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Refractories for Steelmaking

InduStrIaL SoLutIonS IntErnatIonaL

IncorporatIng ISI (EuropE) LImItEd

InduStrIaL SoLutIonS IntErnatIonaL

INDUSTRIAL SOLUTIONS INTERNATIONAL Knowledge and Expertise in the Refractory Industry.

IncorporatIng ISI (EuropE) LImItEd

Industrial Solutions International (ISI) was founded in 1997 following the acquisition and merger of the three largest refractory companies in the United States. Our corporate goal at that time was to develop a supply chain for a full range of refractory materials utilizing small specialty manufacturers that could offer superior specialized products and technical services to the industry than our large competitors. In 2006, after many years of managing sales and technical support to all industries in North America, ISl exclusively acquired the technology utilized by Dyson Refractories, based in the United Kingdom, for the manufacture of all basic refractories. The purchase included all magnesite chrome products including the internationally renowned Dymax range of products. Following an extensive review of manufacturing companies and plants throughout the world, ISl entered into a long term technology transfer/sharing agreement with Z. M. ROPCZYCE S.A. (ZMR) in Poland. Subsequently Industrial Solutions International also agreed to a long term exclusive distribution/management agreement to oversee and manage sales and distribution of all ZMR and ISI products to the non ferrous industry worldwide and specifically the copper and precious metals industry. ZMR has a state of the art manufacturing plant and a highly advanced technical department. This group works closely with the ISI technical personnel in an effort to continue to develop new and improved products that, at times, are designed specifically to address individual clients operating conditions. The ISl/ZMR joint philosophy involves working very closely with our clients to understand their specific process and operating parameters in order to select products and refractory designs that will maximize refractory life and value. ISI/ZMR Services Offered Engineering & Design/CAD Capabilities Material Recommendation/Development and Supply Finite Element Analysis/ Factsage Installation and Demolition Supervision Lining Thickness Reports and Recommendations Post Mortem Analysis

QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE Industrial Solutions International recognizes that the quality of products has a major impact upon the performance that can be achieved by their customers. In order to fulfil this requirement, ISI has conducted a rigorous assessment of refractory manufacturers and are now satisfied that alliances formed are capable of delivering materials to ISI and customer requirements. All production is certified to ISO 9001, and ISO 14001 for the design, manufacture and supply of refractory materials. Sourcing may follow differing routes dependent upon the application, product type, and manufacturing capabilities, but in all instances rigorous controls are applied.

Any data contained within this catalogue may be considered as representative of large production of a variety of sizes and shapes but cannot be considered as a specification. TECHNICAL BACKUP Technical support to the client is provided by the intensive research and development facilities of the associate companies and by the Technical Division of Industrial Solutions International. Selection of materials is made by reference to an extensive application database, which in conjunction with close liaisons with end users provides materials offering optimum performance in terms of cost and operation

Production
Production of refractory materials requires careful selection of raw materials, and attention to detail in further processing. Further processing involves: Size reduction and separation to provide the components for a given composition. Mixing in high intensity mixers to provide a homogeneous mass. Pressing at high pressure to ensure maximum compaction - providing high density and minimum porosity. Firing to high temperature by intermittent or tunnel kiln and allowing sufficient time for optimum bond development. Further processing where necessary to exacting dimensional tolerance.

Eirich Mixer

Press Bay

Tunnel Kiln

2000 Tonne Laeis Press

Intermittent Kiln

2010

Product Development
In order to provide quality products, Industrial Solutions International, in collaboration with Zakady Magnezytowe ROPCZYCE S.A., deliver to their markets, materials of the highest quality consistent with a competitive price, backed by the expertise of application knowledge. Industrial Solutions International operates a policy of continuous product development that from time to time results in the introduction of new products or modifications to existing products. Product development is both proactive and reactive in that new materials and technologies are constantly reviewed, and where appropriate, incorporated into the manufacturing program. In parallel, cognizance is taken of material performance in the many and varied industries where Industrial Solutions International products are utilized. Wherever possible either material properties or design will be tailored to meet the requirements of a given application. By the judicious selection of material and there correct placement in the application zone dramatic improvements may be made to performance. Rotary Slag Test

