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Drilling Method. Part I—Stress

G. S. Schajer

Weyerhaeuser Technology Center,

Tacoma, WA 98477

Calculation Procedures

Mem. ASME

The Incremental Strain, A verage Stress, Power Series, and Integral methods are ex-

amined as procedures for determining non-uniform residual stress fields using strain

relaxation data from the hole drilling method. Some theoretical shortcomings in the

Incremental Strain and A verage Stress methods are described. It is shown that these

two traditional methods are in fact approximations of the Integral Method.

Theoretical estimates of the errors involved are presented for various stress fields.

Also, some simple transformations of stress and strain variables are introduced so as

to decouple the stress/strain equations and simplify the numerical solution.

Introduction

The hole-drilling method is a popular and widely used need no longer be limiting factors. The Power Series Method

technique for measuring residual stresses. Its popularity stems [9] and the Integral Method [8, 10, 12] both rely on finite ele-

largely from its ease of use in many different applications and ment calculated calibration data, and do not have the

materials, its limited damage to the specimen, and its general theoretical shortcomings of the two traditional methods. This

reliability. A typical application of the hole-drilling method paper describes all four stress calculation procedures and

involves drilling a small shallow hole (depth = diameter) in shows that the Incremental Strain and Average Stress methods

the specimen. This removal of stressed material causes local- are in fact just approximations of the Integral Method. Some

ized stress and strain relaxations around the hole location. The comparative stress calculations are also presented.

strain relaxations are conveniently measured using a specially

designed strain gauge rosette, such as the one shown in Fig. 1. Basic Hole-Drilling Method

During the hole drilling, careful experimental technique is

essential so as to avoid introducing additional localized Many researchers have contributed, and continue to

stresses, particularly in materials which strain harden

appreciably.

Most often, the hole-drilling method is used when the

residual stress field is assumed not to vary with depth below

the surface. In such cases, experimental relaxed strain calibra-

tion data from test specimens with known uniform stress fields

can be used directly [1,2]. For many years, there has also been

a great interest in using the hole drilling method to measure

non-uniform residual stresses. Two stress calculation pro-

cedures, the Incremental Strain Method [3-6] and the Average

Strain Method [7] have been widely adopted. The need to use

experimental calibration data has limited the theoretical scope

of these two stress calculation procedures, and some

theoretical shortcomings have recently been identified [8-11].

Finite element calculation of calibration data opens new

possibilities for improved ways of calculating non-uniform

residual stresses from incremental relaxed strain data. The

possibilities and practicalities of experimental calibrations

3 Strain Gauge

Elements

ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received by the Fig. 1 Strain gauge rosette for the hole-drilling method. Measurements

Materials Division November 4, 1987. Group type 062-RE. After Beaney, 1976 [2J.

Copyright © 1988 by ASME

Downloaded 22 Apr 2011 to 171.67.216.21. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

contribute, to the extensive literature describing the hole- Standard [15] uses a different approach, and specifies nor-

drilling method. A good historical review is included in a re- malization of the hole depth relative to the hole diameter. The

cent paper by Hu [13]. Comprehensive practical information ASTM approach is not used here because the constants a and

and further references are given in the Technical Note [14] b (and A and B) then do not have the properties described

supplied by Measurements Group, Inc., a manufacturer of the above.

specialized strain gauge rosette shown in Fig. 1. This section For a 45 deg rectangular rosette of the type shown in Fig. 1,

summarizes some of the mathematics used to calculate the relationship between the Cartesian stress components and

residual stresses from measured strain relaxations for the the three strain relaxations measured by the strain gauge

uniform stress case. The mathematical method and rosette can be compactly written using matrix notation

nomenclature used here differ somewhat from those conven-

tionally used. This is done in preparation for later

developments for non-uniform stress fields. For uniform A+B 0 A-Bn ' °\ " ei '

stress fields, the calculated results are the same as those from IB A (3)

A f\i = ^2

generally used procedures.

