Anda di halaman 1dari 20

Design of an Image Cryptosystem using Singular Value Decomposition

Aseem Kumar Patel and Arup Kumar Pal Department of Computer Science and Engineering Bhubaneswar Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar-752054, Orissa, India

Coverage of the Presentation


Introduction Fundamentals of Image Compression,

SVD and Secure Communication. The proposed image cryptosystem (based on SVD) Experimental Results Security Analysis Conclusions

Introduction
Image Cryptosystem is useful to transmit important

image through public channel. It consists of mainly two parts


Compression Reducing network traffic Encryption Making data secret or confidential.

SVD is an efficient tool for image compression and

same has been used in our work.


Secure transmission of SVD compressed image using

cryptography techniques.

Image Compression
Image Compression exploits various types of redundancies

present in the real images. Two key factors are:


Compression ratio
Tolerance in the quality degradation

Lossless compression Perfect reconstruction from compressed data (text documents, medical images etc.) Lossy compression Perfect reconstruction is not possible (is not essential) and we can afford the partial loss in the image data as long as it is within tolerance.
4

Singular Value Decomposition (SVD)


Given any mn matrix M, algorithm to find

matrices U, D and V such that

M mn U mk DkkVnk T

Where U and V are column-orthogonal matrix and D is a diagonal matrix.

Image Compression: Discard the trailing

insignificant singular values and keep the first r (where r < k) singular values

M mn U mr DrrVnr

T
5

Secure Communication
Encryption Key(K)
Plain text
Alice Encryption
Cipher text (Open Channel)

Decryption Key(K)

Plain text
Decryption Bob

Eve

Enemy or Adversary

The Proposed Technique(Encoding)

Encoding

SVD

Key Formation

XOR

Proposed Algorithmic Steps for Encoding


Begin Step 1: Decompose input secret image into three matrices U, D and V respectively. Step 2: Select first r number of column vectors from each decomposed matrix and discard rest of the column vectors. Step 3: Use truncated matrix, Vr obtained from Step 2 to generate a key matrix. Step 4: Perform XOR operation between the produced key matrix and the truncated matrix, Ur obtained from step 2. End

Decoding

Key Formation

Ur D V

T r r

XOR

10

Algorithmic Steps (Decoding)


Begin Step 1: Generate a key matrix from the matrix Vr using a secret PNS. Step 2: Perform XOR operation between the produced key matrix and the matrix, EUr. Step 3: Reconstruct the image using the following equation U D V T r r r End

Experimental Results

(a) Lena Image

(b) Pepper Image


12

Original Test Images

Contd..(Experimental Results on Test Image Lena)

Encrypted image

Decrypted Image

Contd..(Experimental Results on Test Image Pepper)

Encrypted image

Decrypted Image

Security Analysis
The security of any encryption algorithm is measured by

the size of the key space. In the proposed cryptosystem the secrecy depends on the selection of secret PNS. In our experiment we have taken a PNS of length 65536. The PNS guessing in our scheme is practically infeasible because there will be one optimal PNS out of total possible 65536! PNSs.

Conclusions
In the proposed scheme, SVD is applied on the secret image for compression and subsequently the compressed files are partially encrypted for ensuring confidentiality. The proposed scheme reduces overall computation cost for encryption of the secret image. The proposed scheme has been simulated using MATLAB and the satisfactory results have been found.

References
1. William Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practices, Pearson Education, Inc., Fourth Edition (2007). 2. M.S. Hwang, C. C. Chang and T. S. Chen, A new encryption algorithm for image cryptosystems, The Journal of Systems and Software, vol 58. pp. 8391 (2001). 3. A. K. Pal, G. P. Biswas and S. Mukhopadhyay, Designing of High-Speed Image Cryptosystem Using VQ Generated Codebook and Index Table, 2010 International Conference on Recent Trends in Information, Telecommunication and Computing. pp. 39-43 (2010). 4. H. K. Chang and J. L. Liu, A linear quadtree compression scheme for image encryption, Signal Processing: Image Communication. pp. 279-290 (1997). 5. L. Chuanfeng and Z. Qiangfu, Integration of data compression and cryptography: Another way to increase the information security, 21st International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (AINAW07) (2007). 6. H. K. Azman and Z. Zurinahni, Enhance performance of secure image using wavelet compression, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (2005).

Contd..
7. A. Greso, R. M. Gray, Vector Quantization and Signal Compression, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA (1991). 8. I.T. Jolliffe, Principal Component Analysis, Springer, second edition (2002). 9. Marc Antonini, Michel Barlaud, Pierre Mathieu and Ingrid Daubechies, Image coding using wavelet transform, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 1 no. 2, pp 205220, (1992). 10. Dan Kalman, A singularly valuable decomposition, The College Mathematics Journal, Vol. 27 no. 1, pp 223, (1998). 11. J. F. Yang and C. L. Lu, Combined techniques of singular value decomposition and vector quantization for image coding, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol.4, no.8, p.1141-1146, Aug. (1995). 12. C. S. McGoldrick, W. J. Dowling and A. Bury, Image coding using the singular value decomposition and vector quantization Fifth International Conference on Image Processing and its Applications, p.296-300. IEE, (1995). 13. P. Waldemar and T. A. Ramstad, Hybrid KLT-SVD image compression, 1997 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, vol. 4, pp. 2713-2716, (1997).