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Lynn R. Kahle Patricia Kennedy Research on social values has been shown to be beneficial in market segmentation. This article describes the List of Values (LOV), a methodology that may allow comparison and contrast of values. Details of the methodology and recent research using it are described, and data analysis strategies are discussed. their values and enact their lifestyles is supported by hundreds of published correlations, although not many on VALS itself.23 The VALS proponents, it has been said, have convinced the advertising community that value research is important. This contribution is significant. Although philosophers have known about the importance of values at least since the ancient Greeks, and social scientists have known how important values are for at least 50 years, too often business scholars have not recognized how important values are to individuals, to society, and to social change. Given the relationships of values to topics as diverse as regionalism15 and managing

VALS (Values and Lifestyle Segmentation) has contributed much to marketing theory.23 And that is not just a Mark Antony opening. The VALS idea that consumers buy products in part to reflect

Lynn R. Kahle is an Associate Professor of Marketing at the University of Oregon. He earned his Ph.D. in Social Psychology at the University of NebraskaLincoln. He has been a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Michigan's Survey Research Center and a faculty member in Psychology at the University of NebraskaLincoln and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. Kahle has published research in such journals as the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Journal of Consumer Research, Public Opinion Quarterly, and Child Development. Topics of his research include attitudes, values, consumer behavior, and communication. His most recent books are Attitudes and Social Adaptation: A Person-Situation Interaction Approach (Pergamon) and Social Values and Social Change: Adaptation to Life in America (Praeger). He and Donald Tull are completing a text on marketing management, to be published by Macmillan. His organizational affiliations include the American Marketing Association, American Psychological Association, and The Association for Consumer Research. He currently edits The Communicator, the newsletter of APA's Division of Consumer Psychology. Patricia Kennedy is a doctoral student at the University of Oregon. Before entering the doctoral program, she was an executive with an advertising agency in Portland, Oregon. She has published research in Advances in Consumer Research and Current Issues and Research in Advertising.

Vol. 6 No. 3 Summer 1989


employees,7 more marketers ought to attend to the VALS implication that values matter. The importance of social values has not been overlooked entirely by marketing researchers. It has been hypothesized that values directly influence interests, time-use activities, and roles, which in turn influence consumer behaviors. 6 Other authors have discussed the means-end chain of causation in consumer categorization processes, in which products serve as the means for achieving valued ends.8, 25 A variety of specific consumer behaviors have been related to values, such as mass media usage,5 cigarette consumption,7 purchase of computers,20 charitable contributions, and other topics ranging from automobiles to deodorants.22, 23

do consumers purchase anything exclusively for the functional aspects of the product. Rather, they hope to attain some greater benefit from the purchase. Food, for example, is purchased on the basis of certain attributes, such as taste and visual appeal, but the nutritional value is ultimately a crucial aspect of the purchase decision. How that food fits in with a person's lifestyle in part dictates the purchase. For another example, few people purchase a car exclusively for transportation. One current ad describes a vehicle as a mechanism of expressing self-identity, "Who you are," as opposed to the function,"How you get there."

The LOV Methodology

Although research on the List of Values (LOV) is not nearly as well-known among practitioners as VALS research, the basic LOV methodology has considerable utility and is worth using in many contexts, including business contexts. The remainder of this article will explain how to use the List of Values for marketing research and segmentation.

The function of marketing is to help consumers fulfill their values.

The underlying concept in this marketing research on values is the principle of abstraction, which states that tying something specific to an abstract concept imbues the something specific with attributes of the concept. In particular, tying a value to a product may imbue the product with some of the positive affect associated with the value. For example, if a company could tie a specific remedy that is effective against colds to an abstract value for conscientious motherhood, doing so would increase the attractiveness of the cold remedy to people who value motherhood, especially when they want a cold remedy for their child. Political leaders have long practiced a form of this principle. For example, a political leader addressing a hostile Parent-Teacher Association about his support of gay rights would probably talk a lot about abstract topics such as liberty and justice for all but would ignore more specific concerns. Humans seek to develop abstract classifications of things in order to facilitate information processing,11 and communication means that aid such a process should be more effective, all other things being equal. Values are one of the most abstract forms of individual knowledge; therefore, tying a specific product, service, or idea to an abstract value should increase the ease with which the specific item can be stored and remembered. Stated alternatively, the function of marketing is to help consumers fulfill their values.14 Rarely

