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The Great One Horned Rhinoceros

Table of Contents

  • 1. Taxonomy of Rhino

  • 2. History of Rhino

Evolution ● Entire history ● Mythological status ● Social role ● Role in Stories

  • 3. Breeds of rhino /type of Rhino seen in general/wild life

● How many types of breeds exist? ● Where can we find them? ● Which country has the largest population of rhino?

● Differentiate between genders of a rhino on the basis of their appearance. ● Differentiate between the breeds of rhinos on the basis of their appearance.

● Names based on age, gender, regions

  • 4. Biology of rhino

● Lifespan of rhino ● Size, measurement and weights ● Calves ● Colors and markings

Reproduction and development

5.

Anatomy

Skeletal system with naming ● Hooves, tai’l ● Eye, Mouth & ear Systems ● Body organs ● Study of Skin ( thickness, texture, creases n hardness) ● Tail and hair ● Existing Fantasy based Anatomical enhancements (fire stamping rhino). ● Study of Muscular system & their movements (sit, walk, run, standing on four legs, and others…………….)

● Look and feel details (defuse, secular, etc,.) of different parts

  • 6. Study Of Horn

Density of horn ● Length of horn ● Horn material ● Look and feel of horn

  • 7. Movement

How its walks ● How it runs ● How it sits ● How it stands ● How it jumps ● How it defend & fight ● Movement of tail when it walks, runs, sit, jump etc ● Sleeping patterns ● influence of the bones on the muscle when movement takes place

  • 8. Behavior

Intelligence at learning ● Diet ● Main predators of rhino ● Senses & Response

● as adult and as calf ● rhino behavioral change in zoo and in natural habitat

  • 9. Rhino Facts

Rhinoceroses, or rhinos, are big and ancient-looking and can be dangerous. They

can also be shy and are seldom seen. Once there were hundreds of rhino species, but today there are only five. One ancient rhino called Indricotherium (in-drick-oh-THAIR-ee-um] was the largest land mammal that ever lived. But they have more to fear from people than we do from them.

R hinoceroses , or rhinos, are big and ancient-looking and can be dangerous. They can also

Taxonomy

Rhinoceros also known as rhino,

is a group of five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae. Two of these species are native to Africa and three to southern Asia. The word rhinoceros is derived through Latin from the Greek: ῥῑνόκερως, which is composed of ῥῑνo- (rhino-, "nose") and κέρας (keras, "horn").

The Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) is also called Greater One-horned

Rhinoceros and Asian One-horned Rhinoceros.

Latin: "uni-" meaning single and "-cornis" meaning horn. This rhinoceros is monotypic, meaning there are no distinct subspecies. Rhinoceros unicornis was the type species for the rhinoceros family, first classified by Carolus Linnaeus in 1758.

Scientific Classification

Kingdom

:

Animalia

Phylum

:

Chordata

Class

:

Mammalia

Infraclass

:

Eutheria

Order

:

Perissodactyla

Suborder

:

Ceratomorpha

Superfamily

:

Rhinocerotoidea

Family

:

Rhinocerotidae

Genus

:

Rhinoceros

Species

:

R. unicornis

Binomial name: Rhinoceros unicornis

Rhinoceros Introduction

Praised & damned, ridiculed & venerated, feared & elevated this powerful creature has evolved over the ages and today finds itself struggling to survive the onslaught of poachers and a diminishing habitat. There is an amusing fable by Rudyard Kipling that imaginatively describes the Rhinoceros got

the folds of his skin. However, in the process of telling the story, he says of the animal – “…he had no manners the, and he has no manners now, and he never will have any manners.” This comment actually reflects the animal’s temperamental & aggressive behaviour. But Kipling is

not alone in deriding the rhino. People from many cultures have also tended to attach all sorts of

stigma to the unfortunate creature. For example, folk tales of Myanmar describes the beast’s

aggressive & oft dangerous capabilities of eating fire as well as its enemies and in Laos the Rhino is associated with evil spirits. But then there is the flip side too. In Java & Sumatra there is a belief that if one keeps a Rhino Horn in water it will protect a person from witchcraft & in ancient Cambodia the animal has been elevated to the status of a vehicle of the God of Fire [Agni Devata] which can be seen at Angkor Vat. In India, in spite of the impressive strength & size, the role of the rhinoceros has been somewhat inferior to other creatures in the history of animal in art & the lore. Because it is notoriously ill-humoured & possesses enormous strength. As a result, its very survival has been threatened by indiscriminate hunting. Today it is one of the endangered species & nobody seems to appreciate the fact that the rhinoceros actually represents a significant link in the chain of eco-diversity in North Eastern India. According to records of the 6TH Century such as the edicts of King Asoka, animals like the rhinoceros, parrots, mynas, white doves, domestic doves & all the quadrupeds which are neither useful nor edible should not be

ETIMOLOGY

Actually, the word Rhinoceros has Greek origins [Rhis = Nose & Keros = Horn], literally meaning the creature with a horn on its nose. Extending to a length of 35 cm. or so, it is not a true horn but a core of bone with a sheath of Keratin mass covering it. As a result, it is no fused to the skull in any way but rests on a bony cushion & can be dislodged with a severe blow, a new one emerging from the same location. Since it is not a bone, after the death of the creature it degenerates. This is why the skull of a rhinoceros does not have a horn on its nasal bone. Unlike its African cousins who keep their horns well sharpened as weapons of defence, the Indian Rhino does not seem to use its horn for any particular purpose. Self defence is not an issue really because the sheer size [5 ft. 6 7 inches tall & 13 feet long] & weight [a couple of tons] of this creature make it formidable enough to cope with any threat.

Evolution

Rhinos can be traced back over some 50 million years, with a complex series of evolutionary paths throughout a sequence of geologic or evolutionary epochs (the term scientists use for these periods of time). These epochs are all part of the Cenozoic Era, known as the Age of Mammals, and include:

- 100 Holocene or recent thousand years ago

pleistocene -

2 millions years ago

Pliocene -

5 millions years ago

Miocene -

23 millions years ago

Oligocene -

37 millions years ago

Eocene -

58 millions years ago

Paleocene -

65 millions years ago

Epoch Began

All rhinoceroses belong to the mammalian order, Perissodactyla (from the Greek perissos, meaning numbers odd, and daktulos, meaning a finger or toe). In other words, they are all odd-toed ungulates (ungulates meaning hoofed-animals), with the axis of symmetry of the foot passing through the central toe, a characteristic also known as mesaxonic. Other Perissodactyla include horses and tapirs, and their evolution began during the early Paleocene,or possibly even earlier in the late Cretaceous. In contrast, Artiodactyla (bovids, cervids, suids etc.) are even-toed, or paraxonic, with the axis of symmetry of the foot passing between the third and the fourth digit. Both Perissodactyle and Artiodactyle are Unguligrades: they walk on the terminal enlarged phalange, which forms a hoof. Rhinoceroses were a very diverse and abundant family of mammals and were the largest terrestrial mammals on all the northern continents from about 35 to about 20 million years ago. During this time they ranged over all ecosystems and exhibited a wide range of behaviour, with many different size and morphological adaptations.

