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Precision Farming Using Remote Sensors

What it Indicates?

Whether Variability is There?

Precision Agriculture Based upon Variability (Quantity and Quality)

Precision Agriculture is NOT Technology

It is a Management Philosophy to Respond for the Variability by Using the Advanced Technologies like Information Technology, Remote Sensing Etc. to Make It Possible

Precision Ag?
5 Rs Right thing (input) Right time (when) Right amount/dose (how much) Right place (where) Right manner (way of application)

Precision Agriculture Steps:

1. 2. 3. 4. Determine Variability (Data) Determine Cause (Knowledge) Determine Possible Actions (Intelligence) Determine Economics and Implement Profitable Actions (Wisdom) REPEAT

Major Components of PF
Yield Monitors Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Sensors/Remote Sensors Variable Rate Technology (VRT) Information Technology (Softwares like GIS, ENVI etc. )

Sustainable Agriculture/Ever-green Agriculture

Conservation Agriculture Input: Uniform but Conserved Output: May increase Technology required: Cheaper Environment: Better Precision Agriculture Input: Variable but Optimized Output: Optimal but with better quality Technology Required: Costlier Environment: Better

PF Already at Indian/Punjab Farms

Laser leveling Soil Testing, zone wise Drip irrigation with fertigation (Conservation/Precision Agriculture) Leaf Color Chart(LCC) and Tensiometer Pneumatic Seed Planter May be used as Precision Machinery Knapsack Sprayer Manual Weeder

Soil and Yield Variability

15 major soil characteristics like EC, pH, Organic carbon, Moisture etc. are important for yield variation Top 8 soil depth is most important that described 70-90% of the yield variability

Variability in Soil and Crop Parameters

(Ray et. al. 2008, Space Application Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad)

Large amount of variability even in small fields of around 4 ha area (Punjab and Tamilnadu sites) EC and organic matter are the two most important parameters for zonation Use of remote sensing data for creation of management zone is highly promising technique for precision agriculture

Yield Variability
Agro-metrological zone wise (Singh, 2002)
yield of wheat crop was varying
1764 kg/ha in sub mountain undulating region 4341 kg/ha in western plain region.

Yield of paddy crop was highest in

central plain region : 6736 kg/ha Western plain region : 6471 kg/ha Undulating plain region : 6364 kg/ha.

District wise (Singh and Grover, 2002). Yield of Wheat varied from
2847 kg/ha in Hoshiarpur 3902 kg/ha in Sangrur district

Yield Variability
Block Wise (Thakar Singh, 2006-07)
Rice crop (kg/ha) Gurusar 2006 7500 2007 7100 Wheat Crop (kg/ha) Gurusar 2006 4400 2007 4600 Nurpur 6500 6100

Nurpur 3700 4600

Yield Variability (Field Wise)

Plot no. Plot Area (sq.m.) 1 2 3 4 5 Total 561.34 566.05 478.00 625.54 603.10 2834.03 Yield (kg) 95 137 159 162.4 154.0 707.40 684.93 979.97 1346.31 1051.13 1033.55 1010.18 Yield (kg/acre)

Heterogeneous Fields
Based on which kind of data?
Yield [t/ha]
12 11

Yield maps
0m 100 m 200 m 300 m 400 m


Conductivity [mS/m]




Soil maps
0m 100 m 200 m 300 m 400 m





N-Sensor value (S1)



Crop sensing
0m 100 m 200 m 300 m 400 m





Need of Yield Monitors

In Punjab, the total area under combine harvesting for rice and wheat is 91 % and 82 % respectively Combine harvesters are also used for the harvesting of wheat and rice in the northern part of India It is going to be popularize in for other parts of India specially on custom hiring basis. About 90-95% of total 425 thousands combines operated in India are on custom hiring basis

Trailer mounted yield monitor in the field

Clean grain elevator

Loading auger Display Unit

Main tank Auxiliary tank

Load Cell

Combine mounted batch type yield monitor

Combine Mounted Continous Type Yield Monitor

Display unit Augar

Main Tank Micro Controller Auxiliary tank

Load Cell

RPM Sensor Rear Wheel

Determination of Yield Variability

Yield (kg)

Grid number


Yield kg/acre
Below 1000 1000-1500

40 m

1500-2000 2000-2500 2500 above

Yield Variability Map by Using GIS

Yield kg/acre
Below 1800 1800-2000 2000-2200 2200-2400 Above 2400

Moisture Sensor attached to the bottom of the Elevator

GPS Antenna attached on the combine

Geo-referenced Point Locations for Spatial Mapping

Spectral reflectance characteristics of soils of Gurdaspur clusters

Variation in soil reflectance in samples taken from 2 depths at an observation site

Variation in soil reflectance in samples taken from 5 observation sites in a plot (1 acre)

Variation in soil reflectance in samples taken from 5 plots (1 acre each) at a sites

