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# Flow Charts and Graphs

## Flow Charts and Graphs

Introduction
When you have lot of raw data and many things are depending on that data, it becomes very difficult to take decisions just based on that. On the other hand, if you represent the same data in graphical manner, it becomes very easy to read and analyze it. Graphical representation of data gives viewer a clear-cut idea of the data from every aspect. Similarly, if there are many inter-related decisions you have to take based on the data, flow charts come to rescue. Decision making becomes easy with the use of flow charts. It also helps you to know what you should do after each step or where it is leading. As per the saying, A picture is worth a thousand words, flow charts and graphs give you a nice, pictorial view of your data. Those are important tools for taking management decisions.

Objective
In this chapter, we are going to learn the importance of flow charts and graphs in engineering drawing. We will study what is a flow chart, symbols used in it, how to draw flow charts and straight line diagrams. We will also study how and where we can use it. We will learn about different types of graphs and will learn to draw it.

Flow chart
Flow chart is a drawing tool which helps in decision making. It provides a way to solve complicated things, so, one can plan actions accordingly. Its effectiveness depends on the way people use it. Flow charts also help you to understand the process and help you to think where improvement is needed. It gives you step-by-step pictorial representation of the process. It can be used to define the process, analyze the process, and standardize the process.

## Types of Flow Charts:

Two main types of flow chart are: i) Basic Flow Charts ii) Straight Line Diagrams (SLD).

Basic Flow Charts need Symbols, SLD do not necessarily need symbols. SLDs can be used for depicting Flow Diagrams.

## Benefits of flow Chart:

1. A sequential, precise and short description of a process can be obtained. 2. Chances to overlook or miss any step, input-output elements are reduced. 3. Misuse of elements or tools can be located precisely. 4. Areas of improvement can be identified easily.

## Symbols used in flow charts

Since flow chart is a graphical or symbolic representation of a process, each step in the process is represented by a different symbol. It also contains a short description of the process step. These symbols are linked to each other with arrows showing the process flow direction. Some basic symbols used in flow chart are discussed here: Terminators: These are represented as rounded rectangles located in the beginning of the process and end of the process. You might see words Finish or Submit query or Receive product which also indicate end of the process instead of word, End.

Process: process.

## Represented as a rectangular shape indicating normal

Decision: Decision or condition in flowchart is represented as a diamond shape. It generally contains Yes/No or True/False question. This diamond will have two arrows coming out of it. One of the arrows will go to Yes or True and one will go to No or False.

Input / Output: Data Input / Output for the process is represented as parallelograms.

Arrows: Arrows coming from one symbol and ending to another indicates the direction of the flow.

To understand the meaning of all the symbols we have learned; lets use the flow chart to define a simple process. Lets say, the process is Preparation of tomato sauce. Following steps are there in the process: Clean the tomatoes, cook them in pressure cooker, make a pulp in mixer, remove seeds and wastage, add spices and cook the mixture on stove to remove water, check the quality and then pack the tomato sauce.

Start

Cleaning of tomatoes

## Cooking of tomatoes in pressure cooker

Grinding cooked tomatoes in mixer Remove seeds and peels from the pulp Cooking the mixture over stove to remove excess water

No

## SLD - Straight Line Diagram

Straight Line Diagrams are graphical liner presentations of Information. With the help of relevant textual information (such as tags, names) one can use only straight lines to represent a simple or complex information. A good example of a generic SLD is route maps shown in Locals and Metros. Following is one example:

## Fig. 2 Route map of Delhi Metro

(Curtsy: Delhi Metro)

A straight line diagram can also be used to indicate internals of a building, such as a workshop, where one can depict what tools are kept where. Also, SLD for electrical circuit of a given building is another possibility. Electrical Services, Telecommunication Services and Civil Engineering Services are the major sections where SLD are utilized. As a whole, SLDs are a great tool for depicting complex diagrams such as town planning, Pipe Line Plans, Electrical Circuits in a building or across a city, without worrying about the details of each small object/tool/system in the plan.

Graph
A graph is a chart or drawing displaying the relationship between numbers or amounts or quantities. It is also defined as Visual representation of statistical information with the help of two or more reference axes. In such drawings, lines, bars or proportional area represent how one quantity is dependent on another quantity. Graphs help us to understand the relation between two different quantities. These quantities are called as Data. Graphs are widely used in the field of mathematics, statistics, science, education etc.

