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June 15, 2012

An Open Letter from Over 300 Scientists on Protecting the Tongass National Forest

As scientists with professional expertise in conservation and management of natural resources, we are writing to express our serious concerns regarding Sealaska Corporation’s proposal to acquire almost 65,000 acres (the equivalent of more than 100 square miles) of public land in the Tongass National Forest. The vast majority of these lands would be subjected to clearcut logging, including some of the most biologically rich, large-tree old-growth rainforest remaining on the Tongass.

The Sealaska Corporation’s proposal would enable further “high grading” of the Tongass, a logging practice that disproportionately targets rare, big-tree old-growth forest. The Wildlife Society, the nation’s most prominent scientific society for professional wildlife conservationists, has long standing concerns over this particular logging practice:

“Landscape analyses in portions of Southeast Alaska show that while only 10-50% of the commercial forestland in some areas was logged, that acreage often included a high percentage of the big-tree old growth, particularly flood plain spruce and larger trees near tidewater. This pattern of timber harvest, a form of “high-grading,” reduces forest structural diversity and disproportionately impacts wildlife, recreation, and esthetic values associated with those forest types.1

Among our concerns, we note:

The highly productive near-shore, riverine, and forested public lands of the Tongass provide irreplaceable natural amenities for the American people and were a key reason why President Theodore Roosevelt established it as the nation’s preeminent national forest in

1907.

Throughout the world, old-growth temperate rainforests are exceptionally rare and rapidly disappearing. 2 Even though half or more of the very large-tree old growth has been logged in Southeast Alaska, the Tongass still contains a globally significant portion of the world’s remaining temperate rainforest. 3

Old-growth forests on the Tongass support diverse and abundant wildlife and play an important role in lessening climate change impacts through long-term storage of large amounts of carbon. 3 The Tongass is part of a network of carbon dense old-growth rainforests

1 The Wildlife Society, “Conservation and Management of Old-growth Forest On the Pacific Coast of North America”- Position Statement. Adopted February 2007.

2 DellaSala, D.A. (ed.). 2011. Temperate and boreal rainforests of the world: ecology and conservation. Island Press, Washington D.C. Schoen, J.W., and E. Dovichin (eds.). 2007. The Coastal Forests and Mountains ecoregion of Southeastern Alaska and the Tongass National Forest. Audubon Alaska and The Nature Conservancy, Alaska. 3 Luyssaert, S., E. Detlef Schulze, A. Borner, A. Knohl, D. Hessenmoller, B.E. Law, P. Ciais, and J. Grace. 2009. Old-growth forests as global carbon sinks. Nature: 455|11 September 2008|doi:10.1038/nature07276. Leighty, W.W., S.P. Hamburg, and J. Caouette. 2006. Effects of management on carbon sequestration in forest biomass in southeast Alaska. Ecosystems 9: 10511065 DOI: 10.1007/s10021-005-0028-3

Open Letter from Scientists on Protecting the Tongass National Forest Page 1

that extends from the California coastal redwoods and Pacific Northwest to coastal British Columbia and Prince William Sound. This region contains some of the most carbon dense ecosystems on the planet. 3,4 When rainforests are logged, much of their stored carbon is released as a greenhouse gas pollutant during site preparation, manufacture, and transport of wood products, which in the case of the Tongass, involves long distances to the Pacific Rim. These losses are not made up by storing carbon temporarily in wood products or by planting trees, as the on-site reduction in carbon storage from logging takes at least 200 years to return to about the same amount of stored carbon in the uncut old-growth forest. 5

While the Tongass has approximately 5-million acres of old growth remaining, most of the highest-volume old growth (i.e., the largest trees in valley bottoms) has been lost to high- grading. 6

Using Forest Service data and GIS analysis, Audubon Alaska has estimated that the proposed Sealaska Corporation selections would disproportionately remove the largest and most carbon-rich volume classes. 7,8 Such stands make up 2427 percent of Sealaska Corporation’s proposed land selections.

Congress ended the practice of disproportionately logging the largest old-growth trees on the Tongass in 1990 when it enacted the bi-partisan Tongass Timber Reform Act. 9 The legislation now sought by Sealaska Corporation would ignore this law preferentially for the corporation and eliminate a sizable fraction of the remaining rare, large-tree old growth.

Sealaska Corporation seeks to obtain smaller parcels of land for development, many of which are sited at the heads of bays, mouths of salmon streams, and other ecologically important locations. These lands contribute an inestimable value to commercial and sport fishing, recreation, subsistence fishing, hunting and tourism. Developing them would harm these industries that are considered the backbone of the regional economy.