Measuring Values
The List of Values (LOV)4, 10, 16 could serve as a key value measurement instrument in the study of consumer similarities and differences. In the first study in which it was used, respondents to this 1976 LOV study10, 26 (2,264 noninstitutionalized adults selected from a probability sample of the co-terminous United States) were asked, among other things, to select their first and second most important values from a list of nine. This list was culled from Rokeach's24 list of eighteen terminal values, Maslow's 19 hierarchy of values, and various other contemporaries in value research. The nine values are Self-respect, Sense of Accomplishment, Being Well Respected, Security, Warm Relationships with Others, Sense of Belonging, Fun and Enjoyment in Life, Self-Fulfillment, and Excitement. Because few respondents selected Excitement as their first choice, this category has usually been collapsed into Fun and Enjoyment. (Individuals who did rank Excitement first most often selected Fun and Enjoyment second.) Table 1 gives the percentage of American respondents who selected each value as most important in 1976 and 198612, 18 and offers a brief description of each value segment.4, 10, 12 Table 2 presents a form in which the question could be asked in a typical English language survey.9


Table 1: Brief Description of the Segments

1. Self-respect is the "all American" value in that it was selected by the largest number of Americans and it has the least distinctive endorsers. People from all age and income groups selected this value as most important. About 21.1% of Americans selected it in 1976, 23.0% in 1986. 2. Security is a deficit value, endorsed by people who lack economic and psychological security. People who endorse it tend to report anxiety, trouble sleeping, dizziness, and shortness of breath. In terms of media preferences they like 20-20 and Love Boat. Blacks, Southerners, and retired people also select this value frequently. It was selected by 20.6% of Americans in 1976, 16.5% in 1986. 3. Warm Relationships with Others is an excess value, endorsed by people, especially women, who have a lot of friends and who are friendly. Midwesterners rate this value highly. Endorsers include divorced men, Lutherans, frequent churchgoers, housewives, and clerical workers. People here experience nightmares but have good social support networks and families. The percentage has risen from 16.2% to 19.9%. 4. Likewise, people who endorse Sense of Accomplishment have accomplished a lot. These people tend to be successful middle-aged men. They often have good jobs and high incomes. They tend to be well-educated managers and professionals. They may be Jewish or Methodist, but they often do not go to synagogue or church. These people like conspicuous consumption but dislike any television watching that interferes with accomplishment, especially Love Boat and Three's Company. About 11.4% endorsed it earlier, but more recently it grew to 15.9%. The percentage is higher in the Northeast. 5. Peoplemostly "young urban professionals"who endorse Self-fulfillment are relatively well fulfilled economically, educationally, and emotionally. They are healthy and self-confident. They resent excessive demands from their families that distract from self-fulfillment. They like movies more than television. Overall 9.6% of Americans subscribed to this value earlier, but it fell more recently to 6.5%. The percentage is higher in the Pacific states. 6. Being Well-respected is selected by the Rodney Dangerfields of the world. They are often over 50 and have little occupational prestige, yet they love their jobs. This value is endorsed by farmers, craftsmen, operators, divorced women, and retired people. They have low income and lack formal education. It is interesting to contrast Self-respect, which one can achieve alone, with being well-respected, which requires the cooperation of others. People who value self-respect are much better adjusted, according to our measures. Psychologically, people who value being well-respected tend to be external, depressed, unhappy, pessimistic, and unhealthy. In terms of media they like Dallas, Magnum PI, and National Enquirer. For fun they like to bowl. The 1976 and 1986 percentages are, respectively, 8.8% and 5.9%. 7. Sense of Belonging also requires the help of others. Like Warm Relationships with Others, it is a social value selected by women. However, it is less reciprocal and seems to result in greater dependency. It is a homeand family-oriented value particularly popular in the Mountain states. Endorsers tend to be housewives and clerical workers. Although they tend to have only a high school education, they tend to be middle-income. They are happy in family roles, although physically they experience dizziness, anxiety, nervousness, and headaches. They go to church weekly, usually as Presbyterians, Lutherans, or Catholics. They like to read TV Guide and Reader's Digest. The endorsement rate was 7.9% and has fallen to 5.1%. 8. You might think that Fun and Enjoyment in Life would isolate the hedonists in America, but the cliche that best describes these people is, "Stop and smell the roses." Young people who appreciate life especially like this value. They are often unemployed or work in sales or labor, but they are optimistic and well adjusted. They dislike family roles, religion, and children, however. They do like sports and entertainment, and they read Playboy, Rolling Stone, and Cosmopolitan. About 4.5% of Americans endorsed this value in 1976, and the percentage has risen to 7.2%. The rise has been especially dramatic among young males.