MOR Test

Service Simulation

Service Benefits

2010

Electric Arc Furnaces


Electric Arc Furnace melting has been a feature of steel making since the early nineteenth century, when it was realized that advantage could be taken of the ease of transformation of furnace atmosphere from oxidizing to reducing. Developments in technology have been rapid from the early single phase two electrode four tonne capacity furnace to the current day three phase, three electrode, ultra high power 120 tonne plus furnaces. Development of furnace technology was most marked during the 1960s with the advent of mini mills, and continuous casting, and the modern day furnace bears little resemblance to its forebears. Electric arc furnace design has evolved to such an extent that melt down is achieved not only by the arc, but also by ancillary oxy - fuel burners, resulting in shorter tap to tap times, and a saving in primary energy. Tapping is now achieved with greater control owing to the bottom tapping regimes in place of the launder. Refining in the ladle has reduced refractory wear, particularly in the slag line and hot spots, owing to shorter residence times and lower temperatures. Refractory consumption both in the arc furnace body and roof has been reduced by the introduction of water cooled panels. Developments in electric arc furnace design continue, and recent changes have seen the use of slide gates to control the tapping stream, and the introduction of more favorable slag practices to reduce refractory wear and improve electrode consumption. ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE OPERATION The charging process to the furnace is in itself damaging to the refractory lining by both impact and the chilling effect of the cold scrap. The aggressivity to the refractory lining is further increased by rapid temperature increase during melting, combined with the attack by slag fluidizers such as fluorspar. Preferential attack of the refractory lining occurs in the hot spot areas (opposite the electrodes) caused by flare, and at the slag line, owing to low basicity slags, and high FeO slags, often employed to aid phosphorous removal. Slag balance and slag control can have a major influence on refractory wear, particularly control of MgO content by Dolomite additions to prevent dissolution of MgO from the lining. Non water cooled electric arc furnace The conventional arc furnace where the whole of the furnace contains refractory materials in both the body and roof. In this type of furnace metal and slag are in contact with both metal and slag throughout the operation. Water cooled electric arc furnace Many variants of this type of furnace are available, with water-cooled metal panels being incorporated in both the body and roof. The water cooled panels are protected from direct metal and slag contact by frozen slag adhering to the surface of the panels. There is only a minimal amount of refractory material in the lining, in the bottom, lower sidewall, slag line and roof delta section. Water cooled electric arc furnace with EBT A variant of the water cooled furnace where tapping does not take place via a launder system but through an eccentric bottom taphole (EBT). The EBT system allows greater control to achieve slag free tapping, and is much preferred in those units operating with a hot heel melting regime.

2010

Electric Arc Furnaces


REFRACTORY APPLICATIONS Refractory selection for the lining of electric arc furnace is invariably built upon a combination of material qualities, and brick size to maximise the performance. Preferential wear in the hot spots and at the slag line is reduced by careful material selection, together with an understanding of the particular practice. SUB HEARTH The sub hearth of the electric arc furnace has an extended lifetime in comparison with other components of the lining, and is only replaced after severe metal penetration through the working hearth or after major water leakage. Sub hearth linings are normally constructed with high quality magnesite bricks. WORKING HEARTH The working hearth is required to withstand high temperature, temperature cycling, and impact from the scrap charge. Current furnace designs favour monolithic linings based upon high MgO powders rammed into placed and contoured into the sidewalls. Some furnace operations do however permit and prefer brick hearths, generally based upon pitch impregnated fired magnesite. SIDEWALLS Within the sidewall area there are three main zones, the slagline, the hot spots and the remainder. Balanced lining wear is the main criteria in electric arc furnace refractory performance, and this requires zoning of the lining by both material quality and thickness. The majority of electric arc furnaces now incorporate magnesite carbon products into the sidewall, and their performance is influenced by both the base raw material, and graphite content. Performance is markedly increased as the crystal size of the magnesite increased to the ultimate by the use of fused magnesia. Increase of graphite content also follows the same pathway, although carbon retention is important, and this may be improved by the inclusion of finely divided metals. MAIN SIDEWALL The areas in the sidewall that gives rise to least difficulty are those between the hot spots, the so called cold spots. The major factors influencing refractory performance are temperature, and slag splash, and in water cooled furnaces a magnesite carbon of at least 10% graphite content is preferred. HOT SPOTS The wear mechanism in the hot spots is similar to that in the main sidewall, but is exacerbated by temperature owing to electrode flare. Higher quality magnesite carbon with a graphite content of 20%, and based upon either large crystal size or fused magnesia are preferred. Where oxy-fuel burners are employed, oxidation of the carbon can take placed, and this may be reduced by magnesite carbon materials incorporating finely divided metals. SLAGLINE The aggressive nature of slag fluidizers such as fluorspar has a detrimental effect upon slag line performance, together with slags high in FeO. Materials based upon high quality magnesite, or in severe cases, large crystal size or fused magnesia are preferred. Where high iron oxide slags are encountered magnesite carbon materials incorporating metal additions are preferred. BURNER PORTS AND SLAG DOOR These areas of the furnace are subjected to wear by oxidation, and by impact of the slag door jambs. Magnesite carbon with metal additions are important in these areas. ROOF Many electric arc furnace roofs now have a high degree of water cooling, and as such require little refractory material. The Delta between the electrodes is invariably formed using a monolithic material or precast shape, but refractory bricks are often used to form the electrode ports. Materials in this area require good thermal shock and abrasion resistance, and high alumina materials are seen to advantage.
2010

Electric Arc Furnace

Runcast BWA1M Runcast BKT/EC Runcast BMAL/TSW Runcast BMAL/TSW Carmag MWG735 Carmag MW632 Carmag MP732A Runmag MCNSW ST4 Runmag MCNR3 ST4 Carmag MW754A Carmag MWHL7535

A A A B D D D D D C C

Runcast BMAL/MSW Rowmix MOR Konmix MKNZ Normag M92 Normag M92SU Thermag M965U Carmag MP91AY Konmix UMP1 Protmix ZO/M M M M N S L Heartmix UR2 Heartmix URF/C Heartmix URBD Heartmix URF/CT Normag M92 J J J J K Thermag M965U Carmag MWL832A Carmag MWL743A Normag M92 Q Q Q I

O O P

A D K N Q

Roof Sidewal Safety Lining Furnace Door Taphole Block

B I L O S

Electrode Ring Bottom Safety Lining Filling Mixes Tapping Spout Charging Door Repair

C J M P

Slag Zone Hearth Cold Zone Repair Mixes

2010

Electric Arc Furnace Water Cooled Panels


Runcast BWA1M Runcast BKT/EC Runcast BMAL/TSW Runcast BMAL/TSW Carmag MWH7325 Carmag MW632 Carmag MG735 A A A B D D D