The new lands that Sealaska wants would significantly set back the ability of the Forest Service to quickly transition out of old growth logging on the Tongass. This is because the proposed land selections also include young-growth stands that are ready to be logged. These lands are pivotal to the Forest Service’s ability to transition away from logging the remaining old growth and moving to a young-growth restoration program.

In closing, public lands on the Tongass National Forest are a precious natural resource. We believe they should be managed for their highest and best use, which includes protection of globally rare large-tree rainforests that are vital for maintaining biodiversity and long-term carbon storage.

4 Based on recent Forest Inventory Assessment plot data from the Forest Service and Leighty et al. (ibid). 5 Harmon ME, Ferrell WK, Franklin JF. 1990. Effects on carbon storage of conversion of old-growth forests to young forests. Science 247:699702. 6 See Albert, D, “A preliminary comparison of ecological values associated with Economic Development and Native Future Sites proposed under the Southeast Alaska Native Land Entitlement Finalization Act (S 881) and other lands of the Tongass National Forest,” The Nature Conservancy, Juneau, Alaska, dated March 1, 2010. 7 Myers, E. F., N. J. Walker, M. D. Kirchhoff, and J. W. Schoen 2011. Highgrading on the Tongass National Forest: Implications of Pending Land Selections on Forest Diversity. Unpublished report. Audubon Alaska, Anchorage, AK 99501. 22 pp. (October 2011). 8 Old growth on the Tongass is classified by volume classes based on timber volume present in a stand. Class 7, the rarest type, includes old-growth stands that have 50,000+ board feet per acre and the largest remaining trees (Myers et al. 2011, ibid). 9 Section 301(c)(2) of Pub. L. No. 101-626, 104 Stat. 4426, 4430 (Nov. 28, 1990).

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Sincerely,

- Lead Signatories -

Dominick A. DellaSala, Ph.D. Chief Scientist and President Geos Institute Ashland, Oregon

Stuart L. Pimm, Ph.D. Doris Duke Chair of Conservation Duke University Durham, North Carolina

James R. Karr, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus of Fisheries and Biology University of Washington Seattle, Washington

Paul Alaback, Ph.D. Prof. Emeritus, Forest Biology University of Montana Missoula, Montana

Peter H. Albers, Ph.D. Wildlife Biologist Emeritus U.S. Geological Survey (retired) Traverse City, Michigan

John Alcock, Ph.D. Emeritus Regents Professor Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona

Peter Alpert, Ph.D. Professor University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts

James Amon, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus Wright State University Dayton, Ohio

*Affiliations are listed for identification purposes only.

E. O. Wilson, Ph.D. Pellegrino Univ. Prof. Emeritus Harvard University; Museum of Comparative Zoology Cambridge, Massachusetts

Reed F. Noss, Ph.D. Provost's Dist. Research Prof. University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida

Gordon Orians, Ph.D. National Academy of Sciences Professor Emeritus of Biology University of Washington Seattle, Washington

William D. Anderson, Jr., Ph.D. Professor Emeritus Grice Marine Biological Lab College of Charleston Charleston, South Carolina

Robert Angus, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus University of Alabama Birmingham, Alabama

Robert G. Anthony, Ph.D. Professor of Wildlife Ecology Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon

Kenneth J. Arrow, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus Stanford, California

Michael C. Ashley, Ph.D. Geneticist Reno, Nevada

Thomas Lovejoy, Ph.D Univ. Prof. of Environmental Science and Public Policy George Mason University Fairfax,Virginia

Peter H. Raven, Ph.D. President Emeritus

Missouri Botanical Garden

St. Louis, Missouri

David Wilcove, Ph.D. Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey

Richard G. Baker, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa

William L Baker, Ph.D. Professor University of Wyoming Laramie, Wyoming

Bruce G. Baldwin, Ph.D.

