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1. Corrosion: Degradation of a metal by chemical or Electro-chemical means (firstly an electrical circuit and secondly a chemical reaction. 2.

Anode: positively charged area 3. Cathode: negatively charged area 4. Electrolyte: a substance, which will conduct a current and be broken down by it, (dissociate into ions) 5. 2H2O2H+ + 2O Fe Fe++ + 2e. Fe++ + 2O Fe (OH)2 6. Hygroscopic Salts. A hygroscopic salt is one, which will attract water and dissolve in it 7. Osmotic or Hygroscopic blisters: pinhead sized water filled blisters 8. potential: The degree of activity 9. Galvanic List = Electro Motive forces series = the Electro-Chemical series. 10. Millscale: Layer produced during compressed of iron oxides during the rolling operation 11. Polarization: process at which the electrons transfer from positively charged area to negatively charged area through the proper electrolyte and forming electrical circuit 12. Surface preparation removing the contaminants, and increasing the area available for adhesion by roughening up the substrate 13. Working mix: A working mix is an accepted ratio of large and small particles, where the large particles cut the profile and the smaller particles clean out the troughs. 14. Rogue peak is one, which is well proud of the acceptable profile range, and if painted over due to contraction of the paint, will leave bare metal in contact with the atmosphere, thus allowing corrosion to occur 15. Rust rashing or Rust spotting: When rogue peaks are in concentrated area the effect is of a rash 16. Adhesion: The force required to separate two surfaces in touch. 17. Molecular Interference : Because the surface is rough and uneven the paint wets, and locks into the profile, analogy Velcro. Physical. 18. Molecular Attraction: Negatively charged particles attracted to positive areas, and vice versa. Analogy Magnet (sometimes called Ionic Bonding). Chemical 19. Surface profile, anchor pattern, key, peak to trough height and amplitude The cross section of a blasted area, as measured from the top of the peaks to the bottom of the troughs 20. Hackle: A small surface lamination, which stands upright like a needle after blasting. Approximately 13 mm. Easily removed. 21. Lamination - slivers: Appears to be a longitudinal crack, one lip curling back, any laminations (slivers) found must be referred to engineer for ultrasonic check 22. Replica tape Testex - cornplaster method 23. Fine Profiles equal to segment one and up to, but excluding segments two. (25) Medium Profiles equal to segment two and up to, but excluding segment three. (60) Coarse Profiles equal to segment three and up to, but excluding segment four. (125) 24. Rust Grade A Steel surface largely covered with adherent millscale with little if any rust. Rust Grade B Steel surface, which has begun to rust and from which the millscale has begun to flake. Rust Grade C Steel surface on which the millscale has rusted away or from which it can be scraped, but with slight pitting visible under normal vision. Rust Grade D Steel surface on which the millscale has rusted away and on which general pitting is visible under normal vision. 25. Sa 1 : Light Blast Cleaning Sa 2 : Thorough Blast Cleaning Sa 21/2 : Very Thorough Blast Cleaning Sa 3 : Blast Cleaning to Visually Clean Steel 26. Wheelabrators, sometimes known as centrifugal blast units are a mechanized way of preparing components for coating. 27. Burnishing, which is polishing, and a smooth shiny area does not provide good adhesion 28. St2 Thorough hand and power tool cleaning 29. St3 Very thorough hand and power tool cleaning 30. Pickling chemical removal of oxides (rust), from a metal substrate 31. Footners Duplex System involves the pickling process followed by a passivation process using Phosphoric or Chromic acid along with a small percentage of iron filings, which produces Iron Chromate or Iron Phosphate 1