Carmag MP742A Carmag MWH7425 Carmag MW754A Carmag MWHL7535 Runcast BMAL/MSW Rowmix MOR

C C C C O O

Konmix MKNZ Normag M92 Normag M92SU Thermag M965U Carmag MP91AY Konmix UMP1 Protmix ZO/M M M M N S L Heartmix UR2 Heartmix URF/C Heartmix URBD Heartmix URF/CT Normag M92 J J J J K Thermag M965U Carmag MWL832A Carmag MWL743A Normag M92 Q Q Q I

A C E G I K

Roof Slag Zone Taphole Sealing Mix Taphole End Block Bottom Safety Lining Safety Lining

B D F H J L

Electrode Ring Sidewall Taphole Sleeves Taphole Backfill Hearth Filling Mixes

2010

Electric Arc Furnace Water Cooled Panels Eccentric Bottom Tapping

Runcast BWA1M Runcast BKT/EC Runcast BMAL/TSW Runcast BMAL/TSW Carmag MWH7325 Carmag MW632

A A A B D D

Carmag MP742A Carmag MWH7425 Carmag MW754A Carmag MWHL7535 Konmix MPI Konmix MKNZ Carmag MWL753AU Carmag MWL744AY Carmag MWL7145 Normag M92 Normag M925U Thermag M965U Carmag MP91AY Konmix UMP1 Protmix ZO/M M M M N S L Heartmix UR2 Heartmix URF/C Heartmix URBD Heartmix URF/CT Normag M92 J J J J I Stertmix UZO Normag M92 H I Algraf KG95A

C C C C E E F F R G

A C E

Roof Slag Zone Taphole Sealing Mix

B D F

Electrode Ring Sidewall Taphole Sleeves

2010

Product Data
Basic Refractories for Electric Arc Furnace Applications
Quality Chemical Analysis Aggregate MgO AI2O3 Fe2O3 CaO SiO2 Cr2O3 % 0.6 0.7 0.2 1.9 1.4 0.3 0.9 1.3 2.1 1.1 0.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 2.0 2.8 0.4 0.8 1.5 24.6 0.8 C 4.40 C 3.95 21.7 15.0 Open Bulk CCS Porosity Density & 18 4.5 4 10 13 14 15.5 16.5 g/cm3 2.88 2.96 3.00 3.23 3.08 3.00 3.05 3.10 RUL

MPa T0.6oC 65 77.5 70 90 60 50 50 50 >1660 >1660 >1700 >1700 >1650 >1700 >1700 -

Magnesia bricks Normag M92 93.8 1 Normag M92SU 93.7 1 Thermag M92SU 96.7 Magnesia chromebricks

Runmag MCNR3 ST44 55.6 6.9 13.2 4 Runmag MCNSW ST4 56.0 12.5 Mixes and lowcement prefabricated castables Runcast BWA1M 73.5 0.45 2 Runcast BMAL/MS 4.5 92.5 0.1 2 Runcast BMAL/TS 4.2 93.0 0.1 Runcast BKT/EC 93.7 0.7

Mixes and Mortars


Quality Mixes and mortars Heartmix URF/C Heartmix URF/CT Heartmix URBD Heartmix UR2 Konmix UMP1 Konmix MP1 Konmix MKNZ Protmix ZO/M Romix MOR Startmix UZO MgO Chemical Analysis [%] AI2O3 Fe2O3 CaO SiO2 % 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.7 4.8 17.8 1.2 6.2 6.2 2.9 1.6 8 0.2 0.5 1.3 7.2 8 14.6 14.7 16 0.6 1.6 2 1.5 0.2 1.5 0.6 1.04 0.5 1.3 3.2 0.15 1.3 3.9 39.2 43 Cr2O3 Open Bulk CCS Porosity Density % 22.53 g/cm3 2.73 MPa 12.53 Grain Size mm 0-7 0-7 0-7 0-6 0-10 0-6 0-5 0-1 0-3 2-7

77.9 76.9 80 95.5 69.5 80 90 91.5 52.8 47

10.5 1.8 -

1 Vacuum pitch impregnated bricks 2 Steel fibres added 3 After forming and firing 1680oC 4 Steel clad

2010

10

Product Data

Magnesite Carbon Products for Electric Arc Furnace Applications


Quality C Bricks with 6 10% Carbon Algraf KG95A C+SiC>27 Carmag MWL714S 6 Carmag MP91AY 7 Carmag MWH732S 10 Carmag MG73S 10 Carmag MP732A 10 Carmag MW632 10 Carmag MWL832A 10 Bricks with 12 13% Carbon Carmag MP742A 12 Carmag MWL743A 12 Carmag MWH742S 12.5 Carmag MWL744AY 13 Bricks with 14 16% Carbon Carmag MW754A 14.5 Carmag MWL753AU 15 Carmag MWHL753S 16 97.7 99.0 97.0 97.0 97.5 96.9 98.0 97.5 97.0 97.0 >97.5 97.5 97.5 97.0 >75 0.05 0.08 0.07 0.15 0.07 0.05 0.15 Chemical Analysis Aggregate MgO AI2O3 Fe3O3 % 0.16 0.15 0.70 0.20 0.35 0.30 0.20 0.35 0.30 0.80 0.20 0.50 0.20 0.50 >2 >2 >2 >2 >2 >3.8 >2 >2 >2 >2 >2 >2 >2 >2 CaO/ SiO2 Open Porosity % 4 3 2.25 3.5 2.0 4.0 2.0 5.0 4.0 1.7 4.0 2.5 2.0 3.0 3.0 Bulk CCS Density g/ml 2.85 3.12 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 2.96 2.91 3.00 3.00 2.94 2.96 MPa 27 85 85 28 32 40 40 37 37 34 25 37 40 31 22