W. L. Jepson Prof. and Curator

Univ. of California, Berkeley Berkeley, California

Randy Bangert, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Biology Trinidad, Colorado

Katherine Bannar-Martin, M.Sc. University of Texas Austin, Texas

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Mark Barath. M.S. Aquatic Scientist Willow Grove, Pennsylvania

Jesse R. Barber, Ph.D. Boise State University Boise, Idaho

F. H. Barnwell, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus University of Minnesota St. Paul, Minnesota

Roger G. Barry, Ph.D. Distinguished Prof. Emeritus Univ. of Colorado, National Snow and Ice Data Center Boulder, Colorado

Carol Baskauf, Ph.D. Professor of Biology Austin Peay State University Clarksville, Tennessee

Paul Beier, Ph.D. School of Forestry Northern Arizona Univ. Flagstaff, Arizona

Steven R. Beissinger, Ph.D. Leopold Chair, Wildlife Biology University of California Berkeley, California

Craig W. Benkman, Ph.D. Professor University of Wyoming Laramie, Wyoming

David H. Benzing, Ph.D. Professor of Biology Oberlin College Oberlin, Ohio

David J. Berg, Ph.D. Professor of Zoology Miami University Oxford, Ohio

Robert L. Beschta, Ph.D. Prof. Emeritus, Forest Ecosystems and Society Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon

Richard O. Bierregaard, Ph.D. Visiting Dist. Research Prof. Univ. of North Carolina Charlotte, North Carolina

Brian Bodenbender, Ph.D. Chair, Geological and Environmental Sciences Hope College Holland, Michigan

Jim Boone, Ph.D. Senior Scientist Desert Wildlife Consultants LLC Las Vegas, Nevada

Arthur Boucot, Ph.D. Distinguished Professor of Zoology & Geology Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon

Brad Boyle, Ph.D. Research Associate University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona

Matthew Bracken, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Northeastern University Nahant, Massachusetts

Richard Bradley, Ph.D. Associate Professor Ohio State University Marion, Ohio

Dennis M. Bramble, Ph.D Emeritus Professor of Biology University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah

Solange Brault, Ph.D. Associate Professor University of Massachusetts Boston, Massachusetts

Bill Bridgeland, Ph.D. Wildlife Biologist Bandon, Oregon

Robert A. Brown, Ph.D. Professor University of Washington Seattle, Washington

Peter F. Brussard, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus University of Nevada, Reno Reno, Nevada

Jeffery Burkhart, Ph.D. Fletcher Jones Prof. of Biology University of La Verne La Verne, California

Thomas J. Cade, Ph.D Professor Emeritus of Zoology Cornell University, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Ithaca, New York

Phillip Cafaro, Ph.D. Professor of Philosophy Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado

John Cairns, Jr., Ph.D. Distinguished Prof. Emeritus Virginia Tech Blacksburg, Virginia

Ken Carloni, Ph.D. Assoc. Professor of Biology Umpqua Community College Roseburg, Oregon

Steven A. Carlson, Ph.D Professor Emeritus Humboldt State University Missoula, Montana

Bobb Carson, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus Lehigh University Bethlehem, Pennsylvania

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David M. Chambers, Ph.D. President Center for Science in Public Participation Bozeman, Montana

Kai Chan, Ph.D. Associate Professor Canada Research Chair University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia

Norman Christensen, Jr., Ph.D. Research Professor, Founding Dean, Nicholas School of the Environment Durham, North Carolina

John A. Cigliano, Ph.D. Assoc. Prof. of Biology Dir. of Conservation Biology Cedar Crest College Allentown, Pennsylvania

Deborah A. Clark, Ph.D. Research Professor University of Missouri, St. Louis Colorado Springs, Colorado

Phyllis D .Coley, Ph.D. Distinguished Professor University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah

Liza Comita, Ph.D. Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio

Joseph Cook, Ph.D. Professor, Director University of New Mexico Museum of SW Biology Albuquerque, New Mexico

Paul T. Corogin, Ph.D. University of Florida Gainesville, Florida

Ericha Courtright, M.S. New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico

Alan P. Covich, Ph.D. Professor of Ecology University of Georgia Athens, Georgia

Frank Lance Craighead, Ph.D. Executive Director Craighead Institute Bozeman, Montana

Patrick J. Crist, Ph.D. Dir. of Conservation Planning and Ecosystem Management Society for Cons. Biology Broomfield, Colorado

Kevin R. Crooks, Ph.D. Associate Professor Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado

Gretchen C. Daily, Ph.D. Bing Prof. of Env. Science Stanford University Stanford, California

Luise K. Davis, Ph.D. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

James E. Deacon, Ph.D. Distinguished Emeritus Prof. University of Nevada, Las Vegas Henderson, Nevada

Alan Dickman, Ph.D. Director, Env. Studies Program Research Assoc. Professor University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon

Rodolfo Dirzo, Ph.D. Bing Professor of Env. Sciences Stanford University, Dirzo Lab Stanford, California