Table 2 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Format for t h e List of Values The following is a list of things that some people look for or want out of life. Please study the list carefully and then rate each thing on how important it is in your daily life, where 1 = not at all important, and 9 = extremely important. Very Unimportant 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Sense of Belonging Excitement Warm Relationships with Others Self-Fulfillment Being Well Respected Fun and Enjoyment of Life Security Self-Respect A Sense of Accomplishment Very Important

123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789

Now reread the items and circle the one thing that is most important to you in your daily life.

Values in principle provide more information than mere demographics. Examples of this fact can be found from the information gained in the LOV study. Consider the demographically similar groups of Sense of Accomplishment and Selffulfillment. Both share demographic similarity in educational, economic, psychological, and social prosperity. But raising a child has a quite different meaning for these two groups. Taking a child from infancy to adulthood is a major accomplishment, but it does not necessarily contribute to selffulfillment. For another example, women favor two values more than men: Sense of Belonging and Warm Relationships with Others. Yet the psychological benefits of a reciprocal, sharing lifestyle, characteristic of women who endorse warm relationships with others, contrasts sharply with the life of the demographically similar women who submerge themselves into being possessions of their family, "belonging" to it. Women who endorse Sense of Belonging seem relatively more neurotic and frustrated.10

illuminate the nature of LOV by contrasting it with alternatives. Values and Lifestyle Segmentation (VALS). SRI International sponsors a values and lifestyle segmentation program known as VALS.19 Respondents are presented with a set of about 30 demographic and attitudinal questions. On the basis of their responses consumers are classified into nine lifestyle groups. Although VALS has shown some utility, a previous study reveals that it relies heavily on demographic variables and does not relate to consumer behaviors as closely as do other systems, such as LOV.16 In this study the LOV related more closely to consumer behavior in virtually all cases. This result occurred even though we used criterion items that had been used to validate VALS and even though we nominalized LOV (rather than using it as a more powerful interval scale) to make it comparable to VALS, which uses nominal level data. VALS relies excessively on demographics, and many of the specific questions in VALS have cultural bias aimed toward the United States. For example, questions about corporate and governmental policy have different implications in Europe and in the United States.2, 3 A VALS question about the Bible may confuse respondents in Far Eastern countries where the Judeo-Christian traditions

Alternative Methods of Measuring Values

Two other popular methods of measuring values seem less appropriate for research on markets. Because these methods have been frequently discussed, we will mention our reasons for preferring the LOV. This discussion will further


are not as common as in the United States. LOV is far easier to administer and is not tied to proprietary data analysis algorithms that effectively block independent validation of the system.15 Until the proprietary system is made public, little information will be produced from independent scholars to evaluate the validity of VALS. In advertising, a major advantage of LOV over VALS is that the exact phrase from a survey can go into an ad. Some agencies may not desire to follow this process, but in principle it certainly is possible to use a phrase such as "Fun and Enjoyment in Life" in an advertisement.

People often purchase products for the benefit of value fulfillment.

The principle of stimulus similarity implies that researchers ought to measure something quite similar to what they want to use or predict. (If you want to predict sales of Crest toothpaste, measure intention toward buying Crest, not attitudes toward health.) With LOV, a phrase like "selfrespect" can go right from survey to ad, but with VALS the path is more indirect. To apply VALS, the advertiser takes disagreement with "It would be best for the future of this country if the United States continued to take an active part in world affairs" as evidence for an I-am-me orientation, he or she tells the creative staff at the advertising agency to develop an I-am-me ad, and what the client receives is quite different from foreign policy in many cases. Rokeach Value Survey (RVS). Rokeach24 asks people to rank 18 instrumental values and 18 terminal values. Although the tradition Rokeach has initiated is admirable, the LOV relates more closely to people's daily lives than RVS. For example, most people rank highly the RVS value of "world peace," but few people take active steps in any given day to reflect that value, especially in their consumer roles. Three of the four LOV items that modify RVS items are rated as more influential in people's daily lives.4 The exception is excitement, which usually is collapsed into Fun and Enjoyment in Life. The RVS, but not the LOV, has items that fewer than half of the respondents in one of our surveys believed influence their daily life.4 The LOV also is simpler to administer, because it has fewer