Paleontological history

The earliest known rhinoceros-like mammal is the Hyrachyus eximus, dating from Early Eocene, and which was found in North America. This small animal resembled early tapirs and horses, and had no horn.

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Horns only became a defining characteristic later in rhinos’ evolutionary history, with

the appearance of Rhinocerotidae family in the late Eocene. In fact three families evolved in the late Eocene: the Hyracodontidae or running rhinos; the Amynodontidae or aquatic rhinos; and the Rhinocerotidae, the

forefathers of today’s five species of rhino.

The Hyracodontidae, running rhinos, were adapted for speed and ranged in size from small (like todays’ dogs) to horse and even mega-giraffe size (the Indricotheres, discussed below). The hyracodontids flourished from the mid-Eocene until the early Miocene. The second family, the Amynodontidae, was incredibly successful, with the maximum of diversification and dispersal throughout America and Eurasia in the late Eocene and early Oligocene. But during the Oligocene the Amynodontidae species declined, with just one hippo-like rhino species surviving until the middle Miocene. The third family is the Rhinocerotidae, which first appeared in the late Eocene in Eurasia. The earliest species were small in size, with larger species only coming later, and Rhinocerotidae spread to North America. Some 26 different genera are known, but in the early Oligocene a large wave of extinction made all these early genera disappear. They displayed varying characteristics and were able to live in a

wide range of habitats, one of the features that may account for their biological success. For example, the Menoceras occurred in Europe until the early Miocene. It was a pigsized rhinoceros, with males sporting two horns side-by-side, whereas females had no horns. They evolved locally in several lineages, e.g. Teleoceras, which had short legs, a barrel chest, and a single small nasal horn. In Asia, Rhinocerotidae appeared during the Oligocene times. The most famous group is the Indricotheres, which included the Paraceratherium, believed to be the largest terrestrial mammal that ever existed. This hornless rhino is evaluated to be almost six metres high and nine metres long. Its weight would have been close to

  • 20 tonnes. It ate leaves from trees with tusk-shaped upper teeth pointing down,

while the lower teeth pointed forward. Asia became the departure point for a big dispersal of all the large mammals from the Miocene to late Pleistocene periods. All the European rhinoceroses were

connected to Asian forms. The woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis), for example, appeared nearly one million years ago in China. It first arrived in Europe some 600,000 years ago (the oldest fossil record is found in Germany), and probably re-entered with a second migration wave around 200,000 years ago, together with the woolly mammoth, when it became common in Europe.

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This rhino was a large genus, with morphological adaptations to live in steppic land (sub-hypsodont teeth) and a cold and dry climate, the most distinctive of which was the thick coat of long brown hair (like that of woolly mammoths), and a body septum separated the nasal bone in two parts, to warm the air easily). This two-horned rhino was hunted and drawn in caves by the early humans in the Ice Age. Like the woolly mammoth, the woolly rhino became extinct about 10,000 years ago, probably due to over-hunting by the early humans. Another Asian species was the well-known Elasmotherium, the giant unicorn rhinoceros. It was two metres high and five metres long, and is estimated to have weighed nearly five tonnes. It had a single and enormous horn, hypsodont teeth with wrinkled enamel, and its long legs designed for running gave it a horse-like behaviour. Its habitat was similar to that of the woolly rhino. It seems this rhino became extinct around 10,000 years ago. Rhinocerotidae only arrived in Africa from Asia in the early Miocene, with genera such as Brachypotherium and Chilotheridium. They evolved in Africa until the next exchange with Asia in the Late Miocene. The last species of Brachypotherium of Africa evolved at the beginning of Pliocene. In Europe, the genus Ronzontherium is the first Rhinocerotidae known from the very end of Eocene and early Oligocene. Several species of it were found in western and eastern Europe, with Protoceratherium and Menoceras being the most important genera found in late Oligocene and early Miocene. In middle Pliocene, the genus Stephanorhinus ranged over all of Europe, coming in several migration waves from Asia. This genus, confused for a time with Dicerorhinus, experienced a large dispersal throughout Eurasia until it disappeared some 12,000 years ago. At the end of Middle Pleistocene and in Late Pleistocene some species of Stephanorhinus were found together with the woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis).

The evolution of today’s five species of rhino

Since the end of Miocene, Rhinocerotidae have been on the decline, probably triggered by changes in climatic conditions. Numerous species became extinct, and rhinos no longer survive in Europe (since about 12,000 years ago) or America (since about four million years ago). The five species found today (white, black, greater one-horned, Sumatran and Javan) come from different lineages. The Sumatran rhino is thought to be the oldest and the most archaic form. As far as we can tell (fossil records with radioactive

49

dating disagree with molecular DNA clocks), the five modern species probably originated at these approximate times in the past.

Javan 2-4 millions years ago Greater one-horned 2-4 millions years ago White 2-5 millions years ago Black 4-10 millions years ago Sumatran + 15 millions years ago

Morphological characters of the Rhinocerotidae

The rhinoceros has a massive body and a large head with one or two horns, depending upon the species, placed in the middle of the frontal or nasal bone of the skull. The horn has a dermal origin. It is composed of compressed fibrous keratin. Rhinoceroses have a very elongated skull, which is elevated in the occipital part. They have a small braincase, and the nasal bone is clearly projected forward, beyond the premaxillae bone. Its surface is rough where the insertion of the horn takes place. All the Perissodactyla, especially rhinoceroses, have or had lophodont teeth, in other words the teeth are formed by two transverse lophs of enamel. The dental formula

varies between species. I 0-3/0-3, C 0-1/0-1, P 3-4/3-4, M 3/3 x 2 = 24-44. They could be grazers (eg Elasmotherium), which means their premolars and molars are hypsodont (high crown), or sub-hypsodont (e.g. the woolly rhino, Coelodonta antiquitatis); but most of them are browsers with brachydont teeth (low crown). These characteristics are directly related to the species’ environment. The

hypsodont species could eat grass (a very rough food for the enamel), so lived in open habitat.