Daniel Doak, Ph.D. Professor University of Wyoming Laramie, Wyoming

Alex Doetsch, Ph.D. Twin Falls, Idaho

Dana E. Dolsen, M.Sc. University of Alberta Holladay, Utah

Ken L. Driese, Ph.D. Senior Lecturer University of Wyoming Laramie, Wyoming

Peter W. Dunwiddie, Ph.D. Affiliate Professor University of Washington Seattle, Washington

Scott V. Edwards, Ph.D. Prof. of Zoology Curator of Ornithology Harvard University Museum of Comparative Zoology Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tracy R. Evans, M.S. Resource Review Coordinator Illinois Dept. Natural Resources Springfield, Illinois

Jonathan Evans, Ph.D. Professor of Biology University of the South Sewanee, Tennessee

Frank L .Farmer, Ph.D. Professor University of Arkansas Fayetteville, Arkansas

Tracy S. Feldman, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Biology University of Wisconsin Stevens Point, Wisconsin

Rebe Feraldi, MESM LCA & Sustainability Analyst Prairie Village, Kansas

Doug Fischer, Ph.D. Visiting Researcher University of California Santa Barbara, California

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Daniel C. Fisher, Ph.D. Professor, Director, Curator University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan

Thomas L. Fleischner, Ph.D. Prof. of Environmental Studies Prescott College Prescott, Arizona

Jeffrey Foster, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Northern Arizona University Flagstaff, Arizona

Johannes Foufopoulos, Ph.D. Associate Professor University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan

Monica Fowlds, M.S. Field Biologist Fresno, California

Michael W. Fox, Ph.D., D.Sc. Minneapolis, Minnesota

Barbara A. Frase, Ph.D. Professor of Biology Bradley University Peoria, Illinois

Douglas J. Frederick, Ph.D. Professor of Forestry North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina

Lee E. Frelich, Ph.D. Dir., Center for Forest Ecology University of Minnesota St. Paul, Minnesota

Jennifer K. Frey, Ph.D. Associate Professor New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico

Christopher A. Frissell, Ph.D. Senior Scientist Pacific Rivers Council Polson, Montana

Jed Fuhrman, Ph.D. McCulloch-Crosby Chair of Marine Biology Univ. of Southern California Los Angeles, California

Stephen W. Fuller, Ph.D. Professor of Biological Sciences University of Mary Washington Fredericksburg, Virginia

Daniel Gavin, Ph.D. Associate Professor University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon

Wynne Geikenjoyner, Ph.D. Flagstaff, Arizona

T. Luke George, Ph.D. Adjunct Prof., Dept. of Wildlife Humboldt State University Arcata, California

Scott Goetz, Ph.D. Senior Scientist Woods Hole Research Center Falmouth, Massachusetts

Jennifer Gervais, Ph.D. Wildlife Ecologist Oregon Wildlife Institute Corvallis, Oregon

John H. Gibbons, Ph.D. Nat’l. Academy of Engineering The Plains, Virginia

Tom Giesen, M.S. Instructor University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon

James D. Gilardi, Ph.D. Executive Director World Parrot Trust Davis, California

Steven Green, Ph.D. Professor University of Miami Coral Gables, Florida

Jon Grinnell, Ph.D. Gustavus Adolphus College Saint Peter, Minnesota

Gary D. Grossman, Ph.D. Professor University of Georgia Athens, Georgia

Ed Grumbine, Ph.D Senior Visiting Scientist Kunming Institute of Botany Kunming, China

Andrew J. Gunther, Ph.D. Executive Director Center for Ecosystem Management & Restoration Oakland, California

John E. Hall, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia

Charles Halpern, Ph.D. Seattle, Washington

Chad Hanson, Ph.D. Director and Staff Scientist John Muir Project of the Earth Island Institute Cedar Ridge, California

Andrea Hassler, M. S. Field Instructor University of Colorado Colorado Springs, Colorado

David Havlick, Ph.D. Assistant Professor University of Colorado Colorado Springs, Colorado

Enrique Gomezdelcampo, Ph.D. Associate Professor Bowling Green State University Bowling Green, Ohio

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Susanna B. Hecht, Ph.D Professor University of California Los Angeles, California

Bernd Heinrich, Ph.D. Professor University of Vermont Burlington, Vermont

Ken R. Helms, Ph.D. Research Assistant Professor University of Vermont Burlington, Vermont

Scott M. Herron, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Biology Ferris State University University of Michigan Big Rapids, Michigan

