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Ferns in Maine

(note photos were taken from various sources and may be copyright protected.)

Ophioglossales
Ophioglossum
Adder's tongues. There is a single listed species for Maine. Ophioglossum pusillum, northern adder's tongue.

Botrychium
Moonworts. There are 10 species listed for Maine. Botrychium lunaria, common moonwort. The sterile leaves are fern-like.

Equisetales
Equisetum
Horsetails. There are 11 species of horse-tails in Maine. Equisetum palustre

Osmundales
Osmunda
Royal Fern. There are three species listed for Maine. They are sometimes called flowering ferns as the fertile leaves are quite different from the sterile and appear as flowers.

Osmunda regalis

Osmunda cinnamomea

Osmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)

Salviniales
Marsileaceae Marsilea
Marsilea quadrifolia, four leaf clover fern.

Salviniaceae - Azolla
Azolla caroliniana

Pteridales
Dryopteridaceae
Dryopteris. There are 14 species. The most known is D. filix-mas, called the male fern. The fronds have an upright habit. The pinnae are longest in the middle. The sori grow in two rows.

Polystichum. There are three species. The most known is P. acrostichoides, the christmas fern.

Dennstaedtiaceae
Pteridium. The dreaded bracken. Look for the three branches.

Dennstaedtia. There is one species, D. punctilobula, the hay-scented fern. It has an upright habit and all of the fronds are usually in aligned towards the light.

Woodsiaceae
Athyrium. The one species present is A. filix-femina, the lady fern. It has a caespitose habit.

Cystopteris. Represented by three species. The most known is C. fragilis.

Woodsia. There are four Woodsia species in Maine. The most known is W. alpina.

Gymnocarpium. These go by the name oak-fern. They are 4-pinnate. There are two species in Maine.

Deparia. One species, D. acrostichoides, the silvery glade fern.

Onocleaceae
Onoclea sensibilis. The sensitive fern. Monotypic. The fertile stems are very different from the infertile stems Infertile stem Fertile stem

Matteuccia. Like, onoclea, monotypic. The sole species being M. struthiopteris.

Pteridaceae
Adiantum. A distinguishing characteristic is the dark, often black, stems and rachises. Two species, A. pedatum and A. aleuticum

A. pedatum

A. aleuticum

Cryptogramma. One species found in Maine, C. stelleri.

Aspleniaceae
Asplenium. This is a huge genus with 100s of species. The variation also appears quite large. There are four species present in Maine.

Asplenium platyneuron

A. rhizophyllum

A. trichomanes

A. trichomanes-ramosum

Thelypteridaceae
Phegopteris. There are two species in Maine, P. connectilis and P. hexagonoptera.

P. connectilis

P. hexagonoptera

Thelypteris. Here there are three species. Two don't seem too popular. New York Fern (Thelypteris noveboracensis) can be differentiated from Osmunda claytoniana because the Thelypteris fronds taper towards the base whereas the Dennstaedtia has a triangular shape with the base fronds being the largest.

Polypodiaceae
Polypodium. There are two species, P. virginianum and P. appalachianum. Wikipedia says P. appalachianum fronds are widest near the bottom whereas P. virginianum are widest in the middle.

P. virginianum

P. appalachianum

Blechnaceae
Woodwardia. Again two species, W. areolata and W. virginica. Below is W. areolata.