For a linear elastic isotropic material, it may be shown A-B 0 A+B . ff

3 . . £

3 _

theoretically that the following general formula relates the

strain relaxation measured at any of the strain gauges in the where

rosette in Fig. 1 to the principal residual stresses and the angle

ffj ,a3 = normal stress components in directions 1 and 3

relative to the maximum principal stress direction

T13 = shear stress normal to directions 1 and 3

tr =^(ffmax + ff

min)+fi(ffmax-ffmin)COS2a (1) e,,e2,e3 = strain relaxations measured at gauges 1, 2, and

where er = measured strain relaxation 3

amax = maximum principal stress Equations (3) may be decoupled using the following

ffmin = minimum principal stress transformations of stress variables

A,B = calibration constants

a = angle measured counterclockwise from the P=(<7 3 +(T,)/2 e=(ff3-ff,)/2 T=T 13 (4)

maximum principal stress direction to the and of strain variables

axis of the strain gauge p=(ei+ei)/2 q=(e3-el)/2 t= (e 3 +et - 2 e 2 ) / 2 (5)

The two calibration constants A and B depend on the Variables P andp conceptually represent the mean "pressure"

geometry of the strain gauge used, the elastic properties of the of the residual stresses, and their corresponding "volumetric"

material of the specimen, and the radius and depth of the hole. strain relaxations. Similarly, the other four variables concep-

Since the strain gauge geometry is constant when using the tually represent the shear stress and shear strain components.

specialized rosette in Fig. 1, only the specimen elastic proper- With these transformations, the set of simultaneous equations

ties and the hole radius and depth remain as variables. The (3) reduce to three separate equations

dependence on elastic properties can be eliminated in practice

by working in terms of two closely related dimensionless con- a P =Ep/(\ + v) (6)

stants a and b [9], where bQ=Eq (7)

2EA

b = 2EB (2) bT =Et (8)

\ +v

where the dimensionless coefficients a and b have been used

The factors of two are included so that the constants are instead of A and B so as to give a more general solution. The

associated with the mean biaxial and shear stresses, (<rraax + more familiar Cartesian stress components may be recovered

<7min)/2 and (ffmax - a min )/2, respectively. from these equations using

Some simplification can also be achieved with the hole

radius and depth dependencies. It is desirable to normalize «i=P-Q

these two dimensions with respect to the mean radius of the a3=P+Q (9)

strain gauge rosette, rm. When normalized in this way, the

constants a and b (and A and B) for a given normalized hole r13 = r

depth, are very nearly proportional to the square of the hole Finally, the principal stresses can be evaluated very com-

radius. Also, each constant reaches certain limiting values at pactly in terms of the transformed stresses or strains

similar normalized hole depths, irrespective of hole radius.

This allows a unified specification of the hole depth limits for ><V --P±-JQ2 + T1

-'max'^min

stress calculations and for "full" strain relief. The depth V<72 + 1 2

variables used here are: (10)

.a(\ + v) b J

Z = depth from surface, mm

0 = Vi tan ~' (T/Q) = Vi tan - ' (t/q) (11)

z = hole depth, mm

H = Z/rm = nondimensional depth from surface where /3 = angle measured clockwise from gauge 3 to the max-

h =z/rm = nondimensional hole depth imum principal stress direction.

where, for the strain gauge rosette type shown in Fig. 1

rm = 2.57mm for the MM 062-RE gauge Incremental Strain Method

rm =5.15mm for the MM 125-RE gauge

The Incremental Strain Method for estimating non-uniform

Normalization relative to the mean radius of the strain residual stresses was first introduced by Soete and Vancrom-

gauge rosette is in keeping with previous theoretical brugge [3] and further developed by Kelsey [4]. It involves

developments [9] which showed that the sensitivity of the measuring the strain relaxations after successive small in-

method (i.e., the magnitude of the strain relaxations) depends crements of hole depth. The stresses originally existing within

mainly on the hole radius, while the character of the response each hole depth increment are then calculated by assuming