2010

11

Standard Brick Shapes


Dimensions [mm] a 250 250 375 250 300 350 400 450 550 700 900 900 b 124 124 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 160 76 76 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 h 40 Dimensions [mm] a 119 121 128 132 135 139 126 130 135 146 184 170 170 154 165 170 180 154 190 155 160 170 190 160 170 154 b 109 107 100 118 115 111 120 120 120 120 150 120 100 146 135 130 120 146 110 146 140 130 110 140 130 146 l 230 230 230 250 250 250 375 375 375 375 375 375 375 250 250 350 350 350 350 350 400 400 400 450 450 450 h 64 64 64 65 65 65 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Shape 2-40 2-76 4 25/0 30/0 35/0 40/0 45/0 55/0 70/0 90/0 90/0-160

Shape 1P10 1P14 1P28 2Q14 2Q20 2Q28 4P6 4P10 4P15 4P26 4P34 4P50 4P70 25/8 25/30 35/40 35/60 35/8 35/80 40/10 40/20 40/40 40/80 45/20 45/40 45/8

The tables illustrate some common brick shapes which cover most applications. Many other shapes are available and others may be manufactured to their customers specification.

2010

12

Steel Ladles
Ladles in the steel plant environment are primarily required to contain and transport molten steel from the melting unit to the casting facility. In the recent past this was the sole purpose of the ladle, and the refractory requirements were undemanding, allowing the use of low alumina bloating fireclay as the working lining. Backing linings were also built using fireclay materials, and the low thermal conductivity, and heat capacity allowed the ladles to be used without preheating. Modern day steel ladles operate in harsher conditions, where temperatures are higher, steel is stirred in the ladle, slag chemistries are more variable, and residence times are longer. All these factors have caused a radical change in ladle design, with great dependence on zoning either by quality or thickness to overcome preferential wear and achieve a balanced life at the lowest possible cost per tonne. Future designs for ladles will follow the current trends, with greater reliance upon the ladle for refining, deoxidation and degassing. Residence times will be long owing to the treatment, and electrode heating in the ladle will be necessary to maintain the temperatures required for casting. Demands upon the refractory will continue to be high requiring continuous development to maintain and improve performance. LADLE REFINING FURNACES Ladle refining furnaces have become increasingly common in both EAF and BOS shops, where primary melting is carried out in either the arc furnace or converter, and further heating and treatment in the ladle. Refining in the ladle may comprise deoxidation, desulphurisation and alloy trimming using a variety of calcium aluminate synthetic slags. All ladle refining furnace provide heat to the steel by electrode heating usually with stirring using either electromagnetism or gas plugs. After final heating in the ladle, most ladles are subjected to degassing using either RH or DH degassers, and a common feature of the ladle refining furnace is one of long residence and high temperature. Refractory applications vary widely depending upon both the operation and practice, and each may show individuality. BOTTOM The ladle bottom is invariably constructed from either fired alumina, carbon bonded dolomite or magnesite with the provision of an impact or tapping pad, in carbon bonded alumina graphite with metal additions. The severity of the operation in terms of residence times often sees the replacement of the bottom at mid campaign, usually coinciding with a slag line repair. SIDEWALLS Sidewalls of ladle refining furnaces sometimes exhibit preferential wear associated with the method of stirring, requiring either increased thickness panels, or improved refractory quality. The ladle sidewalls may be constructed using either carbon bonded dolomite, carbon bonded magnesite or carbon bonded magnesite carbon. All basic ladle linings however have very high thermal conductivity and heat capacity and thorough and effective preheat with sufficient soak time is essential. SLAGLINES Slags associated with ladle refining furnaces are usually high in calcium aluminate, and contain fluxing agents such as fluorspar, making them particularly aggressive. Slag line refractory materials are usually magnesite carbon with at least 10% flake graphite and containing metal additions. In particularly severe applications recourse is made to magnesite carbon based upon large crystal size magnesite, and in the most arduous conditions magnesite carbon based upon fused magnesia. The action of bubblers in the ladle bottom may also have a profound effect at the slagline particularly if the gas stream is close to the sidewall. In these cases severe localised erosion may occur giving rise to premature failure of the slagline.
2010

13

Steel Ladles
Carmag MW643A Carmag MW744A Carmag MW764A Izomix UZKI/M Izomix UZKI/MK Izomix UZI/L Izomix UZI/W R R R R Gunmix MTMW N Carmag MWH643 Carmag MWL734 Carmag MWHL743U Carmag MWHN754U Carmag MWHN764A Topkrom MCV Algraf AMG01 Algraf AMG01A Algraf AMG02 Carmag MG63 Carmag MW714 Carmag MWH01 Carmag MWH04 Carmag MWH01D Carmag MWH01DM Carmag MWH63U Carmag MWH712U Topkrom MCW22/K Nitral KSIAL Runcast BKW Runcast BMAL/M55 Runcast BMAL/T Runcast BKW Runcast BMAL/M55 Runcast BMAL/T I Runcast BMAL/MM Algraf AMG01A Algraf AMGN02A Normag M87 Normag M90 H H Carmal MSP601A Algraf AMG01A2 Startmix UZS Startmix UZS/W Startmix MS1 Startmix UZS2 C C G G G G G O O O O A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B E E C C E