values for respondents to assess. The "magic number of 7 (+/-2)"which is how many items the normal human adult can hold in short-term memoryimplies that the 9-item LOV is viable for storage in short-term memory but that the RVS exceeds people's normal short-term memory capacity. Rokeach24 deals with this criticism by noting that, although the first discrimination requires 18 choices, the second requires only 17, the third 16, and so on, making the "average" task a discrimination from among 9 items. If you must leap across a series of crevices and your leaping ability is 9 feet, the fact that on average the crevice openings are 9 feet wide will provide little comfort to your next of kin when they realize that some openings are 6 feet and some 12 feet. The LOV also avoids or lessens several other methodological problems related to the RVS,4 such as the tendency to respond to items in a socially desirable rather than a candid manner. Most notably, because VALS uses nominal analyses and the RVS uses ordinal analyses, both violate a major requirement of the most powerful and advanced techniques of causal analysesthat variables be measured at least at the interval level. Although many interesting inferences can be made using nonparametric techniques, parametric statistical procedures are generally the preferred means of analysis because the parametric techniques capitalize on additional information. LOV makes it possible to gather data that will circumvent this problem by allowing the potential to use interval-level rating scales.

Data Analysis Approaches To LOV Research

Nominal Analysis
The earliest analysis on the LOV used nominallevel measures of values in contingency table analysis, such as tables evaluated with chi square and log-linear analyses.10 That study addressed such diverse issues as the interaction of values with work and leisure, marriage and parenting, mental health and well-being, personality factors, and demographics. Nominal-level techniques may not be the most powerful, but when one examines survey data with large samples, power often is not a major concern. These analyses can identify instances in which values are associated with other variables that have been measured, thereby increasing our understanding of values.


When values are used to predict interval-level criterion variables, it is also possible to use the values as levels of a factor in analysis of variance, if sample size is sufficient.

Regression Analysis
Since the first study, we have developed several approaches to measurement that differ from the previous national LOV study10 in several ways. The most notable methodological difference is the measurement of values on both a nominal and an assumed interval level, in which an equal interval is assumed between numbers on the rating scale, rather than only on a nominal level as in the earlier study (i.e.,"Rate the importance of each of these values on a scale from 1 to 9" as well as the earlier study's "Which of these values is most important to you?"). This refinement in measurement allows us to conduct analyses with statistics that assume interval-level data, such as are used in constructing causal models, because interval data, but not nominal data, satisfy the minimal assumptions for the most powerful and advanced of these analysis techniques. We then are able to utilize the important methodological advances from the past two decades by collecting the data in a suitable way.

in place of regression. A disadvantage of correlational analyses is that they often assume linearity, which may not be characteristic of values in some contexts; however, for data in which the dependent variable is measured on an interval scale and the independent variable on a nominal or ordinal scale, the eta coefficient can be used. This measure does not assume a linear relationship between the variables.

Causal Analysis
Causal modeling has numerous advantages, including isolation of the separate contributions to the effects made by each predictor variable, measurement of both the direct and indirect effects that one variable has upon another, and decomposition of the correlation between two variables into a sum of simple and compound paths.1 Scholars can examine the causal processes underlying the observed relationships among variables and estimate the relative importance of alternative paths of influence, thus developing clearer and more precise theory about relations among predictor variables. This technique has recently been applied to studying values.9 The items from the LOV were factor analyzed and the three resultant factors, or segments, were used as exogenous variables in a LISREL model designed to predict who would shop at a natural food store. It was found that values "cause" attitudes, which in turn "cause" shopping behavior.9

Values in principle provide more information than mere demographics.