(i.e., the shape of the strain relaxation versus depth curve) that the incremental strain relaxations are wholly due to the

depends mainly on the rosette geometry. The current ASTM stresses that existed within that depth increment. For each

Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology OCTOBER 1988, Vol. 110 / 339

Downloaded 22 Apr 2011 to 171.67.216.21. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

depth increment, separate values of the calibration constants a stress fields with power series variations with depth h, i.e.,

and b (or A and B) must be used. These calibration constants °a(h) = 1, xa(h) = h, 2a(h) = h2, etc. These strain

for each hole depth increment are determined experimentally responses are then used as basis functions in a least-squares

by incremental drilling into a specimen with a known, exter- analysis of the measured strain relaxations. In this way, the

nally applied, uniform stress field. measured strains are decomposed into components corre-

Although widely used, the incremental strain method has a sponding to the power series stress fields. The actual stress

significant theoretical shortcoming. The assumption that the field is then reconstructed by summing the stress fields cor-

incremental strain relaxations measured after making an incre- responding to the individual strain relaxation components.

ment in hole depth are wholly due to the stresses within that The least-squares analysis is best done by applying the "nor-

depth increment is not valid. After the first hole depth incre- mal equations" [16] to each of the transformed strains defined

ment, subsequent strain relaxations combine the effect of the in equation (4). The transformed stresses P(h) are calculated

stresses within the new hold depth increment and the effect of from strains p(h) = (ex{h) + e3 {h))/2 using

the change in hole geometry. The geometrical change allows

further strain relaxations from the stresses within previous E°d(/i)°d(h) E°d(h)'d(h)

i(h) - • o p -

hole depth increments. For this reason, strain relaxations can

continue to grow, even when the new hole depth increment is Lxd(h)°d(h) Vd(h)xd(.h)

i(h) Sp

totally unstressed [8-10].

E ' L°d(h)p(h)

(13)

Average Stress Method l+v x

L c (h)p(h)

In order to overcome the theoretical shortcomings of the In-

cremental Strain Method, Nickola [7] introduced a new stress stress P(h)=°P+xP h (14)

calculation method using the concept of equivalent uniform

stress. The equivalent uniform stress is the uniform stress where °P and 'P are the first two power series components of

within the total hole depth that produces the same total strain the "P" stress field, and E indicates the summation of the

relaxations as the actual non-uniform stress distribution. It is products of the d(h) andp(h) values corresponding to all the

calculated by using the values of the calibration constants a hole depths, h, used for the strain measurements. This calcula-

and b (or A and B) for uniform stress fields with the measured tion is repeated for transformed stresses Q(h) and T(h) using

strain relaxations. strains q{h) and t(h) with coefficients b{h) instead of a (A),

With the Average Stress Method, the equivalent uniform and omitting the factor 1 + v. The Cartesian stress field is

stress is calculated using the strain relaxations measured then recovered using equations (9).

before and after each hole depth increment. It is then assumed

Figures 2 and 3 tabulate the functions °d(h), °b{h), and

that the equivalent uniform stress after a hole depth increment x

d(h), xb(h). These values derive from the finite element

equals the spatial average of the equivalent uniform stress

calculations described in Part II of this paper [17], and are

before the hole depth increment plus the stress within the

more accurate than those previously reported [9]. Only the

increment,

d(h) and b(h) values for uniform and linear stress fields are

cz + Az(z + ^z)=azz + aAzAz (12) given because the hole drilling method is not well adapted to

where <x= equivalent uniform stress within subscript giving accurate values for more than the first two power series

terms for stresses. For the same reason, the maximum depth

region

below the surface is limited to 0.5 /•,„. In Fig. 2, values of

Z = hole depth before increment

°d(h) and °b(h) are tabulated to greater hole depths because

Az = hole depth increment

they correspond to the standard d and b values for a uniform

z + Az = hole depth after increment

stress field.