Konmix MKX3 Slagmix UZRA Slagmix UZRA/SU Slagmix UZRA/KP Slagmix UZRA/S Slagmix UZRA/SSO Slagmix UZRA/SWO Slagmix UZRA/KPG Slagmix UZRA/O Protmix ZOK Kromex MC1 Normag M87 Konmix SMKB21 Konmix SMKC31 Topan ALMA Topan ALMK Algraf AMG01A Algraf AMG01A2 Algraf AMGN02A Carmal MSP610A Runcast BMAL/M Konmix MKX2

D P P P P P P P P M L L L L L L K K K K K J J

Runcast BMAL/L3M Ksztahka gazoprzepuszczalna (Purging Plug)

Sealmix MKX/W Altop SUW55URC Altop SUW035URC Thermag M96F3RC

S F F F

A D G J M P

Slag Zone Lip Bottom Well Block Mix Filling Mixes Slag Forming Mix

B E H K N R

Bath Zone Nozzles Distance Ring Impact Zone Gunning Mix Insulating Mix

C F I L O S

Well Blocks Sliding Gates Gas Purging Plug Safety Lining Starting Mix Sealing Mix
2010

14

Product Data
Refractories for Steel Ladles
Quality C Bricks with 4 - 7 % carbon Algraf AMG01 Algraf AMG01A Algraf AMG01A2 Carmal MSP601A Carmag MW714 Carmag MWH712U Carmag MWH01 Carmag MWH01D Carmag MWH01DM Bricks with 8 - 11 % carbon Algraf AMG02 Algraf AMGN02A Carmag MG63 Carmag MWL734 Carmag MWH04 Carmag MWH63U Bricks with 12 - 18 % carbon Carmag MW643A Carmag MW744A Carmag MW764A Carmag MWH643 Carmag MWHL743U Carmag MWHN754U Carmag MWHN764A Quality Magnesia bricks Normag M87 Normag M90 Thermag M96F3RC Magnesia chromebricks Topkrom MCV Kromex MC1 Topkrom MCW22/K
2010

Chemical analysis aggregate MgO AI2O3 % Fe3O3 CaO SiO2

Open Porosity % 5 3 3 5 4.5 4 3 4 3 9.0 6.0 6.5 4.0 3.5 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.5 6.0 4.5 5.0 4.0

Bulk Density g/ml 3.20 3.20 3.15 2.98 3.08 3.15 3.05 2.95 2.90 2.95 2.95 2.95 3.01 2.97 3.00 2.94 2.94 2.94 2.92 3.00 2.95 2.90

CCS MPa 50 60 80 65 65 50 35 35 45 25 55 40 45 25 30 35 35 30 27 30 28 24 RUL T0.6oC >1650 >1650 >1700 >1560 >1700

6.0 6.5 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 7.0 4.5 4.5 11.5 8.0 10.0 10.5 11.0 8.5 12.0 13.0 16.0 15.0 12.5 14.0 17.5 MgO

8.0 14.0 8.0 42.5 96.5 97.0 76.0 55.0 50.0 8.0 7.0 95.5 97.0 78.0 96.0 95.8 97.0 97.0 96.0 97.0 97.0 97.0 AI2O3

84 81 89 55.5 0.15 0.2 0.7 0.3 0.6 80 80 1.0 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.6 0.1 0.2 0.6 0.15 0.1 0.2 Fe2O3

0.3 0.8 0.2 0.5 0.7 0.4 5.4 1.4 3.5 1.6 1.0 0.7 0.4 5.4 0.4 0.9 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.7 CaO SiO2

0.4 0.3 0.5 1.45 1.7 15 40 40 0.8 1.6 1.7 14 1.9 1.4 1.8 1.4 1.47 1.4 1.8 1.4 Cr2O3

1.0 1.2 2.5 0.5 0.7 00.6 0.9 1.1 1.9 4.5 7.6 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.7 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

Chemical Analysis [%] % 0.6 0.7 1.6 1.0 1.2 0.7

Open Bulk CCS Porosity Density % 19.0 19.0 14.0 16.0 20.0 17.0 g/cm3 2.82 2.82 2.99 3.29 2.91 3.15 MPa 55 60 110 80 45 60