INDIAN RHINOCEROS

Today, the Indian One-horned Rhino is confirmed to North Bengal, Assam & Nepal Terai. In fact, the Kaziranga National Park in the District of Golaghat in Assam is its largest abode. This park became a World Heritage Site in 1985 & represents the single largest area [430 Sq. Km. ] with the most natural habitat for the conservation of biological diversity within the northeast Brahmaputra Valley which is considered to be perhaps one of the most complex ecosystem of the world. Kaziranga & the neighbouring areas help us understand the dynamic of the ecosystem that has enabled rhino to survive. It is important to mention here that Kaziranga is home to a number of rare & threatened species. The Park provides an amazing habitat range, from floodplains to grasslands to hilly evergreen forest. Besides Rhino, Water Buffalo, North-Eastern subspecies of Swamp Deer, Tiger, Indian Elephant, & avifauna [480 species] are provided with an entire range of habitat from floodplains to grasslands to hilly evergreen forest communities. Beels [vast expanses of permanent water bodies or lakes] that cover over 5 % of the total area of the park provide powerful life lines, along with the tributaries of the Brahmaputra, that support the diverse flora & fauna, tall & short grasses account for more than 60 % of the total area while the woodlands occupy about 28 %.

The Orang, Manas, Pabitora, Sonai-Rupai Sanctuaries as well as the Deosur, Kukrakata, Panidephing, Kuruwa in the vicinity in Assam along with Jaldapara & Garumara Sanctuaries in

West Bengal are the other ‘extended homes’ of the rhinoceros in India. Chitawan National Park

in Nepal is the last bastion outside India, sheltering a Rhino population of over four hundred. Wildlife management has successfully helped them grow in numbers despite the damage caused by poaching & increased destruction of their habitats by nature as well as the spread of human settlements. Swampy areas with extensive grasslands are the preferred habitats of the rhinoceros but in Nepal it also inhabits the low hills of woodland forests that also include grasslands & numerous streams. Even though the grass is its main stay, occasionally during the lean period it also feeds on water hyacinth, fruits of some trees & tender leaves of shrubs & seedlings of several species of

trees. They do not migrate long distances except when rivers are in spate & vast sheets of flood water force them to seek shelter away from their actual home range. If the two animals are seen together, they must surely be either calf & its mother or the male & a female rhino mating. There are dedicated Wildlife Experts who have extensively examined the flora of the sanctuaries that provide a home to the rhinoceros & work towards maintaining the balance of nutritional properties of the Rhino’s diet. Their protection against epidemics, the enhancement of their nutritional requirements in addition to their security against poaching by dedicated field biologists & security guards aims to keep them within the safe limits of the park rather than letting them wonder in search of food & exposing them to Poachers. Conservation Action Plans of the Government of India & Nepal for the Great One-Horned Rhinoceros struggle to restore the population that today estimates about 446 in Nepal & 2000 in India. The Rhinoceros is now en endangered species listed in the Red Book of the International Union for Conservational of Nature & Natural Resources [I. U. C. N.]. It is a multidisciplinary approach pursued by a number of scientists who are studying behavioural ecology & biology of rhinoceros, with respect to the local landscape that supports their population. It only ensures better understanding of the animal which can ensure its future in India.

These formidable creatures have evolved over a vast stretch of time, facing challenge after challenge to persist. Today’s ‘rhino-perspective’ faces a major concern for its survival in the midst of a myth driven craze for its horns & increasing environmental deterioration & human interference.

Breeds of Rhino

The five living species of Rhinoceros fall into three categories. Two of these species are native to Africa and three to southern Asia.

B reeds of Rhino The five living species of Rhinoceros fall into three categories. Two of
 

Indian

Black

White

Sumatran

Javan

Rhinoceros

Rhinoceros

Rhinoceros

Rhinoceros

Rhinceros

 
Indian Black White Sumatran Javan Rhinoceros Rhinoceros Rhinoceros Rhinoceros Rhinceros Scientifi Rhinoceros Diceros bicornis Ceratotherium Dicerorhinus
Indian Black White Sumatran Javan Rhinoceros Rhinoceros Rhinoceros Rhinoceros Rhinceros Scientifi Rhinoceros Diceros bicornis Ceratotherium Dicerorhinus
Indian Black White Sumatran Javan Rhinoceros Rhinoceros Rhinoceros Rhinoceros Rhinceros Scientifi Rhinoceros Diceros bicornis Ceratotherium Dicerorhinus
Indian Black White Sumatran Javan Rhinoceros Rhinoceros Rhinoceros Rhinoceros Rhinceros Scientifi Rhinoceros Diceros bicornis Ceratotherium Dicerorhinus
Indian Black White Sumatran Javan Rhinoceros Rhinoceros Rhinoceros Rhinoceros Rhinceros Scientifi Rhinoceros Diceros bicornis Ceratotherium Dicerorhinus

Scientifi

Rhinoceros

Diceros bicornis

Ceratotherium

Dicerorhinus

Rhinoceros

c name

unicornis

simum

sumatram

sondaicus

Other

Great one

Hook lipped rhino

Square lipped

 

Lesser one

name

horned rhino Asian one horned rhino

rhino

horned rhino

Location

Northern parts of

Eastern and

Several countries

India, Butan,

Islands of

India Terai and

central areas of

at east and central

Bangladesh,

Indonesia,

Nepal

Africa, Kenya,

Africa

Myanmar,

Southeast Asia,

Tazmania,

Laos, Thailand,

India and

Cameroon, South

Malaysia,

 

China.

Africa, Namibia,

Indonesia and

 

Zimbaweand Angola

China

Differen

Thick silver

Although the

Body color

A coat of

hairless, hazy

ce in

brown skin

rhino is refered to

yellowish brown.

reddish brown

gray skin falls into

body

be black, it is more of grey/ brown/ white color in gap

Stamphy feet has 3 toes.

hair covers on the body

folds into the shoulder, back, and rump giving it an armored-like appearance

Size

Females are 1.7

Male

50-70 cm shoulder

120-145 cm

3.1

to 3.2 m in

to 2 metre in

Have 140- 170 cm

and 1.5 to 1.9 m

shoulder and

length and

length

shoulder and 3.3-

length

250cm length

1.4

1.7 m in

Males are 163 to 193 cm (5.35 to 6.33 ft)

36 m in length Female Have 50 cm shoulder 140 cm length

height

Weight

2260kg to

 

1360kg to 3630kg

500 to 800 kg

 

900 to

3000kg

2300

kg

age

40 to 47 yrs

     

30 45 yrs

Populati

According to

According to

According to

According to

According to

on

2007- 2575nos

1981- 10,000 to 15,000 nos. 1990- 2500 nos 2004- 2,410 nos

2007- 17,460

1990s- 275 and decreasing gradually

2007- 8 nos.

Biology of rhino

Lifespan of rhino:

Lifespan of rhino deponds on its climate conditions. The basic lifespan of rhino is 40 to 50 years. In zoological gardens the oldest age reported was that of a 40 year-old male (WirzHlavacek at al., 1998).

Size, measurement and weights:

The Indian rhinoceros has an armour-plated look, produced by the prominent folds on its skin and its lumpy surface. t is the largest of the three Asian species and similar in size with the White rhino, the larger one of the two African species. It has one horn, which can grow up to 61 cm (Penny, 1987). They have sharp incisors in their lower jaws that can be up to 10 cm long and are used as weapons when fighting. Different reports exist about the size, length, and weight of this species.