The stress within the hole depth increment is then determined An advantage of the Power Series Method is that the least-

by solving this equation. squares procedure forms a best fit curve through the measured

The Average Stress Method also has a significant shortcom- strain data. This averaging effect is particularly effective when

ing. It assumes that the equivalent uniform stress equals the strain measurements are made at many hole depth increments.

average stress over the hole depth. This would be true only if A limitation of the method is that it is suitable only for

the stresses at all depths within a given hole depth contribute smoothly varying stress fields.

equally to the strain relaxations measured at the surface. In

practice however, the stresses in the material closer to the sur-

face contribute much more to the surface strain relaxations

than do the stress further from the surface. For this reason, Integral Method

the equivalent uniform stress is actually a weighted average, The use of finite element calculations as a calibration pro-

with a bias towards the stress values closer to the surface. cedure has also made application of the Integral method a

Scaramangas et al. [6] experimentally found that, for a stress practical possibility. Initial developments in this area were

field linearly varying through the hole depth, the equivalent made by Bijak-Zochowski [8], Niku-Lari et al. [10], and

uniform stress equals the actual stress at about one quarter of Flaman and Manning [12]. In the Integral Method, the con-

the hole depth. In contrast, the average stress equals the actual tributions to the total measured strain relaxations of the

stress at one half of the hole depth. stresses at all depths are considered simultaneously. For exam-

ple, let o(H) be the stress at depth H from the surface.

Assume for the present that this stress field is equal biaxial,

Power Series Method i.e., at any given depth from the surface, the stresses are the

The Power Series Method was introduced by Schajer [9] as same in all directions parallel to the surface. In this case the

an approximate, but theoretically acceptable method of same strain relaxations will be measured at each of the strain

calculating non-uniform stress fields from incremental strain gauges in the three-element rosette. The measured strain relax-

data. Finite element calculations are used to compute series of ation e(h), due to drilling a hole of depth h, is the integral of

coefficients °d(h), xd(h), 2d{h) and °b(h), xb(h), 2

b(h), the infinitesimal strain relaxation components from the

corresponding to the strain responses when hole drilling into stresses at all depths in the range 0 < H < h

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Coe fficients a The strain relaxation response, e(h), can be determined ex-

Hole

Hole Radius, r / i perimentally from a sufficiently large number of strain gauge

Depth m

0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50

measurements with gradually increasing hole depths.

ID

However, it is very difficult, if not almost impossible, to deter-

.00 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

.06 -.011 -.015 -.021 -.028 -.033

mine the strain relaxation function A(H, h) experimentally.

. 10 -.027 -.035 -.049 -.063 -.081 This fact has prevented the practical use of this mathematical

.15 -.043 -.059 -.079 -. 102 -. 1,32

. 20 -.058 -.080 -. 107 -. 137 -. 175 approach in the past. However, it is now possible to calculate

.26 -.072 -.099 -.131 -.167 -. 210 A(H, h) using finite element calculations. If the functions

.30 -.084 -. 114 -. 150 -. 190 -. 236

.35 -.093 -. 127 -. 166 -.208 -.256 e{h) and A (H, h) are then known, the unknown stress field

.40 -. 100 -. 135 -. 176 -.221 -.270 o{H) can be determined by solving the integral equation (15).

.45 -. 105 -.142 -. 184 -.230 -.280

.50 -. 108 -. 146 -. 189 -.236 -.286 This solution is assumed to exist and to be unique.