90.6 91.0 96.5 53.0 76.9 57.5

0.8 2.2 0.2 7.0 3.7 6.4

2.3 2.0 0.6 13.1 6.4 11.1

4.5 3.1 0.6 1.1 2.4 1.3

23.3 8.5 23.1

15

Product Data
Quality MgO Sialon bonded alumina bricks Nitral KSIAL Altop SUW03SURC Altop SUW5SURC Highalumina bricks Topan ALMA Topan ALMK Runcast BMAL/T Runcast BMAL/M Runcast BMAL/MM Runcast BMAL/M55 Runcast BKW Runcast BMAL/L3M Mixes and mortars Startmix UZS2 Izomix UZKI/M Izomix UZKI/MK Izomix UZI/L Startmix MS1 Konmix SMKB Konmix SMKC Izomix UZI/W Slagmix UZRA Slagmix UZRA/SWO Slagmix UZRA/S Slagmix UZRA/O Slagmix UZRA/KP Slagmix UZRA/SU Slagmix UZRA/SSO Startmix UZS/W Startmix UZS Protmix ZOK Konmix MKX2 Konmix MKX3 Gunmix MTMW Sealmix MKX/W 37.0 40.0 0.7 7.0 42.1 2.0 5.4 4.9 1.0 4.6 1.0 3.9 7.1 58.0 56.0 92.0 80.0 96.5 14.0 13.4 10.0 70.0 73.0 13.7 25.0 9.10 25.2 35.9 41.7 4.5 16.0 11.6 11.4 1.0 6.3 0.7 1.2 6.8 0.2 20.5 0.9 0.2 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.06 1.3 0.7 1.0 23.0 21.7 6.0 12.8 1.9 3.4 0.7 2.9 0.6 55.0 78.2 53.8 52.5 42.3 90.5 72.0 1.0 1.2 0.7 5.5 1.4 25.0 36.0 37.5 84.0 32.2 8.0 5.2 12.0 4.5 4.7 3.9 5.0 20.5 25.0 31.0 1.9 2.6 4.5 1.0 34.6 31.9 36.5 34.5 19.0 22.0 29.0 2.90 2.46 >25 12 >1700 2010

Chemical Analysis AI2O3 Fe2O3 % 4.0 0.3 4.5 5.0 5.0 5.0 0.8 4.4 74.0 79.5 93.5 65 61.3 94 93 93 93 97 93 0.2 0.9 0.98 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.06 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.4 10.6 0.3 32 35.4 0.1 CaO SiO2 Cr2O3

Open Bulk CCS Porosity Density % 18.0 4.0 7.0 14.5 15.5 15.0 15.0 15.5 13.5 14.0 14.0 g/cm3 3.00 3.17 3.18 2.61 2.43 3.05 3.05 3.05 3.10 3.10 3.00 MPa 100 220 230 90 50 60 50 50 80 90 65

RUL T0.6oC 1680 1550 >1700 >1700 >1700 >1700 >1700 >1700

Mixes and lowcement prefabricated castables

16

Standard Brick Shapes


SHAPE a 1 1-32 2 2-32 25/0 2-65 KD-2 KP-400 3P0-K 4P0-K 5P0-K 5P0-D 230 230 250 250 250 250 300 400 250 250 250 250 Dimensions [mm] b 114 114 124 124 150 124 160 400 155 187 220 200 h 64 32 64 32 100 65 80 100 100 100 100 100

Straight

SHAPE a SU630 SU645 SU745 SU760-4 SU845 SU860 178,1 188,7 185,2 191,4 181,6 188,7

Dimensions [mm] b 209,5 209,5 209,5 209,5 209,5 209,5 l 100 100 100 100 100 100 h 152,4 152,4 177,8 177,8 203,2 203,2 1701 2703 2652 3760 2602 3504

Semi Universal

2010

17

Standard Brick Shapes


SHAPE a 5/6 5/20 6/8 6/20 2B-150 11/18-76 25/16 25/30 30/20 3P10-K 3P20-K 40LK 4P12-K 4P22-K 4P8-K 5P16-K 5P8-K B7A B8 KD11 KD12 KD13 KD14 KD15 KD17 147 140 146 140 128 212 142 135 140 95 90 80 94 89 96 92 96 192 200 200 210 192 204 204 210 b 153 160 154 160 123 230 158 165 160 105 110 100 106 111 104 108 104 240 225 225 225 225 225 225 225 Dimensions [mm] l 125 125 152,4 152,4 65 76 100 100 100 250 250 300 250 250 250 250 250 100 100 80 80 80 80 90 80 h 100 100 100 100 250 115 250 250 300 155 155 150 187 187 187 220 220 180 150 115 115 155 155 185 90 r 3062 875 2781 1066 1599 1393 1345 1125 2093 1475 695 600 1467 758 2258 1267 2657 720 1208 914 1605 901 1521 1847 1284

Side Arch

2010

18

Steel Degassing
The degasser operation imposes severe stress into the refractory lining system owing to rapid changes i temperature. In the recirculatory degassing operation, liquid steel is forced from the ladle into an evacuated refractory chamber by atmospheric pressure. The low pressure in the chamber then allows the entrapped gases to expand and rise to the surface, resulting in the denser degassed steel returning to the ladle. The action of the degassing process also results in high turbulence within the steel volume giving rise to homogenisation. Gases from the chamber are removed through off takes and coolers. RH AND DH DEGASSING VESSELS Vacuum degassing is carried out in two distinct recirculatory units, the DH -Dortmund-Hoerde utilising a single snorkel leg whereby steel is drawn into the chamber and after degassing leaves through the same leg. RH - Ruhrstaal - Heraeus using an upleg snorkel leg through which steel is drawn into the chamber and the denser degassed steel leaves through the down leg. The DH degassing system is typically used in the production of high alloy and speciality steels from low tonnage electric arc furnace shops, whereas the RH degassing system is associated with high tonnage BOS shops producing lowcarbon aluminium-killed steel. RH degassing is generally preferred owing to the metallurgical advantage of downstream refining processes to produce large tonnages of high quality lower cost continuously cast steel. Development of the RH degassing system has led to: RH-OB - oxygen blown to produce low carbon (<0.015%) steel. RH-PB - powder injection of synthetic slag desulphurisers to remove or modify sulphur inclusions. RH-OB - aluminium heating by the addition of aluminium metal. REFRACTORY WEAR PROCESSES Refractory selection for the lining of vacuum degassers is invariably determined by consideration of the various features of the process. TEMPERATURE Temperatures in the degassing vessel vary from 1480 to 1760oC, with the temperature often being sustained at 1480oC between heats, and increased up to 1760oC during treatment. EROSION The action of molten steel and slag entering the vacuum chamber places a highly erosive action upon the refractory lining. ABRASION Abrasive forces exists in the gas off takes owing to the action of fine steel particles entrapped in the exiting gases.
2010