## Steps to plot a graph

1. Draw two axes, namely, X as horizontal axis and Y as vertical axis, both at right angled to each other. The point of intersection of axes is called the 'Origin' of the scale. It is treated as the 'Zero' of the scales. 2. Decide a scale - measure the maximum available units on any one axis of the graph. Name it as (A), find the maximum amount to be plotted along that axis. Name it as (B), the division of A by B gives the scale along that particular axis. e.g. if maximum available units along X axis are 12 cm (A) and maximum 24 months' (B) record is to be plotted along X axis then A/B = 12/24 = 1:2. That is, every 1 cm along the X axis represents 2 months or for representing each month, 0.5 cm of X axis can be used. Similar procedure is followed for other axes. 3. To plot each point of the graph, the X and Y values of that particular information are measured along the respective axes. The point of intersection of perpendiculars drawn from these values represents the point of information. There are different types of graphs which can be used for different reasons. We will see few of them in this chapter.

Types of Graph:
1. Line Graph
These types of graphs are the most commonly used graphs. These are very simple to draw and easy to understand. A line graph shows points plotted on a graph. The points are then connected to form a line. The following line graph (Fig. 3) shows runs made by two Cricket teams, A and B in various overs. It is usually used to display each single data value. The graph shows us progress made by both the teams. Overs Runs made by Team A Runs made by Team B First 60 80 Fifth Tenth Fifteenth Twentieth 120 140 185 170 240 241 300 323

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 First Fif th Tenth Fif teenth Tw entieth

## Fig. 3 Line graph

2. Bar Graph
It is also called as column graph. A bar graph uses bars or columns to show data. The bars are of two types: vertical (up and down), or horizontal (across). These graphs are easy to understand because they are presented in the form of rectangular bars with different height according to its value. The data can be in words or numbers.

The following bar graph (Fig. 4) shows comparative temperature of different cities in India. City Temp. In C
0

Mumbai 35

Delhi 40

Kalikat Chennai 36 39

Nagpur 42

Bengaluru 28

## Fig. 4 Bar graph

3. Pie Graph
It is shaped like a circle divided into pieces like pieces of pie and so the name Pie graph. It is normally called Pie chart. Different pieces or segments show the percentage of specific data. A pie chart displays how much each value contributes to the total. If you have few figures or quantities to compare, pie chart is a good option to represent. But with too many quantities, pie chart looks very messy. The following pie chart (Fig. 5) shows number of employees working in different departments of a workshop. It shows comparative strength of each department. Department No. of employees Welding Fitting Turning Carpentry 40 37 46 20

Carpentry , 20

Welding, 40

Turning, 46 Fitting, 37

## Fig. 5 Pie graph

Benefits of Graph:

Graphs show relationship between two quantities in visual form. And due to its visual form, it is easy to read. Graph is very useful management tool to analyze information. By using different colors in your graph, you can emphasize important points. By using different software, different style of graphs can be drawn, they can be enhanced by adding legends, labels etc. This way is more powerful than just a talk.

Summary
Here is the summary of what we learned in this chapter: Flow charts and graphs are very important drawing tools. Flow charts give step-by-step pictorial information of the process. It helps in decision making process. In flow charts, each step in the process is represented by a symbol. Graph shows relationship between two quantities. It helps you to analyze the data easily. We learned three different types of graphs: line graph, bar graph and pie graph.

Activity
1. Draw a Straight Line Diagram (SLD) for the procedure of welding two MS circular rods of 20 mm diameter at right angles to each other. 2. Draw a flow chart for following procedure. 20 students in class 10th appeared for one test. The test was of 100 marks. Passing marks were 50. If the student has got marks more than 90, he/she will get Excellent grade. Other students will get Satisfactory grade. 3. Plot a bar graph of following information:
Students Marks Anuja 31 Rahul 90 Meghana 78 Hari 57

## 4. Plot a line graph of a 20-20 cricket match performance, given as follows:

Over Runs by Team A Runs by Team B First Fifth Tenth Fifteenth Twentieth 12 3 34 60 120 85 190 100 230 236