.60 -.112 -. 149 -. 193 -.241 -.290 In practice, the strain relaxation response e(h) is not con-

.70 -. 112 -. 150 -. 193 -.240 -.289 tinuously determined. Only values at n discrete points, cor-

.80 -.111 -.150 -. 190 -.236 -.285

.90 -.108 -.145 -. 187 -.233 -.282 responding to n hole depths after successive increments, h-, =

1 .00 -. 106 -. 141 -. 163 -.228 -.276 1, 2, , , n are known. In this case, an approximate solution

can be achieved using a discrete form of equation (15)

Coe fficients °b

Y, dijO: = e • 1<j<i<n

<j (16)

Hole Hole Radius,

Depth Vm

z/r 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45

„ 0.50 where e, = measured strain relaxation after the z'th hole depth

.00 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 increment

.05 -.021 -.028 -.037 -.048 -.058

. 10 -.050 -.067 -.088 -. Ill -. 140

Oj = equivalent uniform stress within they'th hole depth

. 15 -.082 -.111 -.145 -.181 -.229 increment

.20 -. 115 -.155 -. 201 -.250 -.311

.25 -.147 -.196 -.252 -.312 -.382 ciy = strain relaxation due to a unit stress within incre-

.30 -. 175 -.232 -.297 -.366 -.443 ment j of a hole / increments deep.

.35 -.200 -.264 -.335 -.410 -.492

.40 -.220 -.290 -.367 -.447 -.531 n = total number of hole depth increments

.45 -.237 -.312 -.392 -.476 -.562

.50 -.251 -.329 -.413 -.499 -.587 The relationship between the coefficients dy and the strain

.60 -.271 -.352 -.441 -.530 -.619 relaxation function A (H, h) is

.70 -.282 -.367 -.457 -.546 -.639

.80 -.288 -.376 -.466 -.558 -.648

.90 -.290 -.378 -.471 -.563 -.653 A(H,hi)dH (17)

1.00 -.291 -.379 -.472 -.564 -.654

In matrix notation, equation (16) becomes

aa = Ee/(l + v) (18)

Coe fficlent s a

where for four increments

Hole r IT

Hole Radius, a ro

Depth «11 "i £i

0.30 0.40 0.45 0.50

Z / r

m 0.35

.00 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 a

21 fl

22 a= "2 € = «2 (19)

.05 -.0003 -.0004 -.0005 -.0007 -.0008

.10 -.0012 -.0017 -.0022 -.0029 -.0037

a a a

. 15 -.0029 -.0039 -.0052 -.0066 -.0085 3l 32 33 ^3 ^3

.20 -.0050 -.0068 -.0089 -.0112 -.0140

.25 -.0075 -.0101 -.0130 -.0161 -.0196 a ff 6

.30 -.0100 -.0132 -.0169 -.0206 -.0247 °41 42 #43 #44 _ . 4 . _ 3

.35 -.0123 -.0162 -.0203 -.0248 -.0291

.40 -.0143 -.0186 -.0232 -.0281 -.0325

.45 -.0159 -.0205 -.0254 -.0305 -.0350 The discrete strain relaxation matrix a is lower triangular. If

.50 -.0169 -.0219 -.0269 -.0321 -.0365

the matrix coefficients dy are known, a stepwise approximate

solution for the stress variation with depth can be found by

solving equation (18) using simple forward substitution. The

Coefficient 9 'b

resulting stress values, <jj are the equivalent uniform stresses

Hole Hole ItctUi Utl , ra IT m within each hole depth increment. As previously noted, the

Depth

z/r 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 equivalent uniform stress within a hole depth increment does

„m

not equal the average stress within that increment because of

.00 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000

.05 -.0005 -.0007 -.0009 -.0012 -.0014 the increased sensitivity to the stresses closer to the surface.

. 10 -.0024 -.0032 -.0042 -.0052 -.0065

. 15 -.0058 -.0077 -.0100 -.0123 -.0154 Figure 4 shows a physical interpretation of the coefficients

. 20 -.0105 -.0139 -.0178 -.0218 -.0265 dy of matrix d. The columns of the matrix correspond to the

.25 -.0163 -.0214 -.0270 -.0328 -.0389

.30 -.0226 -.0295 -.0368 -.0442 -.0516 strain relaxations caused by the stresses within a fixed incre-