19

Steel Degassing
THERMAL CYCLING Owing to the intermittent nature of the process there is inevitably temperature cycling in the vessel, this coupled with invasion into brick matrices leads to disruptive spalling of the refractory lining. REQUIREMENTS OF THE REFRACTORY LINING The performance of the working lining is totally governed by the presence of basic slags and iron oxide, demanding a basic refractory lining. The greatest wear occurs in the snorkel legs and bottom of the chamber. Refractory requirements are high strength, good slag resistance, and high thermal shock resistance. SNORKEL LEG Materials based upon direct bonded sintered and fused co-clinker have been shown to give optimum performance. Snorkel leg materials are supplied with all mating faces diamond ground to tight tolerance to allow construction without the use of mortar joints. SNORKEL LEG OUTER LINING Many plants provide the snorkel leg with an outer cast using a high quality refractory concrete. ISI/ZMR Refractories prefer to enhance the refractory concrete with metal fibres to increases the resistance to material loss by Thermomechanical damage. WORKING BOTTOM AND LOWER SIDEWALL The working bottom of the degasser is normally constructed using a soldier course design, with materials based upon fused magnesia chrome clinker. In this area of the vessel, high demand is placed upon the materials ability to resist both erosion and slag attack. ALLOY CHUTE The alloy chute demands refractory materials with high resistance to thermal shock and abrasion, and here again fused grain magnesia chrome clinker are preferred. UPPER VESSEL WORKING LINING The upper vessel working is less prone to attack by either erosion or slag, but places special demands upon the refractory material. The upper working lining is primarily affected by temperature variation, and to a lesser extent by metal and or slag contact. As such a refractory lining offering high resistance to thermal shock is required. SAFETY LININGS All areas of the vessel require a high quality economical safety lining capable of resisting metal at high temperature. Materials based upon Andalusia have proven to be the most sensible choice.

2010

20

RH Degasser

Topkrom MCV Topkrom MCT

E E

Maskor MSK Runcast BMAL/M G

Topkrom MCB

F Topkrom MCB F

Konmix MKX2 Konmix MKX3

J J

Topkrom MCW22K Dymax GU Konmix MKX2 Konmix MKX2/L Runcast BMAL/L Konmix MKX2/L Konmix MKX2 J J J J J Dymax GUNSC Topkrom MCZ21 Topkrom MCR5 Runcast BMAL/MS Runcast BKW/S

I D&C D&C D&C A B B

A C E G I

Snorkel Inner Working Lining Bottom Working Lining Upper Vessel Working Lining Burner Opening Working Lining Lower Vessel Safety
2010

B D F H J

Snorkel Outer Working Lining Lower Vessel Working Lining Alloy Chute and Burner Opening Alloy Chute Working Lining Mix and Castable Gap Filler

21

Preassembled Snorkel Legs

In order to minimse the down time in replacement of the Snorkel leg, we offer a preassembled version. Preassembly of the Snorkel leg involves diamond grinding of the mating faces of eac brick to ensure a tight joint, and bonding of the bricks to provide a unit ready for direct placement in the degasser.

The steel can and the outer castable material provide the completed assembly.

The finished preassembled Snorkel leg is delivered to the customer.

2010

22

Product Data
Basic Refractories for RH Degassers
Quality MgO Magnesia chromebricks Topkrom MCR5 Topkrom MCZ21 Topkrom MCB Topkrom MCW22/K Topkrom MCT5 Topkrom MCV Dymax GU Dymax GUNSC Konmix MKX2 Konmix MKX2/L2 Konmix MKX3 Runcast BMAL/L2 Runcast BMAL/MS1 Runcast BKW/S1 Maskor MSK Gunmix BALM/BTM3 66.0 66.0 61.4 57.5 55.0 55.0 59.0 59.0 57.7 65.2 92.2 4.5 5.0 4.2 3.7 5.7 6.4 6.5 6.7 5.2 5.2 6.3 4.1 0.6 93.5 92.5 97.0 78.5 84.2 8.0 6.5 13.4 11.1 12.5 14.5 9.5 9.5 13.0 5.7 1.9 0.1 0.2 0.2 1.3 1.2 0.8 1.2 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.0 12.0 0.7 0.8 1.5 1.6 1.7 0.6 4.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.8 0.8 1.4 1.4 1.9 2.8 2.6 15.0 6.9 17.5 21.0 17.0 23.1 22.5 22.0 23.3 23.3 18.1 19.0 SiC 14.0 16.0 18.0 18.0 16.0 17.0 15.0 9.5 22.0 20.5 29.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 3.25 3.20 3.20 3.20 3.25 3.22 3.25 3.42 2.90 3.00 2.46 3.05 3.05 3.10 12.0 80 55 45 55 60 70 60 90 >25 30 15 50 50 60 3.06 >1700 >1700 >1700 >1700 >1700 >1700 >1700 >1700 >1700 1700 1690 1680 52 AI2O3 Chemical Analysis Fe2O3 CaO % SiO2 Cr2O3 Open Porosity % Bulk Density g/cm3 CCS MPa RUL T0.6oC

