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Fatique Failure

Lecture Notes Prepared by H. Orhan YILDIRAN

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Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

LECTURE NOTES- MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements Chapter 3- Fatique failure (Notes from: Chapter 6 in Budynas R.G., Nisbett J.K., Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design, Mc Graw Hill, 8th Edition)

Spring Semester 2007/2008 Halil Orhan YILDIRAN, MS


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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

6-1 Fatigue in Metals In stress-strain testing diagram, the load is applied gradually, to give sufficient time for the strain to fully develop and the specimen is tested to destruction, and so the stresses are applied only once. Testing of this kind is applicable, to what are known as static conditions. Fatique loading conditions produces stresses that vary with time or they fluctuate between different levels. These stresses are called variable, repeated, alternating, or fluctuating stresses. In a fatigue failure; *Maximum stresses of failure are well below the ultimate strength of the material, and quite frequently below the yield strength. *Repeated a very large number of times.

MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

Figure 6-2 Schematics of fatigue fracture surfaces produced in smooth and notched components with round and rectangular cross sections under various loading conditions

MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

Figure 6-2 Schematics of fatigue fracture surfaces(Contnd)

MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

Figure 6-2 Schematics of fatigue fracture surfaces(Contnd)

MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

Figure 6-5 Fatique fracture surface of a connecting rod

MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

Figure 6-6 Fatique fracture surface of a piston rod.

MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

6-4 The Stress Life Method in Fatique Failure analysis To determine the strength of materials under the action of fatigue loads, specimens are subjected to repeated or varying forces of specified magnitudes while the cycles or stress reversals are counted to destruction. The most widely used fatigue-testing device is the R. R. Moore high-speed rotating-beam machine. This machine subjects the specimen to pure bending by means of weights. The specimen, shown in Fig. 69, is very carefully machined and polished.

Figure 6-9 Test specimen geometry for R. R. Moore high-speed rotating-beam machine

MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

The ordinate of the S-N diagram is called the fatigue strength Sf ; stated with the number of cycles N to which this strength corresponds. In the case of the steels, a knee occurs in the graph, and beyond this knee failure will not occur, no matter how great the number of cycles. The strength corresponding to the knee is called the endurance limit Se, or the fatigue limit. The graph of Fig. 610 never does become horizontal for nonferrous metals and alloys.

Figure 610 An S-N diagram plotted from the results of completely reversed axial fatigue tests. Material: UNS G41300 steel, normalized; Sut = 810 Mpa; maximum Sut = 1050 Mpa
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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

6-7 The Endurance Limit The determination of endurance limits by fatigue testing is now routine, though a lengthy procedure. Generally, stress testing is preferred to strain testing for endurance limits. For preliminary and prototype design and for some failure analysis as well, a quick method of estimating endurance limits is needed.

Figure 6-17 Graph of Se vs Sut


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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

For steels, observation of Fig. 617, obtained from simple tensile test and rotating beam test, we will estimate the endurance limit as 0.5Sut for Sut 1400 MPa Se = 700 MPa for Sut > 1400 MPa Notes: *Heat treatment effects Se of steels. Ductile microstructures have higher Se/Sut ratios *Endurance limit for cast iron (polished or machined) are given in the Table A-22. *Aluminum alloys do not have endurance limits. See Table A-22 for fatique strength of some aliminum alloys

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

6-8 Fatique strength (Sf): From Figure 6-10 for low cycles (N=10^3 cycles)

At 10^3 cycles

For steels with HB 500 And for b

Where F is fatique strength coefficient (p.269), f is the fraction of Sut represented by (Sf)10^3 cycles
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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

Figure 6-18 f vs Sut at 10^3 cycles for Se=Se=0.5 Sut

For an actual mechanical component, Se is reduced to Se (see Sec. 69) which is less than 0.5 Sut. For the actual mechanical component, following equation can be written

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

Where a and b are constants

For a completely reversed stress a given, with Sf=a Eq.6-13 becomes

For low cycle fatique (1N10^3 cycles)

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

SAMPLE PROBLEM 6-2 Given a SAE 1050 HR steel, estimate: (a) the rotating-beam endurance limit at 10^6 cycles. (b) the endurance strength of a polished rotating-beam specimen corresponding to 10^4 cycles to failure (c) the expected life of a polished rotating-beam specimen under a completely reversed stress of 385 Mpa.

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

6-9 Endurance Limit Modifying Factors Rotating-beam specimen used in the laboratory to determine endurance limits is prepared very carefully and tested under closely controlled conditions. In general endurance limit of a mechanical or structural member in use, can not match the values obtained in the laboratory. Some differences include; Material: composition, basis of failure, variability Manufacturing: method, heat treatment, fretting corrosion, surface condition, stress concentration Environment: corrosion, temperature, stress state, relaxation times Design: size, shape, life, stress state, stress concentration, speed, fretting, galling Marin equation for modifying endurance limit:

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

*Surface factor ka

Constants a and b are to be found from Table 6-2 Table 6-2 Constants a and b for surface modification factor

SAMPLE PROBLEM 6-3 A steel has a minimum ultimate strength of 520 MPa and a machined surface. Estimate ka.

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

*Size factor kb, For bending and torsion

For axial loading

What are the effects of rotating/non rotating and circular/ and noncircular cross sections? For rotating round sections (Define 95 % stress area A0.95 of a ring with do=d, di=0.95d)

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

For nonrotating solid or hollow rounds

Effective size of a round, corresponding to a nonrotating solid or hollow round.