Weight:

1,800 - 2,700 kg (4,000 6,000 lbs)

Height (at shoulder):

1,75 2 m (5,75 -6,5 ft)

Length (head and body):

3 3,8 m (10 - 12,5 ft)

Horn length:

0,20 0,60 m (8 in 24 in)

Characteristics:

Only one horn and skin with large folds all over its body.

Calves:

Female indian rhinos generally give birth once every three years. Birth intervals one to three years. It gives only one birth at once.

The newborn calf weighs ±65 kg (145 lb.) and will almost immediately begin its impressive intake of milk which will enable it to gain 2-3 kg (4½ - 6½ lb.) in weight every day. The mother produces approximately 20-25 litres (35-44 pints) of milk per day.

The calf has all the skin folds of the adult at birth, with a smooth plate

The calf has all the skin folds of the adult at birth, with a smooth plate on its nose where the horn will grow. The one-horned rhinoceros has almost no predators in the wild, though there is evidence that tigers will take young calves if they can. The mother will fight fiercely in defence of her young and their teeth can inflict serious injury.

Colors and markings:

Rhinos have a very thick coat, which is silver-brown in color and have the minimal of body hair.

They have huge folds all over its body.

The shoulders as well as the upper part of the legs have wart-like bumps throughout.

The calf has all the skin folds of the adult at birth, with a smooth plate

Reproduction and development:

One-horned rhinoceros have been breeding successfully in Zoo's since 1956 but courtship has rarely been observed in the wild. Females are sexually mature from the age of three and bulls at seven or nine years of age. Every five to eight weeks, a female will come into season for 24 hours, advertising her condition by spraying urine, and uttering a strange whistling with every breath. The male reacts by in turn spraying urine and taking chase. The intimate signals between the partners are essentially the same as in the African black rhinoceros. Copulation lasts for an average of an hour and gestation is on an average 16 months. The newborn calf weighs ±65 kg (145 lb.) and will almost immediately begin its impressive intake of milk which will enable it to gain 2-3 kg (4½ - 6½ lb.) in weight every day. The mother produces approximately 20-25 litres (35-44 pints) of milk per day.

Gestation Period: 480 days. Young per Birth: 1 Weaning: At 18 months. Sexual Maturity: Females at 4 years, males at 9 years. Life span: 40 years. Females generally give birth once every three years.

Anatomy

Skeletal system:

A natomy Skeletal system: Body organs : The Indian Rhino has an immense body and large

Body organs :

The Indian Rhino has an immense body and large head, a short neck and broad chest.

Indian Rhinoceros has a single black horn.

Males develop thick neck-folds. The armour-like hide is thick and tough with many folds, and large, raised bumps on the neck, shoulders and flanks - a characteristic which differentiates it from the closely related Javan rhinoceros. The other differential feature is the neck fold: in the great Indian rhinoceros it does not continue across the back.

The skin has a maximum thickness of upto four cm; the subcutaneous fat is 2-5 cm thick and well supplied with blood, which helps thermo-regulation.

The skin is usually brownish, with the interior of the folds slightly pink, but, due to mud wallowing, the coloration varies with the region's soil colour. Between the folds, around the

stomach, the inner legs and the facial area, the skin is rather soft and thin. The tail lies embedded between the hind-leg folds.

There is one horn on the nose, though it is usually short and dull, worn down by use The triangular upper lip is prehensile.

All rhinos, those from Asia have teeth in the sides of their jaws, called premolars and

All rhinos, those from Asia have teeth in the sides of their jaws, called premolars and molars. The Asian species of rhinoceros also show well-developed front teeth. In fact, the incisors of the Indian Rhinoceros are its main means of defence, much more dangerous than the horn on the nose. 8-24 inches long and a grey-brown hide with distinct folds in its skin.

Rhinos have relatively small brains for mammals this size. A rhinos brain only weighs around 400 - 600 grams

Most Indian rhinos weigh between 4,000 and 6,000 pounds.

All rhinos, those from Asia have teeth in the sides of their jaws, called premolars and

Hooves:

Rhinos are odd-toed (three toes) ungulates, which means they are mammals that have hooves.

Indian rhinos have three hooves. Between them, a thick pad serves as cushion for the weight. At the hind part of the pad, about 5 cm high is an opening of a secret gland. While walking, this secret is spread on the ground / grass and serves as "information" for the next rhino, walking on the same path.

Eye, Mouth & ear Systems:

The Indian rhino have poor eyesight. They rely on their strong sense of smell to tell

them a stranger is approaching. But if the wind is blowing the wrong way, they may not know someone

is there until it’s too late. The Indian rhino uses its semi-prehensile upper lip to curl around long grasses and branches, placing the

herbage into its mouth. When feeding on shorter grasses, the Indian rhino tucks its upper lip in so it may forage closer to the ground.

Study of skin:

The morphological basis of the armor-like folded skin of the greater Indian rhinoceros as a thermoregulator. The folds of the skin and the convex tubercles are deeply and highly developed in the caudo-lateral area of the head and the cranial area of the shoulder region. Both greater Indian rhinoceroses are equipped with the armor-like deeply-folded skin in the neck, shoulder and hip regions. The function of the skin folds has remained unclear. However, since the greater Indian rhinoceros bathes in lakes, rivers and pools and this behavior is frequent during hot season (Nowak 1999), it has been suggested that the folded skin may contribute to the thermoregulation and protection against flies in their body

The armor-like folded skin of the Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) has the subcutaneous tissues including cutaneous muscles and connective tissues inserted to the deepest holes and grooves of 23 mm thickness in each fold.

Hooves: Rhinos are odd-toed (three toes) ungulates, which means they are mammals that have hooves. Indian

The cutaneous muscles are well-developed in subcutaneous tissues, in which many small blood vessels are found. The thin blood vessels and capillaries and cutaneous muscles in the subcutaneous tissues transmit the thermal energy from the core region of the body to the skin folds. We suggest that the greater Indian rhinoceros, Rhinoceros unicornis, has evolved the extraordinary thermoregulation mechanism in the folded skin adapted to high temperature in the tropical and subtropical regions. The greater Indian rhinoceros has appearance of wearing armor. The skin of the species is equipped with deep folds in neck, shoulder and hip regions and with convex tubercles in proximal and lateral areas of the four limbs. The hairless skin is thick and hard in these areas, and these specialized structures of the skin represents the most extraordinary silhouette in all mammalian species. The function of folds of the skin structure has remained unclear. However, the greater Indian rhinoceros frequently wallows and bathes in water (Nowak 1999), and it suggests that the skin folds may contribute to the heat radiation to regulate the body temperature in the high air temperature condition.