.35 -.0292 -.0377 -.0466 -.0556 -.0639 ment, for holes of increasing depth. The rows of the matrix

.40 -.0356 -.0457 -.0560 -.0662 -.0753

.45 -.0416 -.0532 -.0647 -.0760 -.0856 correspond to the strain relaxations caused by stresses within

.50 -.0469 -.0599 -.0725 -.0846 -.0947 successive increments of a hole of fixed depth. The combina-

Fig. 3 Coefficients 1

a and 1 b for a linear stress field, 1 o(h) = h tion of all the coefficients in each row corresponds to uniform

stress field over the entire hole depth. Therefore, the row sums

of a equal the strain relaxation coefficients d in equations (2)

and (6) for uniform stress fields in holes of corresponding

e(h)=—^-[' A(H,h)o(H)dH Q<H<h (15) depth. With this in mind, the Incremental Strain and Average

Stress methods can be seen as approximations of the Integral

where A(H, h) is the strain relaxation per unit depth caused Method. The former two procedures seek to estimate the co-

by a unit stress at depth H, when the hole depth is h. The term efficients dy given only the row sums from uniform stress field

(1 + v)/E describes the dependence of the strain relaxations calibrations. In the Incremental Method, all the coefficients in

on material properties. each column are assumed to be the same. In the Average Stress

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bQ =£q (24)

bT =Et (25)

In the equal biaxial stress field example, only equation (23)

was needed because the stresses and strains in equations (24)

i^ar i_# ±n

and (25) were all zero.

To summarize, the stress calculation procedure for non-

uniform stress fields is as follows. First the transformed

strains after each hole depth increment are calculated from the

measured strains using the vector equivalent of equations (5).

Then the transformed stresses within each hole depth incre-

d

ment are determined by solving matrix equations (23), (24),

32 ^33 and (25). Finally, the Cartesian stresses within each increment

are recovered from the transformed stresses using equations

(9). Alternatively, the principal stresses and principal stress

angle can be found from the transformed stresses using equa-

A d a

tions (10) and (11).

U\ %Z 43 44

The incremental stress calculation procedure described by

Fig. 4 Stress loadings corresponding to the coefficients aVj of matrix a Flaman and Manning [12] is mathematically equivalent to that

described here. They work in terms of Cartesian stresses and

strains, and do not decouple their equations. In that case, it is

necessary to solve for all stress components simultaneously,

method, the coefficients in each row are assumed proportional using an enlarged strain relaxation matrix which combines the

to the size of the hole depth increments. Equations (20), (21), elements of both a and b. The matrix is block lower-

and (22) show the a matrices corresponding to each method triangular, where each block is a 3 x 3 submatrix containing

for the case of four equal hole depth increments, Az = 0.1 rm, the elements shown in equation (3). Because of this structure,

and a hole radius r„ = 0.4 rm. the matrix has nine times more coefficients than either a or b,

Incremental Strain Method: and has a much bulkier and less revealing solution.

- .0490

Comparison of Methods

a= .0490 -.0580 (20)

Experimental data from hole-drilling measurements into

.0490 -0.580 -.0433 residual stress fields with steep gradients are not readily

available in the literature. Here, a theoretical example is con-

.0490 -.0580 -.0433 • .0257 sidered, where a hole of radius r„ = 0.4 rm is drilled in four

equal depth increments, Az = 0.1 rm into an equal-biaxial

Average Stress Method: stress field. The theoretical stress field a = 1 - H - 2H2,

where H = Z/rm, is chosen so as to be both non-uniform and

- .0490

nonlinear. The numerical results tabulated in Part II of this

.0535 -.0535 (21) paper are used to compute the corresponding strain

relaxations.