Mixes and lowcement prefabricated castables

1 Steel fibres added 2 Self flowing material 3 Gunning mix for Snorkels

2010

23

Oxygen Converter Refractory Lining


Konmix MKNZ Normag M92SU Thermag M96SU Carmag MW632AST4 Thermag M96F2SU Konmix MKNZ Carmag MWH743U Carmag MWH753U Carmag MWHL754U B B B Carmag MP753AS Thermag M96F2SU Carmag MWL714S Carmag MWHL714S C Carmag MWHGL714Y Carmag MWL743U Carmag MWHGLN744Y Carmag MWHL834U /S/ D D Carmag MWHL834 U (S) Carmag MWHL834 (U, S) Carmag MWHL754 (U, S) Carmag MWHGL854U Carmag MWH713U Carmag MWHGLN774Y Carmag MWHL834 U (S) E E E Carmag MWHGLN744Y Protmix ZOM Konmix MKX3 P P L L M M N N O O O O H I I I J K Carmag MWH631U Carmag MWH632U Carmag MWHLB34U (5) Carmag MWH743U A A A A

Sealmix MKX/TW Normag M92 (SU) Thermag M96 (SU) F F Carmag MP753AS Carmag MPL853AU G G

A B C D E F

Cone Zone Cylindric Zone Scrap Impact Near-Bottom and Slag Spout Bottom Safety Lining

G H I J K L

Purging Plug Sealing Mix Throat Throat Zone Housing for Taphole Shapes Taphole Installation Mix Tophole Blocks

M N O P R

Replacable Tophole Shapes Tapping Zone Trunnion Zone Filling Mix Safety Spandral Mix

2010

24

Oxygen Converter Elements


Bottom Blow Shape

Replacable Caphole Shape

Taphole Block

Slag Stopper (Multimag KORKAT)

2010

25

Basic Refractories for Oxygen Converters


Quality Carbon Content % Bricks with 6 - 9 % carbon Carmag MWH713U Carmag MWL714S Carmag MWHGL714Y Carmag MWHL714S Bricks with 10 - 13 % carbon Carmag MWH631U Carmag MWH632U Carmag MW632AST4 Carmag MWHGLN744Y Carmag MWHL834 U Carmag MWH743U Carmag MWHL834S Bricks with 14 - 15 % carbon Carmag MPL853AU Carmag MWHGLN854U Carmag MWH753U Carmag MWHL754U Carmag MP753AS Carmag MWHL754 S Magnesia bricks Thermag M96F2SU Thermag M96 SU Normag M92 SU Powders and mixes Protmix ZOM Konmix MKX3 Sealmix MKX/TW Gunmix MTK3 Gunmix MTK5 Konmix MTK4 Gunmix MTK3/M Konmix MKD Konmix MKNZ
(MgO+CaO=81) (MgO+CaO=92)

Magnesia component chemical analysis MgO Al2O3 Fe2O3 % CaO SiO2

Open Bulk Porosity Denisty % 4.0 1.5 1.0 2.0 6.0 4.0 5.0 1.5 5.0 6.0 2.0 2.5 4.0 5.0 4.0 2.5 2.0 8.0 5.0 8.0 g/cm3 3.15 3.1 3.2 3.15 3.00 3.03 2.97 3.05 3.00 2.98 3.05 2.92 2.98 2.92 2.95 2.93 2.98 3.05 2.97 2.96

Cold Crushing Strength MPa 50 80 70 50 35 35 40 30 28 28 30 35 28 25 25 35 35 70 65 60 Grain Size (mm)

6.0 6.0 6.0 7.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 11.0 11.0 12.0 12.5 14.0 14.5 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 3.7 4.0 4.5

96.8 97.5 97.5 97.5 96.5 97.0 96.0 97.5 97.5 97.0 97.5 97.7 97.5 97.0 97.5 97.0 97.5 96.5 97.5 92.4

0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 2.0

0.7 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 2.1

1.6 1.7 1.9 1.4 1.9 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.8 1.0 0.7

0.7 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.4 2.8

89.0 92.0 95.5 75.0 84.6 71.0 72.0 89.8

1.2 0.7 0.5 3.1 0.3 2.2 12.0 0.5 -

1.3 1.9 0.6 4.5 1.9 1.2 1.7 0.5

2.0 0.7 2.0 7.5 17.0 0.4 2.7 0.4 1.8

4.7 2.6 1.1 3.7 0.9 4.0 4.0 11.2 1.6

0-1 0-3 0-6 0-2.5 0-2 0-2 0-3 0-5 0-5


2010

26

InduStrIaL SoLutIonS IntErnatIonaL

IncorporatIng ISI (EuropE) LImItEd


ISI Products Manufactured by

Industrial Solutions International 133 Milliken Creek Drive Napa, CA 94558 office (707) 255-5003 cell (707) 738-2772 fax (707) 255-1129 email indsol1@sbcglobal.net ISI (Europe) Limited 40 Allenby Drive Sheffield, S87Rs office +44 114 2377379 email ianwinter43@btinternet.com

Version 3

www.indsolllc.com