Perhaps the most straightforward way to use LOV data is with correlational or regression analysis.4, 16 For example, one can use each LOV scale (e.g., Self-respect or Sense of Accomplishment rated on a nine-point scale) as a predictor for some criterion, such as purchase intention or attitude toward a product. With only nominal data (e.g., "Which one value is most important to you?") it is still possible to use dummy variables to conduct an essentially similar, although less powerful, analysis. The results can help determine whether and how values relate to the criterion. An advantage of this type of analysis is that one can use values in conjunction with other types of data, such as attitudinal and demographic data, which most scholars believe ought to be used together with values.13 Once key predictor values have been identified, segmentation efforts can focus on those values. With categorical dependent variables, discriminant analysis could be used

Segmentation Analysis
All of the above-mentioned techniques could be used in segmentation analyses. The LOV is one variable among many that one would want to consider in market segmentation; Value segmentation is in fact a special case of needs/benefit segmentation. People often purchase products for the benefit of value fulfillment. But even if values seemingly have little relationship to a product category, any segmentation study ought to consider a variety of ways in which segmentation could divide up people with different marketing needs. Mixed metaphor marketing is probably the most effective approach to segmentation. In mixed metaphor marketing the segments are based on optimal divisions of the marketplace, even if one needs diverse types of variables to complete the classification, and even if the results lack theoretical elegance. For example, consider the sales of a burglar alarm. One might want to define


one segment based on values (people who value security), one segment based on income (upperincome people), and one segment based on demographic combinations that increase probability of victimization (people who live in middle-class neighborhoods near high-crime neighborhoods).

Managerial Implications
The LOV will not always be the optimal segmentation instrument, but it will often help one to understand the nature of the consumers one wants to reach. Most marketing efforts will be more effective if the role of values is considered, and LOV provides one effective mechanism for assessing this role. The meanings and motives behind many consumer activities depend upon values. For example, people who value sense of belonging may donate money to a medical charity because they want to protect their family, whereas people who value security may donate for selfprotection. Without considering the function of values in a certain context, one may be missing an important influence on behavior. Marketing managers have found that in order to serve a diverse market profitably, they must segment that market on the basis of information about the individuals who make up the market. The more complete and accurate the available information, the more effectively the marketing manager can segment the market and reach those individuals who are most likely to be interested in the product, service, or idea being offered. Adding value and motivational information to information on demographics can greatly enhance the effectiveness of any segmentation effort, from the product development phase to the end of a product's life cycle. Managers can come to understand where a product, service, or idea fits into a person's lifestyle and guiding principles. The marketing manager must also ascertain whether the product, service, or idea will achieve the desired position in each market segment. The

marketer must discover how the product, service, or idea is perceived in the marketplace. Information on consumers' values can be important in this respect, because how a product is perceived can differ as a function of these values. For example, for segmenting the market effectively and positioning the product, service, or idea, information on consumer values is quite useful. Tying a product to a value can enhance a product's worth. Pricing policy, as well as distribution strategy, must be consistent with product position; therefore these decision areas also could be more effectively developed on the basis of information on consumers' values. For example, people who value security may desire low prices in order to save money for future problems, and people who value accomplishment may prefer high prices and conspicuous consumption. Marketing managers must also develop a promotion strategy. In all areas of promotion, such as advertising, package design, publicity, sales promotions, and sales force activities, value information can be incorporated. Many media vehicles have inherent connections to values. An aspect of using the List of Values (LOV) in gathering information on values of consumers is that the exact phrase used on the questionnaire can then be used in promotional areas. For example, if the target segment is found to value security, then the word "security" can be used in advertisements and packaging, or the sales force can use the word in their presentations. This aspect of using LOV is a significant improvement over previous values research instruments. Value information is an important factor in all aspects of developing an effective and consistent marketing strategy and, along with demographic information, can give the marketing manager a significant advantage in both the domestic and the international marketplace. Value change discovered from environmental scanning can forewarn of new trends.

End Notes
1. Asher, H. B., Causal Modeling. Beverly Hills: Sage 1976. 2. Beatty, Sharon E., Pamela Homer, and Lynn R. Kahle, "The Problems with Using VALS Internationally: Evidence from an Application of the Empirical Mirror Algorithm," in Michael Houston, ed., Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 15. Ann Arbor: Association for Consumer Research, in press.