.0501 -0.501 -.0501 Figure 5 shows a comparison of the results of all four stress

calculation methods. Calculations for the Incremental Strain,

..0440 -.0440 -.0440 -.0440 Average Stress, and Integral Methods use the a matrices in

Integral Method:

- .0490

Incremental Strain Method

-.0671 -.0399 (22) Average Stress Method

100 Power Series Method

-.0754 -0.507 .0242 Integral Metiiod

Actual Stress

-.0792 -.0547 .0305 -.0116

^-4.

v;

The numerical values of the coefficients a,-, derive from the

finite element calculations described in Part II of this paper.

For conceptual simplicity, the discussion so far has been

limited to a simple equal biaxial stress field. The in-plane

stresses at a given depth were the same in all directions, and

the three measured relaxed strains were all equal. For the

general case, the three stress components a,, <r3, and T 13 , and

the three strains e,, e2, and e3 vary independently throughout

the hole depth. For calculations with such general non-

uniform stress fields, it is mathematically convenient to work

in terms of incremental transformed stress and strain vectors,

P, Q, T and p, q, t, analogous to the scalar quantities defined

in equations (4) and (5). Equations (6), (7), and (8) then

become

Fig. 5 Comparisons of the results from the four stress calculation

a P =Ep/(l + v) (23) methods

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equations (20), (21), and (22). The Power Series Method methods give satisfactory results. For more steeply varying

calculation uses the coefficients tabulated in Figs. 2 and 3. The stress fields, the Incremental Strain and Average Stress

Integral Method gives a good stepped approximation to the methods become increasingly unreliable, particularly for the

actual stress variation with depth, and the Power Series stresses more remote from the specimen surface.

Method gives a close straight-line fit. The Incremental Strain The simple transformations of stress and strain variables,

and the Average Stress methods give much less satisfactory equations (4) and (5), decouple the stress/strain equations (3).

results. Both of these methods do not work well with stress This greatly simplifies the stress calculations, particularly for

fields that are significantly non-uniform. This is because they non-uniform residual stress fields.

are "calibrated" using uniform stress field data. They main-

tain the correct row sums in their corresponding a matrices,

but the individual coefficients are not correct. Acknowledgments

For smoothly varying stress fields, such as the one il- This work was supported by Weyerhaeuser Company,

lustrated in Fig. 5, the Power Series Method with many small Tacoma, WA, and by Kimura Knife & Saw Mfg. Co. Ltd. and

hole depth increments is probably the best choice. The least- Kanefusa Knife & Saw Co. Ltd., Nagoya, Japan. Their kind

squares procedure used by the Power Series Method tends to support is much appreciated. Sincere thanks are due especially

average out the effects of random measurement errors. This to Dr. Shiro Kimura of Nagoya University, without whose

increases the robustness of the calculation. The Integral help and encouragement this study would not have been possi-

Method is better suited to the case where the residual stress ble. Dr. Will Fohrell and Ms. Sharon Geffen kindly reviewed

field varies abruptly, and where strain relaxations are the manuscript.

measured after only a few hole depth increments. Meticulous

experimental technique using a drilling procedure that does

not introduce additional localized stresses is essential whatever References

stress calculation method is used. Small strain measurement

errors can cause significant variations in calculated stresses, 1 Rendler, N. J., and Vigness, I., "Hole-Drilling Strain-gage Method of

particularly for stresses remote from the surface. This Measuring Residual Stresses," Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 6, No. 12, 1966,

pp. 577-586.

characteristic of the hole drilling method is explored further in 2 Beaney, E. M., "Accurate Measurement of Residual Stress on any Steel

Part II of this paper. Using the Centre Hole Method," Strain, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1976, pp. 99-106.

All calculation methods assume linearity of the specimen 3 Soete, W., and Vancrombrugge, R., " A n Industrial Method for the

Determination of Residual Stresses," Proceedings SESA, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1950,

material. When the residual stresses exceed about 50 percent pp. 17-28.

of the yield stress, small deviations start to occur in the 4 Kelsey, R. A., "Measuring Non-Uniform Residual Stresses by the Hole

measured strain relaxations due to localized yielding at the Drilling Method," Proceedings SESA, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1956, pp. 181-194.

stress concentration created by the presence of the hole [2]. 5 Bathgate, R. G., "Measurement of Non-Uniform Bi-Axial Residual

Stresses by the Hole Drilling Method," Strain, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1968, pp. 20-29.

