Faisabilit Dun Stabilisateur Cintique de Rseau Pour Gnratrice olienne. In: Proceedings of Innovelect99, Mons, Belgium (1999) 41-46 6. Labrique, F., Buyse, H., Sguier, G., Bausire, R.: Les Convertisseurs de Llectronique de Puissance, Commande et Comportement Dynamique, Lavoisier 1998 7. Leonhard, W.: Control of Electrical Drives. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1985 8. Agaki, H., Sato, H.: Control and Performance of a Double-fed Induction Machine Intended for Flywheel Energy Storage System. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 17 (2002) 109-116 9. Rudell, A. J., Bleij, J. A. M., Freris, L.: A Wind Diesel System with Variable Speed FlyWheel Storage. Wind Eng. 17 (1993) 129-145 10. Iqbal, M.T.: Simulation of a Wind Fuel Cell Hybrid Energy System. Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 511-522