The skin of this massive creature is divided into great shields by heavy folds, creating the impression of armor plates; folds of thinner skin allow body movement and flexibility. On the flanks, shoulders and hindquarters, the skin is studded with masses of rounded tubercles (a small raised area)

Look and Feel details:

The skin is rough and wart like with folds at the neck and the abdomen region. Between the folds, around the stomach, the inner legs and the facial area, the skin is rather soft and thin. Ears which move according to the income of soundwaves. Horn not having soft marrow in middle but made of compressed hair material called keratin. Light creases in its solid triangular face.

Fantasy based Anatomical enhancements :

There are quite a number of legends about the rhinoceros stamping out fire. The story seems to have been common in Malaysia and Burma. This type of rhinoceros even had a special name in Malay, 'badak api', where badak means rhinoceros and apimeans fire. The animal would come when a fire is lit in the forest and stamp it out. If there is or can be any truth in the legend, it would be hard to decide. Suffice it to say that there has been no sighting of this phenomenon in recent history. Of course, the rhinoceros in South East Asia has become very rare is hardly ever met nowadays, as it keeps to the deep forest and high mountains.

Study of Muscular system & their movements:

The great one horned rhinoceros is muscular and covered with a powerful body. It also has far more muscles in the neck area, which are necessary to lift the heavy head because it has to lower the head for the grazing. The hindhead of the skull is much larger than in other rhinos to give an attachment for the muscles. The muscles support the movement of the rhino so inspite of their heaviness theycan run very fast for some time and can change directions swiftly. The muscles of the thighs expand and contract according to the walk of the rhino as it places ts feet forward and support their huge body while standing.

Study of Muscular system & their movements: The great one horned rhinoceros is muscular and covered

Horn

The Indian rhino's scientific name is Rhinoceros unicornis, which means "a single nose horn".

H orn T he Indian rhino's scientific name is Rhinoceros unicornis, which means "a single nose

Length:

20 to 57 cm (7.9 to 22 in) in length

Horn Material: pure Keratin i.e. compressed keratin fibers

Look and Feel of Horn:

like human fingernails lack bony core. When observed under microscope thin strands of hair binded closely together

Horn Info:

It starts to show after about 6 years. The nasal horn curves backwards from the nose. In captive animals, the horn is frequently worn down to a thick knob. The horn is not attached to the skull.

Horn uses:

Rhinoceros horns are used in traditional Asian medicine, It is used for dagger handles in Yemen and Oman. In Traditional Chinese Medicine prescribed for fevers and convulsions. It is also used for stopping nosebleeds and headaches to curing diphteria and food poinsoning.

The use of rhino horn for medical purposes has been illegal since 1993. Trade continues, however.

Rhino horn sells for from $ 21,000 to $ 54,000 per kilogram (2 pounds).

Horn uses: Rhinoceros horns are used in traditional Asian medicine, It is used for dagger handles

Movement

How its walks

First by moving its foreleg forward followed by its opposite hind leg, then its opposite foreleg and then its hind leg it starts walking. Locomotion is affected by alternate elongation and contraction of body. The adult male Indian Rhino rubs his head and horn vigorously on trees and shrubs while squirting, and often walks stiff -legged, dragging his hind toes and leaving parallel furrows in the earth

M ovement ● How its walks First by moving its foreleg forward followed by its opposite
● How it runs Rhino is a fast runner. They can run at speeds of up
How it runs
Rhino is a fast runner. They can run at speeds of up to 55 km/h (34 mph).
How it sits
It bends its hind legs then its foreleg to sit.
How it stands
It lifts its forelegs, drags its body and stands and straightens its hind legs.
How it defend & fight
Adult males are the primary instigators in fights.
The Indian Rhino fights with its incisors, rather than its horns
Movement of tail when it walks, runs, sit, jump etc

Tail is guarded between its tough thigh skin folds in Indian rhinos and thus have a very little movement. Its tail waves according to the movement of the body when rhino runs.

● Sleeping patterns Rhinos are known to sleep both standing and lying on the ground and
Sleeping patterns
Rhinos are known to sleep both standing and lying on the ground and are fond of
standing in muddy pools and
sandy riverbeds
influence of the bones on the muscle when movement takes place

The One Horned rhino’s forelegs bend more while walking as compared to its hindlegs.

Its thigh muscles contract and expand accordingly when it moves. The rhino body is divided as 3 sections when it moves due to its skin folds, forelegs, abdomen,

hindlegs folds. It moves following the skeletal structure which looks like rhino wearing an armor while moving.

Behavior

● Intelligence at learning Most rhinos are gentle and timid. They have a bad reputation for
Intelligence at learning
Most rhinos are gentle and timid. They have a bad reputation for being very aggressive, but that
may be
partly because they get frightened easily. Also, they have poor eyesight. They rely on their
strong sense
of smell to tell them a stranger is approaching. But if the wind is blowing the wrong way, they
may not know
someone is there until it’s too late.
They can run at speeds of up to 55 km/h (34 mph) for short periods of time
They are excellent swimmers.
Diet

The Indian rhinoceros is a grazer. Their diet consists almost entirely of grasses, but the rhino is also known to eat leaves, branches of shrubs and trees, fruits and submerged and floating aquatic plants.

Feeding occurs during the morning and evening. The rhino uses its prehensile lip to grasp grass stems, bend the stem down, bite off the top, and then eat the grass. With very tall grasses or saplings, the rhino will often walk over the plant, with its legs on both sides, using the weight of its body to push the end of the plant down to the level of the mouth. Mothers also use this

technique to make food edible for their calves. They drink for a minute or two at a time, often imbibing water filled with rhinoceros urine

Main predators of rhino

Indian rhinos have few natural enemies. Tigers sometimes kill unguarded calves, but adult rhinos are less vulnerable due to their size. Mynahs and egrets both eat invertebrates from the rhino's skin and around its feet. Tabanus flies, a type of horse-fly are known to bite rhinos.

The rhinos are also vulnerable to diseases spread by parasites such as leeches, ticks, and nematodes. Anthrax and the blood-disease septicemia are known to occur

Senses & Response

The Indian rhinoceros makes a wide variety of vocalizations. At least ten distinct vocalizations have been identified: snorting, honking, bleating, roaring, squeak-panting, moo-grunting, shrieking, groaning, rumbling and humphing. In addition to noises, the rhino uses olfactory communication. Adult males urinate backwards, as far as 34 meters behind them, often in response to being disturbed by observers. Like all rhinos, the Indian rhinoceros often defecates near other large dung piles. The Indian Rhino has pedal scent glands which are used to mark their presence at these rhino latrines. Males have been observed walking with their heads to the ground as if sniffing, presumably following the scent of females In aggregations, Indian Rhinos are often friendly. They will often greet each other by waving or bobbing their heads, mounting flanks, nuzzling noses, or licking. Rhinos will playfully spar, run around, and play with twigs in their mouth

Rhino behavioral change

In natural habitat :

The great Indian rhinoceros is active throughout the day, although the middle of the day is spent wallowing and resting in the shade. Wallowing takes place in lakes, rivers, ponds, and puddles, and is especially frequent in the hot seasons. This activity is believed to be important with thermoregulation and the control of flies. Drinking occurs almost every day, and mineral licks are visited regularly.