3. Beatty, Sharon E., Lynn R. Kahle, Pamela Homer, and Anders Giltvedt, "A Cross-Cultural Exploration of the VALS Typology," in Robert E. Pitts, Jagdish Sheth, and Umberto Valencia, eds., Cultural and Subcultural Influences in Consumer Behavior, forthcoming. 4. Beatty, Sharon E., Lynn R. Kahle, Pamela Homer, and Shekhar Misra, "Alternative Measurement Approaches to Consumer Values: The List of Values and the Rokeach Value Survey," Psychology and Marketing, 2 (Fall 1985), 181-200. 5. Becker, Boris W., and Patrick E. Connor, "Personal Values of Heavy Mass Media Users," Journal of Advertising Research, 21, 1981, 37-43. 6. Carman, J. M., "Values and Consumption Patterns: A Closed Loop," in H. Keith Hunt, ed., Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 5. Ann Arbor: Association for Consumer Research, 1978, pp. 403-7. 7. Grube, J. W., I. L. Weir, S. Getzlaf, and M. Rokeach, "Own Value System, Value Images, and Cigarette Smoking," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 10, (1984), 306-13. 8. Gutman, Jonathan, "A Means-Ends Chain Model Based on Consumer Categorization Processes," Journal of Marketing, 46 (Spring 1982), 60-72. 9. Homer, Pamela M., and Lynn R. Kahle, "A Structural Equation Analysis of the Value-AttitudeBehavior Hierarchy," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,54, April 1988, 638-46. 10. Kahle, Lynn R., ed., Social Values and Social Change: Adaptation to Life in America. New York: Praeger 1983. 11. Kahle, Lynn R., Attitudes and Social Adaptation: A Person-Situation Interaction Approach. Oxford, U.K.: Pergamon 1984. 12. Kahle, Lynn R., "The Values of Americans: Implications for Consumer Adaptation," in Robert E. Pitts, Jr., and Arch G. Woodside, eds., Personal Values and Consumer Psychology. Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books, 1984. 13. Kahle, Lynn R., "Values Segmentation Debate Continues," Marketing News, 18, no. 4 (1984), 2. 14. Kahle, Lynn R., "Social Values in the Eighties: A Special Issue." Psychology and Marketing, 2 (Winter 1985), 231-37. 15. Kahle, Lynn R., "The Nine Nations of North America and the Value Basis of Geographic Segmentation." Journal of Marketing, 50 (April 1986), 37-47. 16. Kahle, L.R.,Sharon E. Beatty, and Pamela M. Homer, "Alternative Measurement Approaches to Consumer Values: The List of Values (LOV) and Values and Lifestyle Segmentation (VALS)," Journal of Consumer Research, 13 (December 1986), 405-9. 17. Kahle, Lynn R., and Debra C. Eisert, "Social Values in the American Workplace," in Eric G. Flamholtz, Yvonne Randle, and Sonja Sackman, eds., Future Directions in Human Resource Management. Los Angeles: UCLA Publications, 1986, pp. 203-23. 18. Kahle, Lynn R., Basil Poulos, and Adjay Sukhdial, "Changes in Social Values in the United States During the Past Decade," Journal of Advertising Research, 28 (February-March 1988), 35-41. 19. Maslow, Abraham H., Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper, 1954. 20. McQuarrie, Edward F., and Daniel Langmeyer, "Using Values to Measure Attitudes Toward Discontinuous Innovations," Psychology and Marketing, 2 (Winter 1985), 239-52. 21. Mitchell, Arnold, The Nine American Lifestyles. New York: Warner, 1983. 22. Pitts, Robert E., Jr., and Arch G. Woodside, eds., "Personal Value Influences on Consumer Product Class and Brand Preferences," Journal of Social Psychology, 119 (1983), 37-53. 23. Pitts, Robert E., Jr., and Arch G. Woodside, eds., Personal Values and Consumer Psychology. Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books, 1984. 24. Rokeach, Milton, The Nature of Human Values. New York: Free Press, 1973. 25. Reynolds, Thomas J., and Jonathan Gutman, "Advertising is Image Management: Translating Image Management to Image Strategy." Journal of Advertising Research, 24 (1984), 27-38. 26. Veroff, Joseph, Elizabeth Douvan, and Richard A. Kulka, The Inner American. New York: Basic Books, 1981.