salts, which are not soluble. These form a rust inhibitive layer, which passivates the surface and increases the adhesion properties. They are also extremely resistant to cathodic disbondment. 32. pH is a measure of acidity or alkalinity of a substance and is measured using pH indicator strips 33. Qualitative test is one, which give a result as accept/reject, pass/fail, go/no go 34. Quantitative test is one, which gives a result in known units e.g. milligrams/m2. 35. Paint is a material, which will change the texture colour or appearance of a surface and give some form of protection to the underlying surface 36. Barrier The material forms a thick impermeable layer of a high electrical resistance e.g. urethane. 37. Passivation Causing a chemical reaction between the paint constituents and the substrate e.g. rust inhibitive primers. 38. Cathodic protection Employs the bi-metallic principles by using a less noble metal as pigmentation e.g. zinc in zinc rich primers. 39. Binder is the main constituent of paint and is often referred to as a film former vehicle and non volatile 40. Polymers a string or structure of repeated units 41. Polymerisation joining together of a string or structure of repeated units 42. linear polymer is a non-convertible or reversible material and also thermoplastic 43. Branched polymers are formed by combining oxygen with the double bonds available 44. Cross linking, or chemical curing is a three dimensional polymerisation process which occurs fairly rapidly using only components provided in the cans 45. Oils (vegetable oils) are produced from seeds of a plant 46. Drying oils Drying: oils, which have three sets of double bonds along the carbon backbone, and react with oxygen readily at ambient temperature. 47. Semi drying oils have one or two sets of double bonds, and may need heat addition, or some other catalyst to promote oxidation. 48. Non drying oils will not oxidise and therefore cannot be used as binders. Instead these are used as plasticisers in paint formulation, to modify properties of a resin 49. Long oil paint: more than 60% oil to resin, elastic, slower drying properties suitable for domestic applications, decorative materials. 50. Medium oil paint: between 45 60% oil to resin. 51. Short oil paints: less than 45% oil to resin, faster drying material, suitable for steelwork. More brittle with shorter over coating time 52. Vehicle the binder plus the solvent if a solvent is used 53. Rust inhibitive pigments materials added into primers to protect the steel substrate by passivation. 54. Metallic pigments materials used on a steel substrate to protect the steel, by cathodic protection 55. Opaque pigments are inert particles with excellent light scattering properties in order to give covering power, (opacity) and colour Laminar pigments: Plate like pigments such as MIO (Micaceous Iron Oxide), Aluminium Flake, Glass Flake, Mica and Graphite, provide excellent barriers 56. PVC Pigment Volume Concentration 57. CPVC is defined in BS 2015 as The particular value of the pigment volume concentration at which the voids between the solid particles that are nominally touching are just filled with binder and in the region of which certain properties are changed markedly 58. Flash Point The minimum temperature of the solvent at which the vapours given off are flammable if a source of ignition is introduced 59. An anti settling agent is an aid to shelf life. It is a thixotrope, a thickener, which also allows a higher film thickness. 60. Thixotropic paints are jelly paints, non-drip, and if stirred change to normal liquid consistency. When left they slowly revert to thixotropic consistency. 61. Thixotropic agents are bentones and waxes, and help keep solid particulate constituents in dispersion within the paint. I.e. stop settlement 2

62. Plasticiser basically gives paint flexibility and reduces brittleness and therefore needs to be compatible with the binder and have a very low volatility in order to stay in the film for a long time 63. Driers - oxidants, used in oxidising oils and resins. These are heavy metal salts, rich in oxygen, which are added to the paint during manufacture 64. Anti skinning agents - anti oxidants. These are added to oxidising paints to retard the formation of a skin on the surface of the paint