The Indian rhinoceros forms a variety of social groupings. Adult males are generally solitary, except for mating and fighting. Adult females are largely solitary when they are without calves. Mothers will stay close to their calves for up to four years after their birth, sometimes allowing an older calf to continue to accompany her once a newborn calf arrives. Subadult males and females form consistent groupings as well. Groups of two or three young males will often form on the edge of the home ranges of dominant males, presumably for protection in numbers. Young females are slightly less social than the males. Indian Rhinos also form short-term groupings, particularly at forest wallows during the monsoon season and in grasslands during

March and April. Groups of up to 10 rhinos may gather in wallowstypically a dominant male with females and calves, but no subadult males.

In the wild females are usually six before breeding begins

In the wild, dominant males do the breeding and rhinos do not attain dominance until they are older and larger.

In Zoo :

In zoos rhinoceros mostly eats and sleeps all day. It is difficult to approach them and is tranquilized and medicated if needed. Their horns are worn down to thick knobs. Adult males urinate backwards, as far as 34 meters behind them, often in response to being disturbed by observers. In zoos, females may breed as young as four In captivity, males may breed at five years.

Rhino Facts

  • 1. African Rhino Species

lack rhino, Diceros bicornis White rhino, Ceratotherium simum

Asian Rhino Species

reater one-horned (Indian) rhino, Rhinoceros unicornis umatran rhino, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis avan rhino, Rhinoceros sondaicus

2.The white rhino and greater one-horned rhino weigh about 4,000 - 6,000 pounds, stand roughly 6 feet high at the shoulder, and are 12 - 15 feet in length. These two rhino species are the second largest land mammals after the elephant.

The smallest rhino species is the Sumatran rhino, standing just 3 - 5 feet at the shoulder. The black rhino weighs in at 1,750 - 3,000 pounds, standing about 5 feet at the shoulder, and reaching 10 - 12 feet in length. The Javan rhino weighs about 2,000 - 5,000 pounds, stands 5 - 5.5 feet at the shoulder, and reaches 11.5 feet in length. The Vietnamese subspecies of Javan rhino is smaller - about the size of the Sumatran rhino.

  • 3. Despite their large size, rhinos are fast and agile: They can run 30 mph for short

distances and turn on a dime.

  • 4. Status and populations of the living rhino species (2011):

Critically Endangered Javan Rhino: 48 Critically Endangered Sumatran Rhino: Less than 200 Critically Endangered Black Rhino: About 4,860 Vulnerable Greater One-Horned Rhino: Approx. 2,949 Near Threatened Southern White Rhino: Approx. 20,600

5.Two subspecies of rhino have fewer than 10 individuals surviving. Two additional subspecies consist of fewer than 100 rhinos. Just seven Northern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) are left in the world. The Vietnamese subspecies (Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus) of the Javan rhino has a population of perhaps four or five wild rhinos. The most numerous Javan rhino subspecies (Rhinoceros sondaicus sondaicus) consists of about 48 wild rhinos. It is believed there are only about 50 Borneo rhinos (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni) still surviving

6. Rhinos are intelligent.

Rhinos living in zoos require plenty of mental stimulation for good health. Captive rhinos are trained using treats and clickers to understand several commands, so that keepers and vets can perform thorough health examinations - especially the sensitive feet. Rhinos also learn their names, and most of them enjoy human attention, such as a good scratch. Captive rhinos have even learned to paint and play fetch.

7. A group of rhinos is called a “crash”.

A crash of white rhinos, greater one-horned rhinos, and black rhinos typically consists of females, calves and perhaps sub adult offspring. Javan and Sumatran rhinos are thought to remain solitary, except when a female is caring for a calf. Male rhinos of all species are generally loners; however, territories may overlap

Indian rhinoceroses are solitary creatures. However, they do congregate at bathing areas and

wallowing holes. Also, a female rhinoceros will be accompanied by her calf for several years. Males rhinos are , called as bulls, are larger than females ,or cows. Their youngones are called calves.

A group of rhinos is called a “crash”.

The Indian Rhinoceros is also known as:

Rhino Indian Rhino Great Indian Rhinoceros Great Indian Rhino Great One-Horned Rhinoceros Great One-Horned Rhino Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros Greater One-Horned Rhino Asian One-Horned Rhinoceros Asian One-Horned Rhino Nepales Rhinoceros Nepales Rhino

Population densities vary from 0.4-4.85 animals per square kilometer depending on the habitat. Only the strongest males breed, and they have home ranges between 2-8 square kilometers in size. These home ranges are not true territories, and overlap each other. When disturbed, these rhinos generally flee, though they have been reported attacking, which they do with their head down. In this fashion, protective mothers kill several people each year in India. More than 10 distinct vocalizations have been recorded, including a honk, bleat, trumpet, and roar. Smell is important in communication, with urine, feces, and glandular secretions carrying the messages.

Rhinos use urine to create invisible boundary lines, much like state borders, to outline their territory.

Indian rhinos use communal dung heaps where they often scrape their feet and then leave a scent as they move around. This is a dangerous action because poachers can follow the scent to find the individuals. The Indian rhinoceros is a forest dweller and an excellent swimmer. It spends a lot of time wallowing in water and mud to protect its skin.

The plants rhinos eat don’t always contain many nutrients, so rhinos spend most of each day wandering about their habitat eating as they go. Eating all the time also makes them poop a lot. The poop is pretty dry, and if you pick it apart you can often see some of the things the rhino has been eating. These piles of poop often contain seeds that will eventually germinate and grow. By pruning bushes and small trees and dispersing seeds in their poop, rhinos have a very important role in maintaining the health of the habitat they live in.

If a person or animal comes too close or threatens a mother and calf, the mother threatens the intruder by snorting loudly. If that does not scare the person or animal away, the mother may charge. If a rhino attacks, it can do so with great speed. Males have large, sharp incisors that may be used in fights over females in the breeding season.

Egrets and other birds can be found perched on rhinos, feeding on external parasites. Egrets also forage on the insects exposed by the moving feet of the rhino.

The Indian rhinoceros is listed as Endangered by the IUCN. The surviving population totals at about 2,400. But it seems to be improving as the rhinos have been moved to establish new populations at new parks in Nepal and India.

Indian rhinos use communal dung heaps where they often scrape their feet and then leave a

The 3D Rhino

Our quest to create a 3D Great Indian Rhinoceros clip begins. Our mission is to create a 3D rhino, texture it, animate it and compose it with the real live environment.