Richard Hodel, M.S. University of Florida Gainesville, Florida

Karen Holl, Ph.D. Professor Univ. of California, Santa Cruz Felton, California

Richard T. Holmes, Ph.D. Harris Prof. of Environmental Biology Emeritus Dartmouth College Hanover, New Hampshire

R. A. Houghton, Ph.D. Senior Scientist Woods Hole Research Center Woods Hole, Massachusetts

John J. Hutchens, Jr., Ph.D. Associate Professor of Biology Coastal Carolina University Conway, South Carolina

Brian Inouye, Ph.D. Associate Professor Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida

David W. Inouye, Ph.D. Professor University of Maryland College Park, Maryland

Emi Ito, Ph.D. Professor University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota

Jerome A. Jackson, Ph.D. Professor of Ecological Sciences Florida Gulf Coast University Ft. Myers, Florida

David P. Janos, Ph.D. Cooper Fellow, Prof. of Biology University of Miami Coral Gables, Florida

Daniel Janzen, Ph.D. Prof. of Conservation Biology University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Clinton N. Jenkins, Ph.D. Principal Research Scholar North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina

David G. Jenkins, Ph.D. Professor University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida

Mitchell M. Johns, Ph.D. Professor of Soils California State University Chico, California

Bart R. Johnson, Ph.D. Associate Professor Eugene, Oregon

Jeff A. Johnson, Ph.D. Assistant Professor University of North Texas Denton, Texas

Kyle Joly, Ph.D. Wildlife Biologist Fairbanks, Alaska

Cynthia S. Jones, Ph.D. Professor University of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut

Alan R. P. Journet, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus, Biology and Environtmental Science Southeast Missouri State Univ. Cape Girardeau, Missouri

Walter S. Judd, Ph.D. University of Florida Gainesville, Florida

Anne Kapuscinski, Ph.D. Distinguished Prof. of Sustainability Science Dartmouth College Hanover, New Hampshire

David Karowe, Ph.D. Professor, Biological Sciences Western Michigan University Kalamazoo, Michigan

Darren Kavanagh, M.S. Seattle, Washington

David R. Klein, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus University of Alaska, Fairbanks Fairbanks, Alaska

Walter D. Koenig, Ph.D. Senior Scientist Cornell University Ithaca, New York

Jason Koontz, Ph.D. Associate Professor Rock Island, Illinois

Marni Koopman, Ph.D. Climate Change Scientist Geos Institute Ashland, Oregon

Julie Korb, Ph.D. Associate Professor Fort Lewis College Durango, Colorado

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Erin Kuprewicz, Ph.D. Washington, D.C.

Troy A. Ladine, Ph.D. Professor East Texas Baptist University Marshall, Texas

Rebecca S. Lamb, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio

Sally Landaal, M.S. Raleigh, North Carolina

Marc Lapin, Ph.D. Middlebury College Cornwall, Vermont

Maribeth Latvis, Ph.D.Candidate University of Florida Gainesville, Florida

Beverly Law, Ph.D. Professor, Global Change and Forest Science Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon

Geoffrey Lawrence, M.S. Lecturer North Hennepin Comm. College Minneapolis, Minnesota

Scott R. Lefler, Ph.D. Senior Lecturer Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona

Ken Leonard, Ph.D. Instructor Georgia Perimeter College Lawrenceville, Georgia

Simon Levin, Ph.D. Professor Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey

William Z. Lidicker, Jr., Ph.D. Professor Emeritus of Integrative Biology University of California Berkeley, California

Dina M. Liebowitz, M.S. University of Florida Gainesville, Florida

Jason A. Lillegraven, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus University of Wyoming Laramie, Wyoming

Harvey B. Lillywhite, Ph.D. Professor University of Florida Gainesville, Florida

Kathryn Lowrey, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Biology Conservation Biology Society Louisville, Kentucky

Marvin M. F. Lutnesky, Ph.D. Professor and Chair, Biology Eastern New Mexico University Portales, New Mexico

Steven R. Manchester, Ph.D. Curator, Florida Museum of Natural History Gainesville, Florida

Debora L. Mann, Ph.D. Asst. Prof. and Chair, Biology Millsaps College Jackson, Mississippi

Janet Marsden, MBA, MS, MPS IEEE Syracuse, New York

Michael Marsh, Ph.D. Conservation Committee Washington Native Plant Society Seattle, Washington

Travis D. Marsico, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Arkansas State University Jonesboro, Arkansas

