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1 SOAP AND DETERGENT

CHEMICAL FOR CONSUMER SOAP


What is soap? Soap is sodium salt or potassium salt of long-chain fatty acids. General formula RCOONa+ or
What is fatty acids?

RCOOK+

R: containing 12 to 18 carbon atoms. It can be saturated or unsaturated. [please refer to fatty acids in carbon compound] The history of soap manufacturing

Soaps can be prepared through saponification. What is saponification? The saponification process is the process of hydrolyzing fats or oil under alkaline conditions.

1 SOAP AND DETERGENT

Therefore, The saponification process involves boiling fats or oils with concentrated sodium hydroxide to produce glycerol and the sodium salts of fatty acids or soaps. General equation

Fats/oils + concentrated alkalis soap + glycerol


What is fat? Fats/oils are natural ester that produce by combination of fatty acid with glycerol. What happen to the fat during saponification? Fats/oils undergoes hydrolysis in alkali condition and then break up to fatty acid and glycerol. Then, hydrolysis will Alkaline fatty acid react with alkali to form sodium salts of fatty acid (soap). Consider this reaction; Fats/oil in concentrated sodium hydroxide Fatty acid + glycerol Fatty acid + alkali/sodium ion sodium salt fatty acid/soap + water Overall: Fats/oil + alkali/sodium ion soap + glycerol

1 SOAP AND DETERGENT

Preparation of soap by saponification


STEP 1: Palm oil and concentrated sodium hydroxide solution

is poured into a beaker, heated, stirred until it boiling [the layer of oil disappear] and cooled.
Glass rod Beaker Palm oil

Wire gauze Bunsen burner

Concentrated sodium hydroxide solution Tripod stand

STEP 2: Water and a few spatulas of sodium chloride was added,

boiled again and cooled. White precipitate is formed and floats on the surface of the mixture. Spatula
Sodium chloride Distilled water Precipitation of soap is float

Mixture of fatty acids, salts and water

Sodium chloride reduces the solubility of soap in water, therefore soap is easily to precipitate and floats.
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1 SOAP AND DETERGENT

STEP 3: Mixture is filtered by filter paper.

Filter paper Residue (soap)

Mixture of fatty acids, salts and water Filter funnel Conical flask

Filtrate

STEP 4: Solid soap is washed with distilled water to remove

excess alkali and salt.

Residue (soap)

Distilled water

Filtrate

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Procedure:
1. 2.

3.

4.

5.

10 cm3 of palm oil is measured with measuring cylinder 10ml and poured into a beaker 250ml. 50 cm3 of concentrated sodium hydroxide solution 5 mol dm3 measured with measuring cylinder 50ml and poured in the beaker. The mixture is heated and stirred with glass rod until its boiling for 5 minutes. Then, the flame is turned off and the mixture is left to cool. 50 cm3 water and a few spatulas of sodium chloride was added to the mixture and boiled again for 5 minutes. Then, the flame is turned off and the mixture is left to cool. [white precipitate is formed and floats]. The mixture is filtered with filter paper, and the residue (soap) is washed by distilled water.

Example:
Palm oil + sodium hydroxide sodium palmitate + glycerol

1 SOAP AND DETERGENT

Soap Sodium palmitate Sodium stearate Sodium oleat

Chemical formula CH3(CH2)14COONa CH3(CH2)16COONa CH3(CH2)CH=CH(CH2)COOK

Potassium soap is usually used for bathing because its more softer and milder than sodium.

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DETERGENT
What is detergent? Detergent is sodium salt for sulphonic acid. Sulphonic acid is an organic acid with chain lengths of 12 to 18 carbon per molecule. Two common detergent; i. Sodium alkyl sulphate R O

O S O

O Na+

ii. Sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate R O S O O Na+

(R represent hydrocarbon chain that contain 12 to 18 carbon)


Types of detergent (a) Anionic detergent (b) Cationic detergent (c) Non-ionic detergent

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Sodium alkyl sulphate & Sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate are anionic detergent. PREPARATION OF SODIUM ALKYL SULPHATE Step 1: Sulphonation

Step 2: Neutralization The alkyl sulphonic acid is neutralized by using sodium hydroxide.

Alkyl sulphonic acid

Sodium hydroxide

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PREPARATION OF SODIUM ALKYLBENZENE SULPHONATE Step 1: Alkylation

Long chain alkene Step 2: Sulphonation

Alkyl benzene

Concentrated sulphuric acid

Step 3: Neutralization

+ NaOH
Sodium hydroxide Sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate [D]

Na+
Water

End Kamal Ariffin


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