We start of with the concept discussion. Anvesh comes up with the concept.

Concept: The Rhino is introduced living in its habitat. A sniper aims its target and the rhino is shot. This fades of to tell a message ‘Save Rhinos’.

We drew a storyboard on the concept.

Storyboard:

T he 3D Rhino Our quest to create a 3D Great Indian Rhinoceros clip begins. Our

We started by collecting pictures of our character Indian Rhinoceros from net and even visited zoo to take pictures and videos of the rhino. These we used as reference for our project.

Rhino Modeling and Texturing

Modeler and Texturer: G. Lalitha Priyanka

Firstly as a modeler I needed images showing each and every part of rhino in detail. So I collected as many references I could from internet for eyes, mouth, legs and body. Then to know the shapes properly, I collected images of skeleton.

R hino Modeling and Texturing Modeler and Texturer: G. Lalitha Priyanka Firstly as a modeler I
For the model sheet I used images as reference for getting front and profile views for

For the model sheet I used images as reference for getting front and profile views for head. This picture was scaled to 6.5cm in maya as the average size of Indian Rhinoceros was 6.5 feet.

For the model sheet I used images as reference for getting front and profile views for

Then for body, legs, tail and texturing purpose I used one picture as an reference image for proportions to be maintained properly. I chosen this image because this image is a high resolution image and I can see the details clearly and for texturing purpose also it helped me a lot.

Then for body, legs, tail and texturing purpose I used one picture as an reference image

MODELING

I started with basic body of Indian Rhinoceros .I have done this by using my model sheet as reference. This basic model is made to see the proper volumes of the character.

M ODELING I started with basic body of Indian Rhinoceros .I have done this by using

Then after my basic body model I started with basic legs.

Then I started detailing the basic body according to my reference images and videos. I faced

Then I started detailing the basic body according to my reference images and videos. I faced many problems while making skin folds in the body. But finally I made skin folding by changing loops many times and done according references.

Then I started detailing the basic body according to my reference images and videos. I faced

I started modelling the head with eye. It is the best way of modelling a head.

Later on I have done basic head part. Then I started refining the basic head part.

Later on I have done basic head part. Then I started refining the basic head part. While modelling head part it became very difficult for me due to lack of proper head drawings then by watching many reference images I started modelling. I faced many Problems while modelling the horn then sir explained me how the bone comes from muscle under the guidance of sir I modelled horn.

Later on I have done basic head part. Then I started refining the basic head part.

Head part after refining the basic model.

Head part after refining the basic model. Then after refining the model I started giving the

Then after refining the model I started giving the model proper volumes. Then I modelled ears then attached to head.

Then I combined the body and the head with proper looping. Then again I modelled the

Then I combined the body and the head with proper looping. Then again I modelled the skin folds at the neck part with proper loopings.

Then I combined the body and the head with proper looping. Then again I modelled the

Then after combining of head and body I combined it with legs. While combining the legs I faced many problem with loops then I managed the loops properly.

Then I started making of tail As modelling the part was done with body and head

Then I started making of tail

Then I started making of tail As modelling the part was done with body and head

As modelling the part was done with body and head I started inner mouth part

Inner mouth part with teeth. Now as the inner mouth part is done I combined it.

Inner mouth part with teeth.

Inner mouth part with teeth. Now as the inner mouth part is done I combined it.

Now as the inner mouth part is done I combined it.

Front view of the model in maya with mesh. Side view of the model in maya

Front view of the model in maya with mesh.

Front view of the model in maya with mesh. Side view of the model in maya

Side view of the model in maya with mesh.

Back view of the model in maya with mesh.

Back view of the model in maya with mesh.

Back view of the model in maya with mesh.

Now I exported the model as .obj Then for unwrapping the model I used Headus uv Layout, where I imported the .obj file and unwrapped the model. I used 2 uv sets, for head, body and legs.

Now I exported the model as .obj Then for unwrapping the model I used Headus uv

Then again I exported obj file into maya and then I transferred attributes from obj file to maya model. Unwrapped file in maya. I have done the teeth part in separate file so again I started rearranging the uv in maya once again.

T EXTURING Now the model was ready with uv s unwrapped. Then I went through the

TEXTURING

Now the model was ready with uv s unwrapped. Then I went through the basic checklist and sent it for rigging and skinning. As the rigging part was started I started the texturing part. Initially Ii broke up the body into 2 parts Head, legs and body, based on the 2 uv sets and exported each of them as .obj. I used Mud box for texturing. Now I started preparing stencils for each and every part of the body taking different reference images and by using Photoshop. The stencils which I used while texturing and sculpting in mud box.

After the stencils were done I started sculpting the head and legs.

After the stencils were done I started sculpting the head and legs.

Some pictures with sculpt details on head and legs. I have done the mouth part details

Some pictures with sculpt details on head and legs. I have done the mouth part details manually.

Some pictures with sculpt details on head and legs. I have done the mouth part details
.
.
.
After the Head was done I started sculpting the body part with minute details. For some

After the Head was done I started sculpting the body part with minute details. For some details I used stencil and for some details I manually sculpted.

After the Head was done I started sculpting the body part with minute details. For some

Some pictures with sculpt details. I sculpted the dots manually.

Some pictures with sculpt details. I sculpted the dots manually.
Some pictures with sculpt details. I sculpted the dots manually.
Now the sculpting part is done and it was the time for the color to be

Now the sculpting part is done and it was the time for the color to be done. Again I went back to reference images for colors of scales and the body as a whole. As ours was Indian Rhinoceros the character has to be in brown shades. So similarly to sculpting I started painting Head part and body part in sane file by importing normal map and applying it to model.

Now the sculpting part is done and it was the time for the color to be

Some pictures with sculpt and paint details.

Some pictures with sculpt and paint details.
Some pictures with sculpt and paint details.

EXTRACTING TEXTURE MAPS

After the texturing was done, the Normal map, Diffuse map, Displacement map, and the Vector

Displacement maps are extracted from mud box.

Head and legs Normal map.

Example: Diffuse map of Head.

EXTRACTING TEXTURE MAPS After the texturing was done, the Normal map, Diffuse map, Displacement map, and

Head and legs Vector displacement map.

Head and legs color map.

Head and legs color map.

Head and legs ambient occlusion map.

Head and legs ambient occlusion map.

Head and legs color map blended with ambient occlusion map.

Head and legs color map blended with ambient occlusion map.

Rhino body normal map.

Rhino body normal map.

Rhino body vector displacement map.

Rhino body vector displacement map.

Rhino body color map.

Rhino body color map.

Rhino body ambient occlusion map.

Rhino body ambient occlusion map.

Rhino head color map blended with ambient occlusion map.

Rhino head color map blended with ambient occlusion map.