Pat Martin, Ph.D. Professor Fort Collins, Colorado

Carlos Martinez del Rio, Ph.D. Professor University of Wyoming Laramie, Wyoming

John M. Marzluff, Ph.D. Professor of Wildlife Science University of Washington Seattle, Washington

Sara M. Maxwell, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Fellow Marine Conservation Institute Santa Cruz, California

Audrey L. Mayer, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Michigan Technological Univ. Houghton, Michigan

James J. McCarthy, Ph.D. Professor Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts

Carl N. McDaniel, Ph.D. Prof. Emeritus, Visiting Prof. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Oberlin College Oberlin, Ohio

Daniel J. McGarvey, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Virginia Commonwealth Univ. (formerly USFS at the Tongass National Forest) Richmond, Virginia

John McLaughlin, Ph.D. Western Washington University Bellingham, Washington

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Gary K. Meffe, Ph.D. Adjunct Professor University of Florida Gainesville, Florida

Eric Menges, Ph.D. Program Director, Plant Ecology Archbold Biological Station Sebring, Florida

Julie Messier, M.Sc. University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona

Steven M. Miller, Ph.D. Assoc. Professor (retired) Mayo Clinic School of Medicine Rochester, Minnesota

Faisal Moola, Ph.D. Director, Terrestrial Conservation and Science David Suzuki Foundation Toronto, Ontario

Harold Mooney, Ph.D. Prof. of Environmental Biology Stanford University Stanford, California

Vicki Moore, M.S. Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona

John C. Morse, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina

Dennis D. Murphy, Ph.D. Research Professor University of Nevada Reno, Nevada

K. Greg Murray, Ph.D. Professor of Biology Hope College Holland, Michigan

Brent A. Murry, Ph.D. Research Assistant Professor Central Michigan University Inst. for Great Lakes Research Mt. Pleasant, Michigan

Olin Eugene Myers Jr., Ph.D Professor Western Washington University Bellingham, Washington

Philip Myers, Ph.D. Professor University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan

Wolf Naegeli, Ph.D. Sr. Research Scientist Emeritus University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee

Dhruba Naug, Ph.D. Fort Collins, Colorado

Charles R. Neal, B.S. Ecologist (retired) U.S. Dept. of Interior Cody, Wyoming

C. Riley Nelson, Ph.D. Professor Brigham Young University Provo, Utah

Jay A. Nelson, Ph.D. Professor Towson University Towson, Maryland

William D. Newmark, Ph.D. Research Curator University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah

Brandon L. Noel, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Georgia Southern University Statesboro, Georgia

Barry R. Noon, Ph.D. Professor Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado

Ellott Norse, Ph.D. President Marine Conservation Institute Bellvue, Washington

Gretchen North, Ph.D. Professor Occidental College Los Angeles, California

Richard A. Nyhof, Ph.D. Professor of Biology Calvin College Grand Rapids, Michigan

Dennis C. Odion, Ph.D Dept. of Environmental Studies Southern Oregon University Ashland, Oregon

Charles Olmsted, Ph.D Professor Emeritus of Environmental Studies University of Northern Colorado Greeley, Colorado

Richard S. Ostfeld, Ph.D. Senior Scientist Cary Inst. of Ecosystem Studies Millbrook, New York

Robert T. Paine, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus of Biology University of Washington Seattle, Washington

Michael S. Parker, Ph.D. Professor of Biology Southern Oregon University Ashland, Oregon

Gustav Paulay, Ph.D. Curator, Professor University of Florida Gainesville, Florida

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Timothy A. Pearce, Ph.D. Assistant Curator of Mollusks Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

David Perry, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus Oregon State University Selma, Oregon

Steven Phillips, Ph.D. New York, New York

Mary Poffenroth, M.S. Adjunct Professor of Biology San Jose State University San Jose, California

Tony Povilitis, Ph.D. Wildlife Biologist Life Net Nature Willcox, Arizona

Thomas Michael Power, Ph.D. Research Professor University of Montana Missoula, Montana

Ben Prater, MEM Associate Director Wild South Asheville, North Carolina

Jessica D. Pratt, M.S. Graduate Researcher University of California, Irvine Irvine, California

Robert Michael Pyle, Ph.D. Founder Xerces Society Gray's River, Washington

Tom W. Quinn, Ph.D. Professor University of Denver Denver, Colorado

Theodore K. Raab, Ph.D. Senior Investigator Carnegie Institute of Washington Redwood City, California