Variation in soil reflectance taken from 4 sites in a cluster

Reflectance Spectra of Normal and Salt Affected Soils Collected from Different Clusters Selected for Study from of Punjab & Haryana

Signature of Normal Soils

Signature of Saline soils

Spectral Wavelength Range 550-600 nm is Important for detection of Salinity in Soil

SPECTRAL DATA MODELLING- Results Prediction of SOC in soils of the IGP

Calibration set Validation set

N=480 r2= 0.76 RMSE=0.125

N=320 r2= 0.81 RMSEP=0.116 RPD=2.30

Transformation used SGF2-3

CIC Meeting- 6 December 2011


SPECTRAL DATA MODELLING Results Prediction of available K in soils of the IGP

Calibration set Validation set

N=479 r2= 0.75 RMSE=0.252

N=320 r2= 0.78 RMSEP=0.243 RPD=2.13

Transformation used SGF2-3

CIC Meeting- 6 December 2011


Spatial Variability Maps for the Different Soil Parameters by using Arc GIS

Hyper-Spectral Data for the Detection of Rice Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB) Disease

Different Vegetation Indices (VI) at different levels of BLB Infestations


0% 0.116 0.279 0.693 0.001 0.811 4.001 7.496

30 % 0.097 0.330 0.604 0.001 0.795 3.837 6.042

50 % 0.075 0.386 0.597 0.002 0.759 3.196 5.975

60% 0.060 0.370 0.580 0.002 0.720 3.027 5.370

80 % 0.029

p-value 0.0008 0.014

0.466 0.086 0.380 0.001 0.556 0.084 1.953 0.008 3.190 6.24344E11 0.057

Sensors Platforms

Manually Operated Sensors for Real-time N Management Leaf colour charts Chlorophyll meters

Optical sensors
Holland sensor: 59010 and 88010 nm GreenSeeker sensor: 67010 and 78010 nm

Tractor Mounted N-sensor

Working of Tractor Mounted N-sensor

Tractor Having Narrow Width Rear Tyre Mounted With N-sensor scanning the Wheat Crop

On Beds

Having Tramline

Nitrogen Uptake Measured through N-sensor and Geo-referenced on a Google Map

Crop Biomass Through N-sensor

Multi-Spectral Camera Mounted Over Pick Positioner

Integrated Tractor Mounted Sensor Fusion System


Multispectral Camera

Variable rate applicator

GeoPositioning System (GPS)

Mounting of Sensors at Paddy Vehicle


Multispectral camera

N Sensor display Mounting frame

Multi-spectral Image Analysis For Different Dose of N

Recommended Dose of N

0 kg N/ha

160 kg N /ha

Hydraulic fluid flow diagram for the variable rate controller

Variable rate applicator for Granular Fertilizer

LISS III & Quickbird Satellite Images

Poor Spatial Resolution for Field Level Studies

Better Spatial Resolution for Field studies

Severely Saline Soil

Saline Waterlogged

Normal Soil

Moderate Saline Soil

FCC of World View-02 Satellite Image For Field Level Plant and Soil Studies (Selected Cluster in Gurdaspur District)

Band 3

Ban 5

Band 7

Site 1 of Cluster

State of the Art Laboratory in the University

Spectro radiometer (350-2500 nm) Portable Spectro radiometer (300-1000 nm) Multispectral camera Differential GPS Real time Optical N-sensor Optical N-tester Chlorophyll Content Meter Real Time VIS-NIR soil sensor RS software (ENVI ) Arc Info Unscrambler Software Plotter

Start-up the Precision Farming (Field Specific Farming)

Laser leveling of the field (Laser leveler) Yield records for each Kanal or acre Yield records are already measured during Cotton harvesting and tea plucking Soil testing for each field having yield records, to know the reasons for low yield (GIS software) Use of inputs like fertilizer (LCC), insecticide & weedicide with knapsack sprayer as per requirement of the field.

Electrostatic Sprayer Component

Source: ESS MBP 2.5 Manual

Field Demonstration of Electrostatic Sprayer in Presence of Team Members

Equivalent Diameter (in micron) of Spot in Water Sensitive Paper

Electrostatic Sprayer Equivalent Diameter (Micron) Top Top (U) Middle Middle (U) Bottom Bottom (U) 73.91 79.15 79.36 64.23 64.02 52.08 No of Droplets/ 66 57 51 43 45 27 Knapsack Sprayer No of Equivalent Droplets / Diameter (Micron) 1218.57 1376.31 776.67 846.36 1460.74 604.85 7 2 5 2 4 2

Sprayer Performance based on Droplet size in Water Sensitive Paper

Target Deposition (%) by Leaf Wash Method

Spray Drift/Loss
Horizontal loss (Ground Loss) in %

Precision Farming Machinery in Japan

Phytotron is an enclosed research greenhouse used for studying interactions between plants and the atmosphere

Field Server
(Soil Moisture, Temp, Humidity etc. )