65. Solvent is a liquid, which will dissolve another material, liquid or solid. 66. Solute is the material dissolved by the solvent. 67. Solution is the resulting liquid 68. Dispersions Paint consists of solid particles suspended in the vehicle, where there is no solubility Solid or liquid dispersed within another liquid, where there is no solubility 69. Suspension is when fine particulate solids 70. Agglomerates or Aggregates pigment particles cluster together 71. Aggregate size: Degree of Dispersion of Fineness of Grind. 72. Emulsion is a liquid dispersed in another liquid when there is no solubility 73. Water is called the continuous phase, and oil/resin is called the dispersed phase. 74. Induction period length of time after mixing which the paint should stand before use stand time or lead time 75. Exothermic reaction. Giving off heat, the container will warm up 76. Endothermic reaction. Taking in heat, the container will cool forming condensation 77. Pot life period of time after mixing in which the paint must be used 78. Amides Epoxy curing agents, usually quote seven days to full cross linking at 20 oC. 79. Amines Epoxy curing agents, three days to full cross linking at 20oc. 80. Isocyanates Mainly used for urethanes but also for some epoxies where low temperature application is unavoidable, -10oc being typical. Ambient temperature urethanes, especially for pipeline use quote 16 hours to full cure. 81. Coalescence means to physically join together 82. Tg = Gloss Transition the temperature at which the material changes from a rubbery to a glossy solid and vice versa 83. Paint system is one or more layers of paint, which will give corrosion protection by one of, or a combination of corrosion protection methods 84. Mordant primers of a corrosive nature, or will bite into 85. Single pack moisture curing polyurethanes materials which use moisture from the atmosphere to cure, not standing water on the substrate 86. Powder coatings are solvent free materials, which are solid at room temperature 87. Thermosetting means the material will cure with the application of heat and therefore are convertible or nonreversible materials like epoxy and urethane 88. Thermoplastic materials soften with the application of heat, are linear polymer and therefore reversible or nonconvertible. 89. Sacrificial coatings materials sacrifices itself to protect the underlying substrate 90. Compliant is a term often used nowadays and refers to a material, which complies with COSHH Regulations and EPA requirements 91. Premixing Pigment/binder/solvent are mixed in proportions suitable to give a consistency of premix or mill base, suitable for the machinery to be used in the next part of the operation. 92. Dispersion or grinding or milling The actual dispersion or grinding or milling of the paste from the above. 93. The letdown process Where the remaining amounts of binder/solvent and any other additives are finally and thoroughly mixed prior to quality checks and canning 3

94. Flash point the lowest temperature at which solvent vapour from the product under test in a closed cup, gives rise to an air/vapour mixture capable of being ignited by an external source of ignition 95. Paint density weight per unit of volume 96. Viscosity fluid resistance to flow 97. Inspection Examining, testing, gauging, one or more characteristics etc 98. Relative Humidity The amount of water vapour in the air expressed as a percentage of the amount of water vapour which could be in the air at that same temperature 99. Dew Point temperature at which water vapour in the air will condense 100. Galvanising The coating of components with zinc 101. Calorising is coating with aluminum 102. Anodising an electrolytic method of coating which results in the formation of a dense oxide 103. Hue Refers to the basic color 104. Brightness - lightness, it refers to the amount of lightness or darkness of the color. 105. value or reflectance value The degree of reflectivity of the surface receiving the light governs this property 106. Saturation How vivid color appears 107. The Munsell color system An American system, which identifies color by its three attributes, Hue Chroma and value (Reflectance value) 108. Health & Safety Control of substance hazardous to health regulations 1988 generally abbreviated to COSHH regulations. 109. COSHH regulations provide a framework to help to protect personnel at the workplace against health risks from substances, which are hazardous 110. Guidance note EH 40 (occupational exposure limits), is a document published by the HSE, which lists all substances known to be hazardous to mankind 111. Maximum Exposure Limit (MEL). The maximum concentration of an airborne substance, averaged over a reference period, to which employees may be exposed by inhalation under any circumstances and is specified, together with the appropriate reference period, in Schedule one of COSHH. 112. Occupations Exposure Standard (OES). The concentration of an airborne substance, averaged over a reference period, at which, according to current knowledge, there is no evidence that it is likely to be injurious to employees if they are exposed to inhalation, day after day, to that concentration, and which is specified in a list approved by HSE. 113. inspection Activities such as measuring, examining, testing, gauging, one or more characteristics of a product or service and comparing these with specified requirements, to determine conformity