These strain deviations can have a significant effect on the 6 Scaramangas, A. A., Porter Goff, R. F. D., and Leggatt, R. H., "On the

calculation of non-uniform stresses because of the sensitivity Correction of Residual Stress Measurements Obtained Using the Centre-Hole

to strain measurement errors. Method," Strain, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1982, pp. 88-97.

The calibrated constants for all calculation methods are 7 Nickola, W. E., "Practical Subsurface Residual Stress Evaluation By The

Hole-Drilling Method," Proceedings of the Spring Conference on Experimental

calculated assuming homogeneity of the specimen material. Mechanics, New Orleans, June 3-13, 1986, pp. 47-58. Society for Experimental

Where this is not true, for example with some case-hardened Mechanics.

materials, a decrease in accuracy can be expected. If the depth 8 Bijak-Zochowski, M., " A Semidestructrve Method of Measuring Residual

variations of £"and v are known, specific calibration constants Stresses," VDI-Berichte, Vol. 313, 1978, pp. 469-476.

could be calculated. 9 Schajer, G. S., "Application of Finite Element Calculations to Residual

Stress Measurements," ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND

TECHNOLOGY, Vol. 103, No. 2, 1981, pp. 157-163.

Conclusions 10 Niku-Lari, A., Lu, J., and Flavenot, J. F., "Measurement of Residual-

Stress Distribution by the Incremental Hole-Drilling Method," Experimental

Four calculation procedures are available to determine non- Mechanics, Vol. 25, No. 6, 1985, pp. 175-185.

uniform residual stress fields from incremental strain relaxa- 11 Flaman, M. T., Mills, B. E., and Boag, J. M., "Analysis of Stress-

Variation-With-Depth Measurement Procedures for the Center-Hole Method of

tion data from the hole drilling method. The two traditional Residual Stress Measurement," Experimental Techniques, Vol. 11, No. 6, 1987,

procedures, the Incremental Strain and the Average Stress pp. 35-37.

methods are the simplest to apply because they use experimen- 12 Flaman, M. T., and Manning, B. H., "Determination of Residual Stress

tally measured calibration data. However, they have some Variation with Depth by the Hole-Drilling Method," Experimental Mechanics,

Vol. 25, No. 9, 1985, pp. 205-207.

theoretical shortcomings, and should be avoided if possible. 13 Hu, C. N., "Recent Developments Achieved in China About the Centre

The Power Series Method is suitable for use with smoothly Hole Relaxation Technique for Residual Stress Measurement," Strain, Vol. 22,

varying stress fields. It is relatively robust numerically because No. 3, 1986, pp. 119-126.

the least-squares procedure used tends to smooth out the ef- 14 "Measurement of Residual Stresses by the Hole-Drilling Strain-Gage

fects of random errors in the experimental strain data. The In- Method," Tech Note TN-503-2. Measurements Group, Inc., Raleigh, NC, 1986.

15 "Determining Residual Stresses by the Hole-drilling Strain-Gage

tegral Method is the most general of the four stress calculation Method," ASTM Standard E837-85.

procedures, and is suitable for calculations with irregular 16 Dahlquist, G., Bjork, A . , and Anderson, N., Numerical Methods,

stress fields. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1974, Chapter 4.

17 Schajer, G. S., "Measurement of Non-Uniform Residual Stresses Using

It is shown that the Incremental Strain and Average Stress the Hole-Drilling Method. II. Practical Application of the Integral Method,"

methods are simple approximations of the Integral Method. ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY, published in

For slightly non-uniform stress fields, all stress calculation this issue pp. 344-349.

Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology OCTOBER 1988, Vol. 110 / 343

Downloaded 22 Apr 2011 to 171.67.216.21. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

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