Gurcharan S. Rahi, Ph.D Associate Professor Fayetteville State University Fayetteville, North Carolina

John T. Ratti, Ph.D. Research Professor (retired) University of Idaho New Meadows, Idaho

Eric A. Rechel, Ph.D. Grand Junction, Colorado

Barbara C. Reynolds, Ph.D. Prof. of Environmental Studies University of North Carolina Asheville, North Carolina

Fred M. Rhoades, Ph.D. Instructor of Biology and Mycology (retired) Western Washington University Bellingham, Washington

Ann F. Rhoads, Ph.D. Senior Botanist University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

David W. Roberts, Ph.D. Professor Montana State Univ., Ecology Bozeman, Montana

Dina Roberts, Ph.D. Conservation Scientist International Boreal Conservation Campaign Seattle, Washington

Bruce Robertson, Ph.D. Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute Washington, D.C.

George R. Robinson, Ph.D. Professor University at Albany, SUNY Albany, New York

Pamela Roe, Ph.D. Turlock, California

Gary W. Roemer, Ph.D. Associate Professor New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico

Garry Rogers, Ph.D. President Agua Fria Open Space Alliance Humboldt, Arizona

Steven Rogstad, Ph.D. Professor University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio

Terry L. Root, Ph.D. Stanford University Stanford, California

Jon Rosales, Ph.D. Associate Professor St. Lawrence University Canton, New York

Michael L. Rosenzweig, Ph.D. Professor University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona

Donald S. Ross, Ph.D. Research Associate Professor University of Vermont Burlington, Vermont

Amy Rossman, Ph.D. Research Leader Beltsville, Maryland

Eric Routman, Ph.D. Professor of Biology San Francisco State University San Francisco, California

Matthew Rubino, Ph.D. Conservation Biologist North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina

Brad Ruhfel, Ph.D. University of Florida Gainesville, Florida

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Scott D. Russell, Ph.D. George Cross Research Prof. University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma

Ronald L. Rutowski, Ph.D. Professor Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona

Robin S. Salter, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Biology Oberlin College Oberlin, Ohio

D. Scott Samuels, Ph.D. Professor University of Montana Missoula, Montana

Benedetta Sarno, Ph.D. DVM Durham, New Hampshire

Ira D. Sasowsky, Ph.D. Professor of Geology and Environmental Science University of Akron Akron, Ohio

Melissa Savage, Ph.D. Professor Emerita University of California Los Angeles, California

John Sawyer, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus of Botany Humboldt State University Arcata, California

Hanno Schaefer, Ph.D. Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts

Paul J. Schaeffer, Ph.D. Miami University, Geology Oxford, Ohio

John W. Schoen, Ph.D. Wildlife Ecologist Audubon Alaska (retired) Anchorage, Alaska

Brant Schumaker, MPVM, Ph.D. Laramie, Wyoming

Steve Shippee, Ph.D. Candidate Conservation Biologist University of Central Florida Orlanda, Florida

Marcia Shofner, Ph.D. Asst. Dir., Biological Sciences University of Maryland College Park, Maryland

Rodney B. Siegel, Ph.D. Executive Director Institute for Bird Populations Point Reyes Station, California

Derek Sikes, Ph.D. Assoc. Professor of Entomology University of Alaska Museum Fairbanks, Alaska

Stephen C. Sillett, Ph.D. Professor Humboldt State University Arcata, California

Jack W. Sites, Jr., Ph.D. Maeser Professor and Curator Brigham Young University Provo, Utah

Isaac Skromne, Ph.D. Assistant Professor University of Miami Miami, Florida

David L. Smith, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Biological Sciences Le Moyne College Syracuse, New York

Nicholas J. Smith-Sebasto, Ph.D. Exec. Director, Center for Sustainability Studies Kean University Union, New Jersey

Pamela S. Soltis, Ph.D. Distinguished Prof. and Curator University of Florida Museum of Natural History Gainesville, Florida

Stefan Sommer, Ph.D. Director, Colorado Plateau Biodiversity Center Northern Arizona University Flagstaff, Arizona

John Sovell, M.S. Senior Researcher Colorado State University Fort Collins, COlorado

Daniel T. Spencer, Ph.D. Professor University of Montana Missoula, Montana

Wayne D. Spencer, Ph.D. Senior Conservation Biologist Conservation Biology Institute San Diego, California

Timothy P. Spira, Ph.D. Professor Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina

Peter Stacey, Ph.D. Research Professor University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico

John D. Stednick, Ph.D. Professor Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado

Rick Steiner, M.S. Professor University of Alaska (retired) Anchorage, Alaska

Andrew G. Stephenson, Ph.D. Distinguished Prof. of Biology Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania

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Glenn R. Stewart, Ph.D. Prof. Emer., Biological Sciences California State Polytechnic University, Pomona Pomona, California

Christopher Still, Ph.D. Associate Professor University of California Santa Barbara, California

Richard R. Strathmann, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus University of Washington Friday Harbor, Washington

Sharon Y. Strauss, Ph.D. Professor University of California Davis, California

Stephen F. Stringham, Ph.D. President WildWatch Soldotna, Alaska

Gregory W. Stull, Ph.D. University of Florida Gainesville, Florida

John D. Styrsky, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Biology Lynchburg College Lynchburg, Virginia

Michael C. Swift, Ph.D. Assistant Professor St. Olaf College Northfield, Minnesota

Robert Tafanelli, Ph.D. Asst. Professor & Research Specialist (retired) New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico

Stephen T. Tettelbach, Ph.D. Professor of Biology Long Island University Brookville, New York

Edward Thornton, Ph.D. Professor of Chemistry University of Pennsylvania Swarthmore, Pennsylvania

Tamara Ticktin, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Botany University of Hawaii Honolulu, Hawaii

Paul F. Torrence, Ph.D. Emeritus Professor Northern Arizona University Flagstaff, Arizona

Vicki Tripoli, Ph.D. Environmental Scientist Ashland, Oregon

Walter R. Tschinkel, Ph.D. R. O. Lawton Dist. Professor Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida

Julie Tuttle, Ph.D. Candidate Univ. of North Carolina Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Chris A. Underwood, M.S. University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee

Dean Urban, Ph.D. Professor of Landscape Ecology Duke University Durham, North Carolina

James W. Valentine, Ph.D. Professor of Integrative Biology, Emeritus University of California Berkeley, California

Rick Van de Poll, Ph.D. Principal Ecosystem Mgmt. Consultants Sandwich, New Hampshire

David R. Vann, Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

John D. Varley, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist Montana State University Bozeman, Montana

Frank A. von Hippel, Ph.D. Professor University of Alaska Anchorage Anchorage, Alaska

Eric von Wettberg, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Florida International University Miami, Florida

David B. Wake, Ph.D. Professor, Graduate School in Integrative Biology University of California Berkeley, California

Faith M. Walker, Ph.D. Adjunct Faculty Northern Arizona University Flagstaff, Arizona

Donald Waller, Ph.D. Professor University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin

Richard T. Ward, Ph.D. Professor of Botany Colorado State University Ft. Collins, Colorado

G.J. Wasserburg, Ph.D. John D. MacArthur Prof. of Geology & Geophysics California Inst. of Technology Pasadena, California

Vicki Watson, Ph.D. Prof. of Environmental Studies University of Montana Missoula, Montana

Judith S. Weis, Ph.D. Professor of Biological Sciences Rutgers University Newark, New Jersey

Open Letter from Scientists on Protecting the Tongass National Forest Page 12

John F. Weishampel, Ph.D. Professor of Biology University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida

Orion Weldon, Ph.D Candidate Rutgers University, Ecology and Evolution New Brunswick, New Jersey

Hartwell H. Welsh, Jr., Ph.D. Research Wildlife Biologist Arcata, California

David Whitacre, Ph.D. Biology Teacher Treasure Valley Math and Science Center Boise, Idaho

Sue Wick, Ph.D. Professor University of Minnesota St. Paul, Minnesota

Jack E. Williams, Ph.D. Senior Scientist Trout Unlimited Medford, Oregon

Norris H. Williams, Ph.D. Curator Gainesville, Florida

David L. Wilson, Ph.D. Professor University of Miami Coral Gables, Florida

Denise Wilson, M.S. President Chicago Botanic Garden Seeds of Success Program Golden, Colorado

Neville Winchester, Ph.D. Adjunct Assistant Professor Univ. of Victoria, Biology and Geography Department Victoria, British Columbia

Marianna D. Wood, Ph.D. Associate Professor Bloomsburg University Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania

Steven Yanoff, M.S. White Oaks, New Mexico

Charlotte Zampini, Ph.D. Associate Professor Framingham State University Westborough, Massachusetts

Open Letter from Scientists on Protecting the Tongass National Forest Page 13