For a rectangular section of dimensions h b

SAMPLE PROBLEM 6-4 A steel shaft loaded in bending is 32 mm in diameter, abutting a filleted shoulder 38 mm in diameter. The shaft material has a mean ultimate tensile strength of 690 Mpa. Estimate the Marin size factor kb if the shaft is used in (a) A rotating mode. (b) A nonrotating mode

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

Table 6-3 Effective diameter (de) for common nonrotating shapes

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

*Loading factor kc

*Temperature factor kd (kd=ST/SRT)

Table 6-4 Effect of Operating Temperature on the Tensile Strength of Steel.* (ST = tensile strength at operating temperature; SRT = tensile strength at room temperature

SAMPLE PROBLEM 6-5 A SAE 1035 steel has a tensile strength of 490 MPa and is to be used for a part that sees 230C in service. Estimate the Marin temperature modification factor and (Se)230

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

Reliability factor ke Table 6-5 Reliability Factors ke Corresponding to 8 Percent Standard Deviation of the Endurance Limit

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

Miscellaneous effect factor kf Residual stresses ; Generally, if the residual stress in the surface of the part is compression, the endurance limit is improved. Fatigue failures appear to be tensile failures, or at least to be caused by tensile stress, Operations such as shot peening, hammering, and cold rolling build compressive stresses into the surface of the part and improve the endurance limit significantly. Of course, the material must not be worked to exhaustion. Directional characteristics of the operations. Rolled or drawn parts, for example, have an endurance limit in the transverse direction that may be 10 to 20 percent less than the endurance limit in the longitudinal direction. Case-hardened parts may fail at the surface or at the maximum core radius, depending upon the stress gradient. Figure 619 shows the typical triangular stress distribution of a bar under bending or torsion. Also plotted as a heavy line in this figure are the endurance limits Se for the case and core. For this example the endurance limit of the core rules the design because the figure shows that the stress or , whichever applies, at the outer core radius, is appreciably larger than the core endurance limit.
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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

Other factors for miscellaneous effects factor kf *Corrosion:Parts operation in corrosive atmospheres have a lowered fatique resistance. There is no fatique limit. Minimize factors effecting fatique life *Electrolytic plating: Cr, Ni and Cd reduce strength up to 50%. Zinc plating has no effect on fatique strength. *Metal spraying : Reduces up to 14 % *Cyclic frequency: Shorter the life *Frettage corrosion: Microscopic motions of tigthly fitted parts. Depends on material of mating parts, ranges in strength reduction are 24 to 90 %

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

6-10 Stress Concentration and Notch Sensitivity Some materials are not fully sensitive to the presence of irregularities or discontinuities, such as holes, grooves, or notches, as with the case of stress concentration factor Kt (or Kts). So we introduce an another factor Kf, fatique stress concentration factor and

Notch sensitivity q is defined by the equation

Or if we know q ,

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

Figure 6-20 Notch-sensitivity charts for steels and UNS A92024-T wrought aluminum alloys subjected to reversed bending or reversed axial loads

SAMPLE PROBLEM 6-6 A steel shaft in bending has an ultimate strength of 690 MPa and a shoulder with a fillet radius of 3 mm connecting a 32-mm diameter with a 38-mm diameter. Estimate Kf using: Figure 620.
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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

Figure 6-21 Notch-sensitivity curves for materials in reversed torsion.

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

Neuber equation, which is given by the formula below is the bases for Figure 6-21

where a is defined as the Neuber constant and is a material constant. Equating Eqs. (631) and (633) yields the notch sensitivity equation

Notes: *for cast iron take q=0.20 *For steel see Table 6-15 *for simple loading reduce endurance limit or multiply stresses by Kf. For complex loading stresses are multiplied by Kf.

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

SAMPLE PROBLEM 6-9 Figure 622a shows a rotating shaft simply supported in ball bearings at A and D and loaded by a nonrotating force F of 6.8 kN. Using ASTM minimum strengths, estimate the life of the part.

Figure 6-22 (a) Shaft drawing showing all dimensions in millimeters; all fillets 3-mm radius. The shaft rotates and the load is stationary; material is machined from AISI 1050 cold-drawn steel. (b) Bending moment diagram

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

6-11 Fluctuating Stresses Figure 6-23 Stress time relation for sinusoidal fluctuating stress

R=Stress Ratio

A=Amplitude Ratio
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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

6-12 Fatique failure Criteria for Fluctuating Stress

Figure 6-24 Modified Goodman diagram showing all the strengths and the limiting values of all the stress components for a particular midrange stress

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

Figure 6-7 Fatigue diagram showing various criteria of failure.

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

Sodeberg line criterion Eq.

Mod.Goodman criterion Eq.

Gerber criterion Eq.

ASME elliptic criterion Eq.

Langer (yielding) criterion Eq.


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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

For design purposes

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Tables 6-6 to 6-8. First row fatique criterion,second row static Langer criterion, third row intersection of static and fatique criteria

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

SAMPLE PROBLEM 6-10 A 140 mm diameter bar has been machined from an AISI 1050 cold-drawn bar. This part is to withstand a fluctuating tensile load varying from 0 to 170kN. Because of the ends, and the fillet radius, a fatigue stress-concentration factor Kf is 1.85 for 10^6 or larger life. Find Sa and Sm and the factor of safety guarding against fatigue and first-cycle yielding, using (a) the Gerber fatigue line and (b) the ASME-elliptic fatigue line.

Figure 6-28 Principal points A, B, C, and D on the designers diagram drawn for Gerber, Langer, and load line

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

6-13 Torsional fatique strength in Fluctuation stresses In construction of Goodman diagram use

6-14 Combination of loading Models with alternating and midrange components

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MECE 304 Mechanical Machine Elements-Fatique Failure

6-15 Varying Fluctuating stresses: On a part suppose fully reversed 1 act for n1 cycles, 2 act for n2 cycles etc. Than we have

Minors Rule Where ni is the number of cycles of stress level i Ni is the number of cycles to failure at stress level i

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