Then after all the maps are extracted, I imported them into maya using the shading network

Then after all the maps are extracted, I imported them into maya using the shading network where all the maps are connected to their respective shedders. so now the model was finally ready with all the textures and was ready for lighting.

Rhino Shot Matchmove

As the shooted footage was forwarded to me.

There are 3 shots in our project ,.

Shot 01 147 frames

Shot 02 97 frames

Shot 03 196 frames.

The shots were tracked by me using pfTrack 0.5 software

.

Match move Artist: D. Srujani

R hino Shot Matchmove As the shooted footage was forwarded to me. There are 3 shots

Problems faced by me:

There were no problems in shot01.

There were few problems in 2 nd and 3 rd shots.

The white balance of the footage made the points to slide.

The grid was not getting arranged.

The solving of the footage was a bit difficult.

The focal length was not appropriate.

Solving:

I manipulated the footage by increasing the sharpness and contrast for a better track.

The tracking was a trial and error method and I had to do it repeatedly.

Problems faced by me: There were no problems in shot01. There were few problems in 2

After the shots got exported into Maya, now it was a real challenge for me.

I had to cross check the footage repeatedly to see whether the grid was moving or not.

I created the mesh of the tree and the ground by snapping the polygons to the track points.

Then I applied the Lambert and applied checker map to the mesh. Then I adjusted the uv in uv texture editor.

Thus the tracking part of the project was completed and I forwarded it to the animator for alignment of the character into the footage.

Rhino Rigging

Rigger and Skinner: D. Geethanjali

I referred to the real skeleton structure of the rhino before starting the rig, and the way the rhino walks sits stands and stuff.

Then I planned the structure of the rig in photoshop on the rhino pic so that I would get a clear idea of how exactly the joints were placed. The base was same but it differed a little from the real skeleton near the clavicle area as I took lesser joints than in the real skeleton of the rhino.

R hino Rigging Rigger and Skinner: D. Geethanjali I referred to the real skeleton structure of

My 1 st rig for rhino had fewer joints in the spine and tail. I took extra joints for the bend of knees to control the mesh near toes. The difference in the x-axis distance of the joints in hind legs was also less. We had rib joints.

Controllers were given to the rig. But the main problem aroused when the mesh was skinned

Controllers were given to the rig.

But the main problem aroused when the mesh was skinned to the rig.

Due to the heavy mesh the skinning was the slower process for me. I did the basic animal skinning but the mesh would overlap with each other. Due to less number of joints for spine and tail, they were a little rigid.

Then with sir’s help I found out that we need edge loops in the areas of the folds of skin so that it

smoothly stretches and squashes accordingly as the rhino moves its legs.

So it went back to the modeler for extra loops.

My 2 rig: For easier skinning and flexibility of the body another rig was created.

My 2 nd rig:

For easier skinning and flexibility of the body another rig was created.

My 2 rig: For easier skinning and flexibility of the body another rig was created.
Here more tail joints were taken and two sets of spine joints. One set with more

Here more tail joints were taken and two sets of spine joints. One set with more no of joints for spine for flexible skinning and another set with lesser no. of joints for controller. Now both were connecter with cluster weights. No rib joints and the leg joints were positioned better than before.

Here more tail joints were taken and two sets of spine joints. One set with more
Controllers were given. Blendshapes were taken and passed to modeler . This was then skinned. Here

Controllers were given. Blendshapes were taken and passed to modeler .

This was then skinned.

Here we don’t have a separate controller for the clavicle rotation. We directly connected the rotation

control of the clavicle joints to hip and chest joints.

Controllers were given. Blendshapes were taken and passed to modeler . This was then skinned. Here

Now 1 st I skinned it as basic animal skin. But it lacked the rigidness yet movable of the thick skin like rubber. So with the help of my friend I had to re-skin it.

Now here the legs and the skin fold of back had different controllers. The belly has a separate controller and the feet become soft when the rhino lifts its legs. All of these were given using add influence option of the edit smooth skin options.

Now here the legs and the skin fold of back had different controllers. The belly has
Now here the legs and the skin fold of back had different controllers. The belly has

Thus my fully rigged rhino was ready.

Rhino Animation

Animator: D. Geethanjali

Now I had the completely rigged rhino and the 3 match moved shots.

First I watched all the reference videos of the rhino that we had gathered at zoo and from youtube. Then I saw what actions does a Rhino performs which are different from other animals like the shaking of the head from up to down. It is rock still and slowly moves its body weight across the land.

I had my

1 st shot :

It has 147 frames. Here we had to show the habitat of the rhino. Intro of rhino. So I thought of rhino looking up and it slowly looks down and takes a step front.

This is the 1st eg. of the shot.

Here the mistake was the stretch of neck was so much that the textures got stretched. The legs of the

rhino shouldn’t lift so high as it has to balance its weight.

R hino Animation Animator: D. Geethanjali Now I had the completely rigged rhino and the 3

This was corrected and redone as follows.

This was corrected and redone as follows. For the 2 shot: It has 97 frames. Rhino

For the 2 nd shot:

It has 97 frames. Rhino needed 100 frames to take a step. This was the long shot of the rhino showing the surrounding of the area it lived.

So its specialty of waving the head up and down was shown n this shot.

The 3 shot is a sniper view pan shot: It has 198 frames. According to the

The 3 rd shot is a sniper view pan shot:

It has 198 frames. According to the position of the rhino under the tree, the rhino is visible from the 105 th frame. The camera pans fast. So if there was a lot of movement of rhino in this shot, it will look shaky. So For this shot rhino chews something in its mouth as it turns its head slowly the way the camera pans.

Then there will be a shot sound and the camera fades out to show ‘Save Rhino’.

Thus the animation of all the 3 shots is completed.

Thus the animation of all the 3 shots is completed.

Rhino Lighting

Lighting Artist: Anvesh. N

  • I decided to use IBL to light the character. HDRI map was taken accordingly. The below image is the HDRI.

R hino Lighting Lighting Artist: Anvesh. N I decided to use IBL to light the character.

When we used SIBL we got gamma problem. We are unable to solve the problem so we shifted to IBL and solved the problem

  • I have done the lighting with the help of a spot light and HDRI and I also used surface shader for projection to get bounce light on the character.

And the following are the snap shots of the workspace in maya

Rhino Compositing of Shots

Compositors: Anvesh. N and D. Srujani

Passes we used:

Diffuse, specular, indirect light, ambient occlusion, light, master beauty, shadow, Fresnel passes are used.

We rendered our first shot in fussion, rest of the two shots rendered in After effects.

R hino Compositing of Shots Compositors: Anvesh. N and D. Srujani Passes we used: Diffuse, specular,
We exported into MOV format and then finally composed in premier pro.
We exported into MOV format and then finally composed in premier pro.

We exported into MOV format and then finally composed in premier pro.